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1 29.3/4: 14/1 





Volume 14 - Number 1 

A Resource Management Bulletin 

National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior 

Winter 1994 

10-Year Study of Crater Lake Underscores Need 
For Long-term Monitoring Program 

Editor 's Note: After looking over the Crater 
Lake Limnological Studies Final Report (NPS/ 
PNRONRTR-93 03), the Editor of Lake and 
Reservoir Management Roger W. Bachmann, 
wrote to Gary Larson, the study's Principal 
Investigator, proposing use of the Report as the 
basis for a special collection of papers in the 
journal. Bachmann stated that ' 'in keeping with 
the purpose of the journal ' 'he would ' 'like to see 
the work related to management as well. ' ' No 
date for the journal publication has been set, but 
the 730-page Report itself, edited by I^arson, C 
David Mclntire, and Ruth W. Jacobs, isa\>ailable 
from the Technical Information Center, Denver 
Service Center, PO Box 25287, Denver, CO 
80225-0287; (303)969-2130. 

By Gary Larson 

Limnological studies of Crater Lake were 
initiated by the NPS in 1 982 in response to an 
apparent decline in lake clarity and possible 
changes in characteristics of the algal com- 
munity. In the fall of 1982 Congress passed 
Public Law 97-250, which authorized and 
directed the Secretary of the Interior to con- 
duct a 10-year limnological study of Crater 
Lake and to implement immediately such 
actions as may be necessary to retain the 
lake's natural pristine water quality. 

Crater Lake from the top of Watchman Peak, 
looking at Llao Rock, (photo by dave xhntire) 

The broad project goals adopted for the 
study were to: 

1 . develop a limnological base to be used for 
comparisons of future conditions of the lake; 

2. develop a better understanding of physi- 
cal, chemical, and biological components of 
the lake system; 

3. develop a long-term monitoring pro- 

4. determine if the lake had experienced 
recent changes, and if changes were present 
and human-related; and 

5 . identify the causes and recommend ways 
of mitigating the changes. 

Continued oh page 28 










WINTER 1994 

A report to park managers of recent and on- going 
research in parks with emphasis on its implications 
for planning and management. - 


• 10- Year Study of Crater Lake Underscores 
Need For Long-term Monitoring Program 1 

• NPS Inventory and Monitoring Program 
Emerges From I&M Task Force 3 

• Prototype Programs Selected 5 

• NBS Signs Contract 

with Nature Conservancy 5 

• Vail Work Plan Reinvigorated 5 

• Gap Analysis and National Parks: 

Adding the Socioeconomic Dimension 6 

• Watchable Wildlife Conference Shows 
Strength in Diversity 10 

• Getting a Handle on Visitor Carrying 
Capacity -A Pilot Project at Arches 
National Park 11 

• Jacksonville Science Conference 
Proceedings Now Available 13 

• Battling Bees Here 13 

• Creepy-Crawlys of Florissant's 

Eocene Time 14 

• Park Science Index, Volume 1 3 15 

• Thirteen New Titles Available 22 

• Piping Plover Protection Wins 

Cape Cod NS Worldwide Recognition 25 

• Beyond the Mission: 

An Essay On NPS Management 26 

• Haskell Explores NPS "Commitment" 

in FORUM Essay 27 

• Water Quality Litigation: 

An Update From the Everglades 29 

• High Tech Meets Old Bones: 
Accurate Location of Fossil Resources 

at Hagerman Fossil Beds 31 

• NAS Report Cites Urgent Need 

for National Biological Survey back cover 

• CRM Special Issue 

Highlights 'Tradition' back cover 


•Editorial 2 

• Meeting of Interest 10 

• Information Crossfile 19 

• Letters 23 

• Regional Highlights 24 

•MAB Notes 30 


These are heady days of change throughout the National Park System... exciting, promis- 
ing, and nervous. The Park Service is responding with the predictable mix of enthusiasm, 
hope, and anxiety. 

Whole systems are among the toughest things in the world to change. When they do begin 
to alter, they "self design," in spite of the best intentions of those who are most instrumental 
in setting the process in motion. Hence the watchful waiting with which the Service (a ' 'whole 
system" in its own right) watches as the rock-solid boulder begins to move. How will it travel? 
Once in motion, can it be guided? And where will it settle until the next set of circumstances 
again sets it in motion? 

The changes now underway have been heralded for years. Mostly, the trumpets have 
sounded on deaf ears. But this issue of Park Science reflects almost the entire rainbow of a 
new dawn — from the Gary Williams article on I&M and the Gary Machlis piece on Extended 
GAP Analysis to the philosophic musings of Dave Haskell about the "why" of the NPS 
mission and the thoughtful letter to the editor from the Alaska contingency. 

The words of Interior Secretary Bruce Babbitt, in reply to questions from the Hon. Robert 
S. Walker (R-PA) as quoted below, are a reassuring answer to the cloud of question marks 
that hang over the Park Service. They speak clearly of a strong hand at the helm of change 
and a warning to the encrusted "old ways" that a fresh and bracing wind is blowing. 

Question: (from the Hon. Robert S. 
Walker (R-PA) How will the National Bi- 
ological Survey balance the need for scien- 
tific integrity with the need for relevance to 
natural resource managers of the science 
being conducted by the NBS? 

Answer: (/ro/w Interior Secretary Bruce 
Babbitt) Scientific integrity and respon- 
siveness to natural resource manager needs 
are not necessarily opposites that need to 
be "balanced." Scientific integrity entails 
credibleprocedures for the collection, anal- 
ysis, and interpretation of data. Existing 
research projects that are transferring to 
NBS will continue according to their study 
plans. The needs of bureaus within Interi- 
or will continue to be met. 

NBS will strengthen the overall support 
for bureaus by increasing the visibility of 

science; by combining research and inven- 
tory activities in a single organization; and 
by ensuring consistent approaches across 
bureaus, so that information can more 
readily be shared. The information trans- 
fer capability will make technical and sci- 
entific information more available in non- 
technical terms to provide information to 

Bureaus will continue to identify and 
rank their science needs, and will be ac- 
tively involved in setting the NBS agenda 
and budget. This will occur at the head- 
quarters level through the intra-depart- 
mental Policy Council, but also will hap- 
pen in the field, as NBS managers and 
scientists interact on a day-to-day basis 
with client bureau staff. 


Anderson, William H. 
1 100 Ohio Drive, SW 
Washington, DC 20242 

Dottavio, DomJnlc 
75 Spring. St. SW 
Atlanta, GA 30303 

Foley, Mary 

1 5 State St. 
Boston, MA 02109 
FAX (617) 367-8515 

Hiebert, Ron 

1709 Jackson St. 
Omaha, NE 68102 
8-864-3438 / (402) 221-3438 

Hull, Dan 

PO Box 25827 
Denver. CO 80225 

8-327-2650 / (303)969-2650 

Karish, John K. 


Ferguson Bldg., Room 209-B 

Pennsylvania State University 

University Park, PA 16802 


Kilgorc, linice 


600 Harrison St., Suite 600 

San Francisco. CA 94107-1372 

8-484-3955 / (4 1 5)744-3955 

kunkle, Sam 

P.O. Box 728 
Santa Fe. NM 87501 
X-476-6X70 I (505)988-6870 

Larson, James \\ . 


909 1st Ave. 

Seattle. WA 98104-1060 


Stevens, Dave & Deschew, Nancy 



2525 Gambell St, Room 107 

Anchorage, AK 99503-2892 

8-869-2568 / (907) 257-2568 

Park Science 


NPS Inventory and Monitoring Program 
Emerges From l&M Task Force 

By Gary Williams 

Editor's Note: Following is the first of three 

articles by Gary Williams, l&M Program 

| Coordinator in the NPS Washington Office, 

\kaling with development and implementation of 

\a Systemwide l&M Program. In this issue, we 

)begin with Inventory Status; the Spring issue will 

cover Monitoring; the Summer issue will deal 

with how the Program will interact with the 

National Biological Survey. 

In 1989, the NPS Associate Director for 
Natural Resources appointed a special 
Servicewide Task Force and charged it with 
developing a workable plan for implement- 
ing l&M on a programmatic basis through- 
out the entire National Park System. 

The group's development effort built on 
the 1987 "Evison Report," and it recom- 
mended a two-phase approach. During the 
first 10 years (Phase I) the focus was to: ( 1) 
prepare the parks for long-term monitoring, 
and (2) develop the expertise and experience 
to design and implement effective natural 
resource monitoring programs in individual 
park units; for Phase II, the long-term mon- 
itoring was to be extended to all natural 
resource parks in the NPS and continued in 

NPS-75, a Servicewide policy guideline 
for designing and implementing l&M pro- 
grams in park units, was published in 1992. 
The Servicewide l&M Program Coordinator 
will work directly with a National Technical 
Advisory Committee established to assist in 
program development and oversight and with 
all 10 Regional I &M Coordinators. Thepark 
units containing significant quantities of nat- 
ural resources have been identified, and col- 
lectively they represent the NPS "l&M Sys- 

Five Program Goals will guide Phase I of 
the Servicewide Program: 
( 1 ) Natural Resource Inventories (see Table 
1); (2) Ecosystem Monitoring; (3) Planning 
and Management Technology; (4) Program 
Integration; and (5) Partnerships and Coop- 

Status of Natural Resource Inventories 

The acquisition of the natural resource 
data sets described in Table 1 for approxi- 
mately 250 l&M park units can best be 
accomplished through implementation of a 
well-coordinated, systemwide data collec- 
tion initiative. By such an undertaking, as 
opposed to requesting each individual park 
to obtain its own data, the Service can better 
insure that the inventory will satisfy a num- 
ber of important criteria. For example, the 

information collected at the very least should 
contain the ' 'core" set of data needed to deal 
with park planning and management. In a 
similar manner, the data collection effort 
must address the issues of long-term data 
compatibility and integrity. Baseline data 
must be collected and maintained in accor- 
dance with clearly defined protocols and 
quality assurance standards. 

Cost effectiveness is another major con- 
sideration in data acquisition. To reduce 
costs, the Service will consider clustering 
park units to achieve economies of scale. 
Costs may also be minimized by negotiating 
agreements with sister Federal agencies. 
Thus, Phase I natural resource inventory will 
be conducted as a Washington Office initia- 
tive with strong regional and park oversight 
and priority setting. 

(Note: This section provided by Dr. Sue Glenn) 
Species Lists/Biodiversity 

A major inventory effort in FY 1993 was 
completion of the NPFAUNA.PC databas- 
es compiled by U/CA under the direction of 
Dr. James Quinn. These databases contain 

checklists of mammal, bird, fish, herb, and 
plant species found in approximately 190 
NPS units. Documentation of this informa- 
tion also is included and the Federal Status of 
each species has been updated. 

All nomenclatural differences in species 
names among parks and regions were stan- 
dardized; some of the databases were changed 
to reflect comments received from interna- 
tional review of the system. The data then 
were sent back to the regions for a final 
review before the data is distributed within 
and outside the NPS in FY 1994. 

Through distribution of these data sets, the 
Service anticipates that other agencies and 
individuals with additional relevant knowl- 
edge of species occurrences in parks will 
come forward and make that information 
available. This may include biologists who 
have seen species in parks that do not appear 
in the database, as well as museums and plant 
herbaria with specimens to add to the data- 
base. Distribution of these lists also may 
encourage biologists to assist the parks in 
special inventories. Although the databases 

Continued on page 4 

Table 1. Recommended minimal data standards for Inventory and Monitoring Park Units. 

1. Bibliography of manuscripts, old maps and other historical information related to science 

and resource management. This information must be park specific. 

2. Compilation of existing species lists. Should include ALL species lists available and an estimate 


3. Field inventory of species (plant and animal) of special concern. 

4. Listing of Threatened and Endangered endemic or non-natives species. 

5. Status and distribution of species and abiotic features of special concern. 

6. Current (< = 5 years old) maps for: 


Watershed boundaries 

Topography (DLG and DEM preferable) 

Hydrography (from topographic maps) 

NPS Park Management Zones and Special Designations (e.g. Landmarks, RNA, etc.) 

7. Location and Classification of 


8. Basic Precipitation and Meteorological Data 

9. Basic water chemistry factors for selected water bodies. Factors should include: 




Dissolved Oxygen 

10. Location of existing nearby ambient air quality monitoring stations 

1 1 . Atmospheric particulates 


12. Visibility 

Wmter 1994 

I&M Task Force continued from page 3 

will reflect only currently compiled informa- 
tion and are not meant to reflect a complete 
species inventory, they should be useful in 
planning future cost-effective species inven- 

(Note: This seel ion provided by Drs. Dave Graber 
and Bill Halvorson) 

Vegetation Mapping 

Beginning in 1994, NPS and the National 
Biological Survey (NBS) will begin develop- 
ing vegetation maps for approximately 235 
NPS units and environs in the conterminous 
U.S. (Alaskan units will be mapped through 
a separate funding effort.) Contracting part- 
ners in the current multi-million dollar en- 
deavor are the Environmental Systems Re- 
search Institute (ESRI), and a team of sub- 
contractors including The Nature Conser- 
vancy (TNC). 

Development of a vegetation/land cover 
map is one of the first critical needs for park 
management. Vegetation is considered a 
"fundamental' ' data layer for wildland stew- 
ards because, like terrain and hydrography, it 
is central to characterizing a landscape and is 
the driving variable for so much else, such as 
wildlife, fire dynamics, and even the move- 
ment of carbon and nitrogen through ecosys- 

The classification system proposed by the 
contractors (Table 2) is becoming a standard 
among land management agencies 
worldwide. . a hierarchical system based on 
dominant plant physiognomy (morphology 
and phenology) at higher levels, and 
flonstics — the dominant species — the low- 
est, "series" level. Thus an open stand of 
Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) would 
be classified as a terrestrial ' ' Evergreen Nee- 
dle-leaved Woodland with Rounded 
Crowns," Douglas-fir series. This system, 
adapted by TNC from an international clas- 
sification that permits comparisons at differ- 
ent levels, already is in use by the USFVVS 
Gap Analysis Program. 

The vegetation mapping contract was de- 
veloped to get the approximately 235 natural 
resource park units mapped at the series level 
and to provide information urgently needed 
by the NPS Washington Office and by a 
growing list of regional to international land 
management and conservation efforts. Not 
only can this information answer questions 
such as "How much short perennial bunch- 
grass is protected by the NP System?" it also 
can be integrated with data collected on other 
land ownerships to provide continent-scale 
information that can track such global phe- 
nomena as pollution effects or response to 
climate change. 

Table 2. Proposed classification scheme forthe National Park Servicevegetation mapping project. 


System: Terrestrial/Aquatic - (hydrological regime) 
Class: Woodland - (spacing and height of dominant form) 
Subclass: Evergreen Woodland - (morphological & Phenological similarity) 
Group: Temperate Evergreen Needle-leaved - (climate, latitude, growth form, leaf form) 
Formation: Evergreen Needle-leaved Woodland with Rounded Crowns - 
(mappable units) 


Series (or Cover Type): Doug Fir Woodland - (dominant species) 
Community (or Association) - (subdominant or associated species with similar ecological 


The mapping effort also will provide in- 
formation at the park unit level and the tools 
to pursue more detailed questions. Mapping 
will be done at the series (dominant species) 
level with ( 1 ) a minimum mapping unit of 0.5 
ha, and (2) precise registration to the USGS 
1 :24000 map series, making certain that at 
least 80 percent of the mapped units are 
classified and drawn accurately. The maps, 
with their detailed vegetation structure infor- 
mation, will give parks an excellent reference 
point for monitoring change caused by such 
disturbance factors as fire, insects, drought, 
disease, or weather; for analyzing wildlife 
habitat; and for determining site suitability 
for management activities. 

Data will be provided foremost in the form 
ofGRASS-formatGIS files. Analogmapsat 
1 :24000 scale, the aerial color photography 
used for type delineation, narrative descrip- 
tions of each vegetation class, and detailed 
information from field plots used in charac- 

The quality of the classification and map- 
ping efforts will be increased by cooperation 
of park and regional office NPS staff and by 
the availability of related thematic data (such 
as geology, soils, or terrain). NPS staff 
should provide information and their own 
experiences for the process. 

The NPS recommended to the NBS that 
the first parks to be mapped be in the midwest 
grassland park areas. It is expected that this 
first mapping and classification effort will 
require adjustments as the work proceeds. 
Input from many quarters at these early stag- 
es will ensure that the products will be usable 
and can easily be coordinated with other land 
management activities 

For additional information or comments 
about the vegetation mapping initiative, con- 
tact Mike Story at (303) 969-26 19 or leave a 
message on cc:inail. 

(Note: This section provided by Dean Tucker and 
Gary Rosenlieb) 

Water Resources Data 

A cooperative endeavor initiated in 1993 
by the NPS Servicewide I&M Program and 
the NPS Water Resources Division (WRD), 
the NPS Baseline Water Quality Inventory 
and Analysis Project is a three year effort 
designed to characterize baseline water qual- 
ity at all units of the NP System containing 
significant natural resources. 

Specific objectives are to ( 1) retrieve wa- 
ter quality and related data from the EPA's 
STORET and other database systems; (2) 
develop a complete inventory of all retrieved 
data; (3) produce descriptive statistics and 
appropriate box and wluskers and time series 
plots of the water quality data to characterize 
annual, seasonal, and period of record cen- 
tral tendencies and trends; (4) compare park 
water quality data with relevant EPA nation- 
al water quality criteria on a station-by-sta- 
tion basis; and (5) reformat the water quality 
and other related data for use with the park- 
based Water Quality Data Management Sys- 
tem (currently under development in the 
WRD) and other appropriate analytical tools. 

Eveiy park unit participating will receive a 
detailed analog report and several hydro- 
graphic digital databases, including all water 
quality parameter data, 1 : 100,000 scale hy- 
drography, surface-water quality monitoring 
station locations, stream gage locations, Na- 
tional Point Discharge Elimination System 
permit locations, and drinking water intake 

The results of this effort are intended to 
enable park resource managers and the WRD 
to compare and contrast water quality data 
collected as part of ongoing I&M programs 
with historical water quality trends and to 
design better park -based water quality I&M 
programs. One component of this project is 

Park Science 

to demonstrate how the digital databases and 
anolog report can be used to determine where 
additional baseline water quality monitoring 
is needed. The park water quality databases 
produced by this effort will lay the ground- 
work for allowing regions and the WRD to 
generate regional and national assessments 
of the status of park water quality. 

Completing the work will take approxi- 
mately three years. Parks will be completed 
in the priority order established by regional 
water resource coordinators and the 
Servicewide I&M Program. Sevicewide re- 
view and comment already has been ob- 
tained on the draft Baseline Water Quality 
Inventory and Analysis for Rock Creek Park 
and revisions are being made. Once the new 
procedures are finalized, production of 
Baseline Water Quality Inventory and Anal- 
ysis reports for all participating parks will 

For additional information or comments, 
contact Dean Tucker at (303) 225-3516, 
Gary Rosenlieb at (303) 225-35 1 8, or leave 
a message for either on cc:mail. 

Digital Cartographic Data 

Digital cartographic products are being 
obtained through a 50:50 cost-sharing agree- 
ment with the USGS and will provide several 
of the basic data layers needed for park- 
based GIS. Standard products available un- 
der this cooperative agreement are topo- 
graphic maps, digital line graphs, digital ele- 
vation models, and digital orthophoto prod- 

The cost share program benefits both N PS 
and USGS. In addition to obtaining impor- 
tant spatial data sets needed to support park 
management, research, and planning, the 
effort will accelerate population of the Na- 
tional Digital Cartographic Data Base, and 
enhance support for OMB Circular A- 16, 
Coordination of Surveying, Mapping, and 
Related Spatial Data Activities. 

In total, approximately $1.07 million of 
Servicewide I&M funds were made avail- 
able in 1 993 to acquire cartographic data sets 
for approximately 40 park units in 9 NPS 

For additional information or comments 
about acquisition ofdigitalcartographicprod- 
ucts, contact Leslie Manfull at (303) 969- 
2964 or leave a message on cc:mail. 

Prototype Programs Selected 

During May 1 993, the N PS Washington 
Office issued a Call for Proposals from 
which it could select competitively Proto- 
type Monitoring Programs for the seven 
biogeographic associations (biomes) not 
currently represented in the NPS 
Servicewide I&M Program. 

During the period of Nov. 2-5, 1 993, an 
Interagency Evaluation Panel consisting 
of individuals from both the Servicewide 
I&M Advisory Committee and the NBS 
met in Denver to evaluate the submittals 

and develop implementation recommen- 
dations. The proposals selected and their 
corresponding biogeographic association 
are indicated below. These units will be 
added to the current Prototype Monitoring 
Programs in Denali NP (Arctic/Subarc- 
tic), Channel Islands NP (Pacific Coast), 
Shenandoah NP (Deciduous Forest), and 
Great Smoky Mountains N{ (Deciduous 
Forest) to complete the Phase I Servicewide 
Prototype Monitoring Program Network. 

Biogeographic Association NPS Units 

I.Atlantic/Gulf Coast Cape Cod NS 

II Caves Mammoth Cave NP 

III. Coniferous Forest Olympic NP 

IV. Lakes and Rivers North Cascades NP 

V.Arid Lands Northern Colorado Plateau 


* Arches NM 

* Canyonlands NP 

* Capitol ReefNP 

* Dinosaur NM 

* Natural Bridges NM 

VI. Grasslands/Prairies Great Plains 
Prairie Cluster: 

* Effigy Mounds NM 

* Homestead NM 

* Scotts BluffNM 

* Agate Fossil Beds NM 

* Wilson's Creek NB 

VII. Tropical/Subtropical Virgin Islands Cluster 

* Virgin Islands NP 

* Buck Island Reef NM 

* Dry Tortugas NP 

NBS Signs Contract 

with Nature 


In what he called "the first of many coop- 
erative agreements that NBS will make with 
the private sector," Interior Secretary Bruce 
Babbitt on Dec. 6, 1993, signed the Memo- 
randum of Understanding with The Nature 
Conservancy (TNC) as a framework for fu- 
ture cooperative activities. Under the agree- 
ment, a working group will be formed to 
explore establishingaNational Heritage Data 
Center in the National Biological Survey; 
ways to work with Natural Heritage Pro- 
grams generally; and to discuss exchanging 
resources to improve the technical capabili- 
ties of both organizations. 

The agreement also identifies several short 
term projects for further development, in- 
cludingTNC support in completion ofNBS's 
first Status and Trends Report; completion of 
a national classification system for ecosys- 
tems; and initiation ofjoint development and 
testing of methods and protocals for the field 
and for data handling. 

Vail Work Plan 

The good work begun at Vail, under the 
headings of Park Use and Enjoyment, Orga- 
nizational Renewal, Resources Stewardship, 
and Environmental Leadership, are being 
"tweaked into a slightly different 
framework" — one that fits better the NPS 
administrative set-up and its areas of empha- 

The new working groups will be called 
Resources Stewardship, Education, Partner- 
ships, and Careers. The Careers Council, 
chaired by A/D Joe Gorrell, held its first 
meeting in September, by phone, and its 
second, "in person," meeting in Omaha, 
identifying its charter and establishing its 
priorities. The Council is guided by an 
Oversight Committee made up of NPS Dep- 
uty Director John Reynolds, R/D John Cook 
and A/D Ed Davis. Reynolds attended the 
Omaha meeting and charged the Council 
with developing "a comprehensive human 
resources management strategy for the 
NPS — a strategy that is fully responsive to 
the needs of the Service and that engenders a 
'cradle to grave' concept of employee caring 
and employee support." 

Reynolds stressed "a critical point:" The 
changes in name and shifts in priority "do 
not mean that we intend to lose a scrap of 
work or a bit of energy from processes al- 
ready underway." NPS employees from 
across the Service are encouraged to volun- 
teer for membership on the various commit- 
tees responsible for affecting change. 

Winter 1994 

Gap Analysis and National Parks: 
Adding the Socioeconomic Dimension 

By Gary E. Machlis, Deborah J. Forester and J.E. McKendry 

Editor 'sNote: The Oct. 16, 1993 issue of "Science 
News (pp 248-25 1) features an article by Elizabeth 
Pennisi, ' 'Filling inthe Gaps: Computer Mapping 
Finds Unprotected Species. ' ' The cover is a 
computer model of the state of Idaho, captioned 
' 'Mapping Biodiversity. ' ' It makesan informative 
companion piece to the article below. 

The conservation of biodiversity is an 
issue of growing concern to park managers, 
for the global system of protected areas is an 
important means of conserving biodiversity 
in situ. Four percent of the world's land area 
is protected in over 5,000 individual areas 
covering nearly 530 million ha (WRI 1990). 
In the US, national parks include a diversity 
of gene pools, populations, species, commu- 
nities and ecosystems. The National Park 
Service (NPS ) manages a de facto biodiversity 
reserve system, albeit incomplete. 

Yet, national parks and the biodiversity 
they contain face threats from a variety of 
human actions (Machlis and Tichnell 1985; 
NRC 1992). Increased attention to the 
biodiversity values of parks is necessary in 
the face of human activity (such as economic 
development) and ecological challenges. Suc- 
cessful strategies will require 1 ) ecosystem- 
scale management that extends beyond park 
boundaries and involves other agencies and 
landowners, 2) better understanding of hu- 

man actions that impact biodiversity, and 3) 
analytical techniques and practical tools for 
making land management decisions. One 
such technique is gap analysis. 

Gap Analysis: A Brief Description 

In order to identify underprotected yet criti- 
cal areas of biodiversity, gap analysis uses 
geographic information systems (GIS) to 
map biodiversity and the location of protect- 
ed areas. Elements of biodiversity including 
vegetation types and vertebrate species dis- 
tributions are entered into the GIS; species 
richness maps are derived from these data. 
The resulting maps are overlaid with protec- 
tion status such as national parks, wilderness 
areas, state parks and so forth. Locations 
with important biodiversity values and low 
protection status (the specific criteria can be 
adjusted) represent "gaps" in biodiversity 
conservation (see Scott et al. 1993 for a 
detailed description). 

Gap analysis in its general form has been 
used in various situations, including USFS 
wilderness areas, tribal lands, Australian na- 
tional parks, the Hawaiian Islands, Califor- 
nia, Costa Rica, Ecuador and certain African 
protected areas (McKendry and Machlis 
1 992). A gap analysis program is now under- 
way in 32 states in the US. It is anticipated 
that all states will be completed by 2009, and 

plans are being made to integrate state gap 
analyses into a national assessment (Scott et 
al. 1991). Gap analysis is likely to be an 
important component of the National Bio- 
logical Survey. 

Adding the Socioeconomic Dimension 

Since human actions may increase the 
vulnerability of gap locations to future 
biodiversity loss, the University of Idaho's 
Cooperative Park Studies Unit (UI CPSU) 
Sociology Project has begun research ex- 
tending gap analysis to include socioeco- 
nomic factors. A model was developed that 
identifies the major paths by which human 
actions impact biodiversity (see Fig. 1 ; for a 
detailed description see Machlis and Forest- 
er, forthcoming). Social, economic and po- 
litical factors are considered the driving force 
behind changes in how people use resources 
Changing resource use leads to impacts on 
ecosystems, some of which may result in 
biodiversity loss. 

Extending the gap analysis technique to 
include socioeconomic factors is relatively 
simple. Socioeconomic zones of influence 
are delineated around each biodiversity gap 
location. Based upon the model, indicators 
of human action are collected and entered 
into the GIS database (see Table 1 for exam- 
ples). Related indicators are combined into 

Figure 1. A Working Model of Human Impacts on Biodiversity. 

Social, Economic 
and Political Forces 

Changes in Human 
Use of Resources 

Ecosystem Impacts 



Wealth & Capital 


Natural Resource 





Habitat Loss 







Climate Change 

Park Science 

indices, again based upon the model . Finally, 
an index of vulnerability is created, and each 
gap location is given a relative index score. 
The results are displayed in map form; the 
maps may be useful to managers, landown- 
srs, resource agencies, advocacy groups and 
interested citizens (for a description, see 
McKendry and Machlis 1993). 

The Idaho Pilot Project 

The potential of adding a socioeconomic 
dimension to gap analysis was tested through 
a recently completed pilot project in Idaho. 
The research was funded by the NPS and the 
State of Idaho; the UI CPSU Sociology 
Proj ect, the I daho Cooperative Fish and Wild- 
life Research Unit, and the Clark University 
Graduate School of Geography were cooper- 
ators on the project. 

Native vertebrate species richness (ex- 
cluding fish) was used as the basis for the 
biological analysis. Data for the state were 
aggregated by 635 km 2 hexagons developed 
for the EPA's Environmental Monitoring 
and Assessment Program. Gap locations 
ivere determined using a specific algorithm, 
Dr mathematical procedure. The hexagon 
with the highest number of species was iden- 
:ified, followed by the hexagon that added 
he highest number of species not already in 
he first hexagon. This procedure continued 
mtil all native vertebrate species were in- 
cluded in the set ofhexagons. The result was 
he minimum number ofhexagons contain- 
ng all native vertebrate species in the state. 
Five hexagons were selected for further 
analysis. Together, the selected hexagons 
contained approximately 95% of all native 
/ertebrates in Idaho. 

Each of the five hexagons was identified 
is a "gap location," i.e., potentially impor- 
ant to biodiversity in Idaho. A map of these 
gap locations was overlaid with a map of 
jrotected area status in Idaho; areas were 
defined as having "complete" or "partial" 
jrotection based on The Nature Conservan- 
cy classification system (see Map 1 , page 8). 
Vone of the hexagons are totally protected, 
hough small portions of protected areas are 
jresent in several of the gap locations. (In 
he on-going gap analysis program, other 
jiological criteria and more sophisticated 
ilgorithms are being developed to identify 
ireas of important biodiversity. The tech- 
liques are evolving rapidly, as scientists gain 
nore experience in gap analysis.) 

Socioeconomic indicators similar to those 
isted in Table 1 were collected for the coun- 
ies surrounding each gap location. Data 
vere entered into the GIS database; dBase 
V, pcArc/Info, and IDRISI were used as 
joftware for the analysis. Four indices were 
constructed and mapped: socioeconomic 
change, government policies, land develop- 
nent and ownership complexity. Map 2, 

page 9 (both maps are black and white con- 
versions of their color originals) shows the 
results for socioeconomic change; the lower 
the index score, the lower the predicted level 
of future population and income growth. The 
four indices were then combined into an 
overall index of vulnerability. Based on the 
analysis, the gap locations were ranked as to 
their relative vulnerability to future 
biodiversity loss. 

The results are presented in map form, 
with explanatory text. GIS and graphic de- 
sign software used to produce the final maps 
included pcArc/Info, IDRISI, CorelDraw! 
and Micrografx Picture Publisher. A proto- 
type atlas, Idaho: An Atlas of Biodiversity 
(Machlis et al. 1993) was prepared. 

Next Effort: Puget Sound Gap Analysis 

The UI CPSU Sociology Project has be- 
gun an effort to apply what was learned in the 
Idaho pilot project to the Puget Sound region 
of Washington. The research is supported by 
both the NPS (Pacific Northwest Region) 
and the EPA (Division of Strategic Planning 
and Management). The USFWS Washing- 
ton Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research 
Unit is a cooperator. 

The Puget Sound study offers the opportu- 
nity to improve the integration of socioeco- 
nomic factors into the gap analysis tech- 
nique. It allows for working at a different 
scale (ecoregion rather than state), and Puget 
Sound is a large, rapidly growing metropoli- 
tan area adjacent to several national parks. 
Additional socioeconomic indicators will be 
employed. Different presentation possibili- 
ties, including an interactive atlas on CD- 
ROM, are being explored. An advisory 
committee is being established, and will help 
assure the results are useful to managers and 

Applications to National Park 

While the technique needs further devel- 
opment, extending gap analysis to include 
socioeconomic factors could prove benefi- 
cial to national park managers and others 
interested in biodiversity conservation. Sev- 
eral potential uses are illustrated below: 

• Gap analysis can help identify locations 
vulnerable to biodiversity loss. For example. 

locations where human population growth is 
leading to rapid land-use conversion and 
habitat fragmentation can be identified. 
Importlantly, the results could identify areas 
( 1 ) high in biodiversity values, (2) vulnerable 
to biodiversity loss, and (3) not in national 
parks, yet which may impact the parks. South 
Florida and Puget Sound are examples of 
regions where such an effort may have merit. 

• Once gaplocations and their vulnerabil- 
ities have been identified, long-term moni- 
toring can answer such questions as: Are 
critical socioeconomic trends continuing? 
Have actions been taken to reverse those 
trends contributingtobiodiversity loss? What 
indirect impacts might be resulting from 
human activity in or near the jap locations? 
Monitoringcritical socioeconomic trends and 
landscape changes can ( 1 ) provide an "early 
warning system," (2) help clarify manage- 
ment challenges, and (3) suggest potential 
actions. Such monitoring for the Greater 
Yellowstone Ecosystem, or along the US- 
Mexico border may be useful. 

• Threats adjacent to parks could be treat- 
ed as significant factors influencing 
biodiversity within parks. Increased 
biodiversity loss outside of national parks 
may signal increased concern for protection 
within parks. Parkboundaries are perme- 
able, and effective biodiversity conservation 
demands examining and understanding 
processe in the wider landscape of which 
protected areas are part For example, the 
technique could prove critical to buffer zone 
and corridor planning; the North Cascades 
sNational Park Complex and certain historic 
battlefields (which may also preserve signif- 
icant biodiversity values) might be appropri- 
ate sites. 

• Gap analysis that includes socioeconomic 
factors can help to determine which unpro- 
tected areas of high biodiversity are at great- 
est risk of biodiversity loss This can assist in 
detenu ining which areas to consider for ad- 
ditional protection status or revised manage- 
ment regimes. For example, given one gap 
location with low risk ofbiodiversity loss and 
another with high risk, decision-makers may 
opt to provide protection to the area most 
likely to suffer biodiversity loss. In addition, 

Continued on page 10 

Table 1. Example Indicators for Extended 

Gap Analysis. 

Air quality 

Municipal solid waste 

Defense lands and installations 

Number of vehicles 

Demographic forecasts 


Economic forecasts 

Political units 

Hazardous waste exposure 


Housing characteristics 

Population and economic projections 

Labor force projections 

Population density 

Land use regulations 

Real estate transactions 

Location of manufacturing 

Residential construction 

Winter 1994 

Map 1. Protected Areas and Gap Locations 

Protection Status 

Gap Locations 





Lake or 

1 inch - approximately 59 miles 

I Yellowstone 

Owyhee River 
Bighorn Sheep Habitat 
Area of Critical 
Environmental Concern 


Park Science 

Map 2. Socioeconomic Change and Gap Locations 

Index of Socioeconomic Change 



83 - 1 08 

I 140-169 



Gap Locations 


r-i us 

W Route 



Lake or- 

1 inch = approximately 66 miles 



70 83 



number line for index scores 
each dot represents a county 



Winter 1994 

Gap Analysis continued from page 7 

gap analysis can help identify areas where 
careful development may minimally harm 
biodiversity values. Such information may 
be useful to non-governmental organizations 
with land acquisition programs, federal and 
state agencies, and private developers. 
Gap analysis is evolving rapidly, and nu- 
merous state databases are being construct- 
ed. The technique likely will become an 
important conservation planning tool. Gap 
analysis can provide a systematic source of 
information for scientific analysis, profes- 
sional management, and public dialogue. All 
are necessary for successful ecosystem man- 
agement and the conservation ofbiodiversity . 
Extending gap analysis to include socioeco- 
nomic factors will further increase its useful- 
ness and application. While much work 
remains before the technique is fully opera- 
tional, park managers may soon benefit from 
its use. 

References Cited 

McKendry, J.E. and G.E. Machlis. 1993. The role of geogra- 
phy in extending biodiversity gap analysis. Applied Geog- 
raphy 13:(135-152). 

Machlis, G.E. and D.J. Forester. 1994. The relationship 
between socio-economic factors and biodiversity loss: 
First efforts at theoretical and quantitative models. In 
Biodiversity in managed landscapes: Theory and practice, 
ed. Robert Szaro. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 

Machlis, G.E., J.E. McKendryandD.J. Forester. 1993 Idaho: 
An atlas of biodiversity. Unpublished atlas. Cooperative 
Park Studies Unit, University of Idaho, Moscow. 

Machlis, G.EandD.LTichnell. 1985. The state of the worlds 
parks: An international assessment lor resource manage- 
ment, policy, and research. Boulder, CO: Westview Press. 

National Research Council 1992. Science and the national 
parks. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. 

Scott, J.M., B. Csuti, K. Smith, J.E. Estes, and S. Caicco. 
1991. Gap analysis of species richness and vegetation 
cover: An integrated biodiversity conservation strategy. P. 
282-287 In Balancing on the brink of extinction, ed. K.A. 
Kohn. Washington, D.C: Island Press. 

Scott, J.M., F. Davis, B. Csuti, R. Noss, B. Butterfield, 
Groves, H. Anderson, S. Caicco, F. D'Erchia, T.C. Edwards, 
Jr., J. Ulliman and R.G.Wright. 1993. Wildlife monograph 
#123: A publication of the Wildlife Society. Gap analysis: 
A geographic approach to protection of biological diversity. 
Supplement to the Journal of Wildlife Management 57(1), 
January, 41 pp. 

World Resources Institute. 1990. World Resources 1990-91: 
A guide to the global environment New York: Oxford 
University Press. 

Related References 

Machlis, G E. 1992. The contribution of sociology to 
biodiversity research and management. Biological Con- 
servation 62(3):161 -170. 

Machlis, G.E. and D.J. Forester. 1992 Extended gap 
analysis: A technique for biodiversity management of 
protected area systems. Presented at the 10th World 
Parks Congress, Caracas, Venezuela, February 10-21, 

Wright, R.G., J.G MacCracken and J. Hall. 1994. An 
ecological evalua tion of proposed new conservation areas 
in Idaho. Conservation Biology, in press. 

Watchable Wildlife Conference 
Shows Strength in Diversity 

By Napier Shelton 

The most exciting thing about the 
Watchable Wildlife program — its pulling to- 
gether of people from many sectors of Amer- 
ican life — was once again evident at the 
program's second national conference, held 
at Corpus Christi in November 1993. Be- 
sides managers and interpreters from numer- 
ous public agencies and conservation organi- 
zations, there were representatives from mu- 
nicipal offices, chambers of commerce, 
ecotourism, the military, universities, corpo- 
rations, and the media — as participants. All 
were interested in how wildlife watching can 
lead to understanding, conservation, and ul- 
timately the maintenance ofbiodiversity. 

Some also were interested in the economic 
benefits. Forinstance, several staff members 
from Texas ranches, where cattle and abun- 
dant wildlife coexist, came to explain or find 
out how to make money from wildlife watch- 
ing. (Bird tours regularly visit the King Ranch, 
where434 speciesofbirds have been seen — as 
many or more than in most states.) Partici- 
pants also learned how corporations increas- 
ingly are contributing to wildlife habitat en- 
hancement, thereby achieving better com- 
munity relations, often a better bottom line, 
and heightened employee involvement 

The ethics of wildlife viewing received a 
lot of attention this year. How close should 
you get to wildlife? When is it OK to play 

tapes to attract birds? Where should we draw 
the line between the benefits of wildlife view- 
ing and stress on animals? These questions 
need more research and continuous aware- 

Three NPS presenters (including one ' 'de- 
fector" to the NBS) shared Park Service 
experience. Judd Howell from Golden Gate 
described the benefits to both park and peo- 
ple as volunteers assisted with raptor band- 
ing and vertebrate surveys Ray Sidles ex- 
plained how Big Bend attempts to prevent 
too-close encounters of people with moun- 
tain lions and black bears, under the NPS 
land management ethic John Miller talked 
about birds and sea turtles on Padre Island. 

The Park Service had nine attendees at the 
conference — up from six last year but still a 
disappointingly small number. The NPS has 
a lot to contribute to the Watchable Wildlife 
program, especially its interpretive/educa- 
tional experience, and a lot to gain from 
working with the many groups involved. 

Gary Graham, John Herron, and numer- 
ous colleagues from the Texas Parks and 
Wildlife Department and elsewhere are to be 
congratulated for a well-run, highly informa- 
tive, friendly conference that made good 
strides toward bringing the public and private 
sectors together for wildlife conservation. 
Next year's conference will be held in 
Burlington, VT, in October. Y'all come! 

Meetings of Interest 

Feb. 23-25 

Mar. 23-25 

May 4-6 

May 16-18 

June 7-10 

Aug. 28-Sept. 2 

SEARCH, at San Diego, CA, hosted by USFS Pacific SW Research Station, 
BLM, and the Social Aspects of Resource Management Institute at CA State 
Polytech U, Pomona Contact Lisa Maggiore, (909) 869-459] 

Conference on Prevention, Response, and Oversight; sponsored by the Alaska 
Sea Grant College Program, U/AK, Fairbanks Contact Brenda Baxter, U/AK, 
Fairbanks, 99775-5040; (907) 474-7086 

TION MEETING, Durango, CO; Papers from a platform session on NPS 
Paleontological Research, chaired by Vincent L Santucci, will be published in 
a symposium volume Contact Santucci at Petrified Forest NP, PO Box 2266, 
Petrified Forest, AZ 86028; (602) 524-6228 x227 

AGEMENT OF PROTECTED AREAS, at DalhousieU, Halifax, Nova Scotia; 
contact: Neil Munro, Parks Canada, Historic Properties, Upper Water St., Halifax, 
N.S., CANADA B3J 159, FAX (902) 426-7012 

RESOURCE MANAGEMENT, CO/State/U, Fort Collins, CO Michael J. 

Manfredo, program chair, has called for papers by Nov 1, 1993, to Manfredo, 
Human Dimensions in Natural Resources Unit, CO/State/U, Fort Collins, CO 

ly scheduled for Santa Fe or Albuquerque,NM 


Park Science 

Getting a Handle on Visitor Carrying Capacity - 
A Pilot Project at Arches National Park 

By Marilyn Hof, Jim Hammett, Michael Rees, Jane Belnap, Noel Poe, Dave Lime, and Bob Manning 

Annual visitation to national park areas is 
now counted in the hundreds of millions. In 
the decade of the 1970s visitation increased 
by 30 percent; in the 1 980s it rose 35 percent. 
If this trend continues, national park areas 
can expect a demand for an additional 60-90 
million recreation visits by the year 2000. 
This presents the National Park Service with 
a huge challenge — maintaining the integrity 
of park resources and visitors 1 experiences. 

In the past, the question of how much 
public use is appropriate in a national park 
has been framed in terms of 'carrying capac- 
ity." This term/concept has come both from 
within the Park Service and from Congress 
— the 1978 General Authorities Act requires 
each park's general management plan to 
include "identification of and implementa- 
tion commitments for visitor carrying capac- 
ities for all areas of the unit. ' ' Although Park 
Service management policies and planning 
guidelines acknowledge this responsibility, 
there has been little direction or agreement 
on a methodology for how to identi fy a park' s 
carrying capacity. Indeed, there has not even 
been an agency- wide agreement on the mean- 
ing of the term "carrying capacity." 

For the past several years NPS planners at 
the Denver Service Center and consultants at 
University of Minnesota and the University 
of Vermont CPSUs have been developing a 
process intended to help park planners and 
managers address visitor carrying capacity. 
The rest of this article summarizes this pro- 
cess, called the Visitor Experience and Re- 
source Protection ( VERP) process as well as 
discusses a pilot project at Arches NP. 

The VERP Process 

VERP defines carrying capacity as: the 
type and level of visitor use that can be 
accommodated while sustaining the desired 
resource and social conditions that comple- 
ment the purposes of the park units and their 
management objectives. 

In other words, the VERP process inter- 
prets carrying capacity not so much as a 
prescription of numbers of people, but as a 
prescription of desired ecological and social 
conditions. Measures of the appropriate con- 
ditions replace the measurements of maxi- 
mum sustainable use that are often used to 
measure other types of carrying capacities 
(e.g., range capacity for domestic ungulates, 
wildlife habitat [Dassmann 1964]). 

As conceived, the process will identify 
and document the kinds and levels of use that 
are appropriate, as well as where and when 
such uses should occur. The prescriptions, 
coupled with a monitoring program, will give 
park managers the information and the ratio- 
nale needed to make sound decisions about 
visitor use, and gain the public and agency 
support needed to implement those deci- 

As shown in Figure 1, the VERP process 
consists of nine steps. The first six steps are 
requirements of general park planning, and 
ideally should be part of each park's general 
management plan. The later steps in the 
process require annual review and adjust- 
ment, and are accomplished through park 
operations and management activities. 

The VERP process is based on many of 
the same elements and underlying logic in- 
cluded in the U.S. Forest Service's limits of 
acceptable change (LAC) and the National 
Parks and Conservation Association's visi- 
tor impact management (VIM) methodolo- 
gies (Graefe, et al 1990; Lime and Stankey 
1971). The primary difference between 

Continued on page 12 

Figure 1. Process for Addressing Visitor Experience and Resource Protection in the National Park System 

General Management Planning Park Management 


Amend GMP 

Step 1. Assemble the project team 

Step 2. Develop statements of park 
purposes, significance, and primary interpretive 

Step 3. Map and analyze resources and visitor 

Step 4. Establish the spectrum (or range) 
of desired resource and social conditions 
(potential management zones) 

Step 5. Use zoning to identify proposed plan 
and alternatives 



Reevaluate indicators & modify if necessary 






I era 




Step 6. Select quality 
indicators and specify 
associated standards for 
each zone 

Step 9. Develop / refine 
management strategies 
to address discrepancies 

Step 7. Compare desired conditions 
to existing conditions 

Step 8. Identify probable causes of 
discrepancies between desired and 
existing conditions 

Winter 1994 


Handle continued from page 11 

Computer generated photographs showing 
three levels of social impact 

VERP and these other processes i s that VERP 
is intended to be used in all areas of a park, 
both frontcountry and backcountry whereas 
LAC and VIM have primarily been used in 
wilderness settings. 

A major premise of these methodologies 
and VERP is that management goals, which 
are qualitative in nature, must be translated to 
measurable management objectives through 
the use of indicators and standards. Measur- 
able indicators will be selected for monitor- 
ing key aspects of the visitor experience and 
resources, then standards will be assigned 
based upon management goals. When stan- 
dards are exceeded, land managers must take 
action to get an indicator back within its 
defined standard. In a complex park, the park 
will also be zoned to reflect management 
goals for different areas. Then, specific indi- 
cators and standards would be selected for 
each zone. 

Indicators are divided into two types: bio- 
logical physical indicators — those indica- 
tors that measure impacts to the biological or 
physical resources of a park; and social 
indicators — those indicators that measure 
impacts on park visitors that are caused by 
interactions with other visitors or with park 
or concession employees. 

The underlying logic of indicators is easy 
to understand; however determining what 
standard to apply to different parts of the park 
is not so easy. It requires research, consider- 
able thought, and considerable bravery on 
the part of managers! Since VERP is driven 
by indicators and standards, a considerable 
amount of effort has to be spent determining 

VERP at Arches National Park 

The VERP process is being pilot-tested at 
Arches NP. The purpose of this test applica- 
tion is to refine the VERP process and to 
provide a model for application to the Na- 
tional Park System. The process is currently 
between steps 5 and 6. The park has been 
zoned and the zones have been qualitatively 
described. The next step is the selection of 
corresponding indicators and standards. Be- 
low we describe research in progress by the 
authors aimed at defining these. 

Research to Select Biological Indicators 

During the past two summers, researchers 
have been eval uating potential indicators that 
might be used to measure impacts to park 
resources from visitor use. Nineteen indica- 
tors were evaluated in di fferent habitats along 
trail corridors with high, moderate, and low 
use levels. Most of the potential indicators 
were discarded for a variety of reasons: they 

■ J&f : ' fj^- mitLi 

ttli-t 44 #*Jfci " 


Park Science 

were too difficult to measure, too costly, 
correlated poorly with changes in visitor use, 
too dependent on environmental variables 
such as rainfall, too slow to recover once 
impacts were reduced, or were not useable in 
different habitats. 

However, three indicators showing con- 
siderable promise were selected: 
cryptobioticsoil crust condition. This crust, 
which forms atop nearly all soils on the 
Colorado Plateau, is very important for 
nutrient cycling; it is very sensitive to 
visitor use; is easy to measure and quan- 
tify visually; and is indicative of overall 
ecosystem health. 

soil compacrioa Despite their sandy nature, 
soils of the Colorado Plateau are 
compactable, which adversely affects 
water uptake, nutrient cycling, and plant 
germination and growth. Again, this is a 
very easy indicator to measure and soils 
here recover from compaction fairly quick- 
ly once causal factors are removed. 
formation of social trails. This indicator is 
an effective measure of off-trail use and 
indicates how much of an area away from 
designated trails is being trampled by 

In addition to the above first tier indica- 
tors, which will be monitored on a weekly or 
monthly basis, a set of second tier indicators 
will be measured on a 5-year cycle. These 
indicators include cover and frequency of 
vascular plants by species, elemental tissue 
analysis of dominant plants, cover and fre- 
quency of ground cover ( litter, cyanobacteria, 
mosses and lichens), soil characteristics (or- 
ganic matter, bulk density, porosity, etc.). 
The purpose of these indicators is to measure 
more directly the ecosystem health, and also 
tocheck the validity and utility ofthe first tier 

Research to Select Social Indicators 

The social carrying capacity research pro- 
gram at Arches was approached in two phas- 
es. Phase I was conducted in the summer of 
1992 and aimed at identifying potential so- 
cialindicators(Manningetal. 1993). Person- 
al interviews were conducted with 1 12 visi- 
tors throughout the park. In addition, 10 
focus group sessions were held with park 
visitors, park staff and local community res- 

Phase I research was qualitative in nature; 
its purpose was simply to explore for poten- 
tial indicator variables. Additional research, 
phase II, was needed to become more quan- 
titative by asking respondents to rate the 
relative importance of these potential indica- 
tors. This required a larger and more repre- 
sentative sample. It also required some inno- 

vative sampling techniques based on image 
capture technology (Nassauer 1990, 
Chenoweth 1990, Pitt 1990, Lime 1990). 
Base photographs of park sites were taken 
and these images were then modified with 
computer software to present a range of 
impact conditions. A set of 16 photographs 
was developed for each attraction site and 
trail presenting a wide-ranging number of 
visitors present. An analogous set of photo- 
graphs was developed for a range of environ- 
mental impacts caused by off-trail hiking. 
Respondents rated the acceptability of each 

Data from the second phase of the re- 
search program are now being analyzed. Our 
expectation is that we will be able to identify 
the most important indicators of quality for 
each potential zone within the park and will 
be able to suggest visitor-based standards for 
at least some of these indicator variables. A 
program of monitoring will then be needed 
that focuses on these indicator variables. 
When monitoring indicates that standards of 
quality have been reached or exceeded, then 
carrying capacity will have been reached or 
exceeded as well. 

Hof Hammelt, and Rees are planners at the 
Denver Sen'ice Center; Bel nap is a research 
ecologist with NBS at Moab, Utah; Poe is the 




Proceedings Now 


Proceedings ofthe 7th Conference 
on Research and Resource Manage- 
ment in Parks and on Public Lands, 

held in Jacksonville, FL Nov. 16-20, 
1992, are now available in a single 479- 
page (softbound) volume for ' 'probably 
under $20." In addition to all the pa- 
pers, summaries ofthe sessions, and a 
list of poster presentations, the book 
contains a Preface by William E. Brown, 
an Introduction to the Conference by 
Jean Matthews, and Gaylord Nelson's 
conference closing address. 

Orders will be invoiced and may be 
made by writing the George Wright 
Society, P.O. Box 65, Hancock, MI 
49930-0065, by calling(906) 487-9722, 
or by FAX (906) 487-9405. 

superintendent of Arches N.P. ; Lime is a profes- 
sor and researcher at the University of Minneso- 
ta; Manning is a professor and researcher at the 
University of Vermont. 


Chenoweth, R.E. 1990. Image-Capture Computer Technolo- 
gy and Aesthetic Regulation of Landscapes Adjacent to 
Public Lands. Managing American's Enduring Wilderness 
Resource. St. Paul, MN: U/MN, pp. 563-568. 

Dassmann, R.F. 1964. Wildlife Biology. New York: John 
Wiley and Sons. 

Graefe, A.R., F.R. Kuss, and J.J. Vaske. 1990. Visitor Impact 
Management The Planning Framework. Washington, 
D.C.: National Parks and Conservation Association. 

Lime, D.W. and G.H. Stankey. 1971. Carrying Capacity: 
Maintaining Outdoor Recreation Quality. Recreation Sym- 
posium Proceedings. USDA Forest Service, pp. 174-184. 

Lime, D.W. 1990. Image Capture Technology: An Exciting 
New Tool for Wilderness Managers! Managing American's 
Enduring Wilderness Resource St. Paul, MN: U/MN, pp. 

Manning R.E., D.W. Lime, R. F. McMonagle, and P. Nordin. 
1993. Indicators and Standards of Quality for the Visitor 
Experience at Arches NP: Phase I Research. U/MN Coop- 
erative Park Studies Unit, 54 pages. 

Nassauer, J.I. 1990. Using Image Capture Technology to 
Generate Wilderness Management Solutions. Managing 
America's Enduring Wilderness Resource. St. Paul, MN: 
U/MN, pp. 553-562. 

Pitt, D.G. 1 990. Developing an Image Capture System to See 
Wilderness Management Solutions. Managing American's 
Enduring Wilderness Resource. St. Paul, MN: U/MN, pp. 

Battling Bees Here 

An article in the latest Inside Bajada by 
Gloria Maender ofthe NPS CPSU at U/AZ 
reports the arrival in at least four NPS sites in 
Texas of.swarms of Africanized honey bees 
(AHB) — the kind that was introduced into 
Brazil from South Africa in 1956. In addition 
to describing the swarms at Big Bend NP, 
Amistad NRA, Padre Islands National Sea- 
shore, and San Antonio Missions NHP, the 
article describes measures that at-risk NPS 
units should be taking: 

• Become aware ofthe type ofhabitats within 
the park area where honey bees now nest and 
monitor the bee population. 

• Use pheromone-baited swarm trapsto mon- 
itor feral bees. USDA Agricultural Research 
Service traps are durable, inconspicuous, 
and popular with bees. 

• Establish and maintain contact with local 
State Agriculture Department personnel re- 
sponsible for AHB monitoring and informa- 

• Establish working relations with federal or 
UA honey bee research scientists. 

• Train at least two personnel in handling of 
swarm traps and emergency procedures. 

• Develop handouts for park visitors, calling 
on University extension services. 

Winter 1994 


Creepy-Crawlys of Florissant's 


By William A. Dexter 

Did you know that today every fifth living 
thing in our world is a beetle?! 

It is estimated that over one million species 
of insects are alive today. It is very possible 
that millions more remain to be identified. 
Add the number of extinct insect species and 
the total becomes astronomical. Insects were, 
and are, the most successful organisms ever 
to have lived on earth. With the exception of 
microscopic organisms, insects far outnum- 
ber all other living things combined. 

Four insect orders have been around for 
more than 300 million years. Insect fossil 
parts have been found in Cambrian rock 
nearly 600 million years old! Fifteen insect 
orders had developed by 200 million years 
ago, at the time of the initial stages of Pangea, 
when continental drift started and the dino- 
saurs first appeared. Mostmajorinsect groups 
were established during Carboniferous 
times-the time of the coal age forests. Some 
Carboniferous dragon flies attained wing 
spans of over 30 inches; cockroaches grew to 
12 inches in length. 

Thirty-five million years ago, an over- 
whelming number of insect species flour- 
ished around and about ancient Lake 
Florissant, site of the present day Florissant 
Fossil Beds National Monument in Colo- 
rado. It is estimated that as many as 75 
percent of all modern insect genera were 
present when the Florissant Fossil shale beds 
were laid down . Although there are represen- 
tatives of modern genera and families at 
Florissant, all the individual species that lived 
in the Florissant area during Eocene times 
now are extinct. 

Two of the most abundant insect orders 
prevailed during ancient Florissant times. 
One group includes the bees, wasps, and 
ants; the other includes the beetles. Snout 

Right: Ancient wasp {Paleovespa 
Florissantentia) probably resembling a modern 
day bald-faced hornet This carbon imprint is 
some thirty-five million years old 


LeftrFossil butterfly (Prodryas persephone 
scudder), unique in the world, was carefully 
preserved for about thirty-five million years. 
(photo by f.m. carpenter) 

beetles (weevils) and ground beetles are the 
most common beetle types found as fossils in 
the Florissant Lake deposits. 

The great diversity of insects represents an 
astounding success story and rapid evolu- 
tion. Why are insects so successful? Why 
were insects so numerous in and about 
Florissant's ancient lake? 

We might look for answers first in the 
unique overall appearance that insects share 
in general. They all possess a chitonous 
exoskeleton or hard outer body parts. This 
body support system provides armor-like 
protection. Another unique property is that 
99 percent of all insects have wings, which 
aid them in their pursuit of survival. Their 
relatively small size makes them unobtru- 
sive. Their ability to hide under vegetation 
and rocks helps to promote their preserva- 
tion, protection, and further success. Short 
developmental stages allow for rapid regen- 
eration, fast adaptation rates, and thus an 
increased survival duration. 

Insects in general have a variety of feeding 
habits. Some eat vegetation. Others are 
predacious or parasitic and feed on other 
animals. A few insects even devour one 
another, (probably not one of their survival 

Insects have a multitude of lifestyles, var- 
iously termed incomplete and complete meta- 
morphosis. Grasshoppers, crickets, and 
roaches have incomplete life histories. This 
means that when they hatch from eggs, the 

young appear as miniature versions of adults. 
Complete metamorphosis occurs where the 
young develop by dramatic "leaps and 
bounds," not in a gradual manner and by 
means of various larval stages. 

Some insects within the same species have 
different life forms. Ants, for example, have 
workers, queens, and winged members — the 
latter being sexually active and searching for 
mates; other forms of ants are sexless. Bee- 
tles, such as weevils and scavengers, are 
known to have foraged about the most pro- 
ductive areas of ancient Florissant Lake, 
hence would be more easily trapped by vol- 
canic ash and dust. The variety of life cycles 
in the insect world increases their overall 
competitiveness and provides for successful 
life histories. 

Those in subterranean habitats wouldhave 
had little contact with poisonous volcanic 
gasses, such as methane and cyanide. All 
these various conditions collectively reflect 
the successful nature of insect behavior and 

The insect story of the ancient Lake itself 
is a dramatic one. Insect fossils retrieved 
from the lake bed shales represent over 1 , 1 00 
species, 19 orders, and 146 families. More 
insect varieties than from any other fossil 
formation in the world are found in these 
multi-layered shale beds. 

Visitors to the Florissant Fossil Beds Na- 
tional Monument can read the fossil evi- 
dence, revealing a chapter of ancient life 
trapped in the paper thin pages of time-an 
epoch some 30 million years before the onset 
of humanity. To visit Florissant and then 
consult the yellow pages under "extermina- 
tors," is to realize that insects continue to 
make one of the strongest of Life's bids to 
"inherit the earth." 

Dexter is Staff Paleontologist at Florissant 
Fossil Beds NM, Florissant, CO. 


Park Science 


Park Science citations by author 

Adams, Layne 

Dave Mech receives national award . Park science. 
1993. 13(4):32. 
Ahlbrandt, Thomas S. 
Energy and mineral resources in and near NP 
lands. Park science. 1993, 13(1):10-11. 
Anderson, Adrienne 
Service reviews etleciiveness of resource man- 
agementplans. Park science. 1993, 13(3):13,15. 
Andrews, Edmund D. 
Channel margin and eddy bar deposition along the 
Colorado River in Grand Canyon NP. Park 
science. 1993, 13(1)3-4. 
Averett, R. C. 

Measuring Colorado water quality in the Grand 
Canyon NP Park science. 1993, 13(1):12-14. 
Bacon, C. 

Volcano studies m national parks: USGS helps 
NPS to keep a watchful eye on restless volca- 
noes while improving our underst.... Park sci- 
ence. 1993, 13(1):6-7. 
Barrett, Hope H. 
Using GIS to assess potential impacts of gypsy 
moth infestations at Great Smoky Mountains 
NP. Park science. 1993, 13(2)26-27. 
Berger, Bill 

Predation of Yellowstone elk calves. Park science. 
1993, 13(3):18. 
Blaustein, Andrew R. 
Declining amphibian populations in perspective. 

Park science 1993. 13(4) 8-9. 
Brown, Janet L 

Great Basin NPanoUSGS cooperate on a geolog- 
ic mapping program. Park science. 1993, 
Buckley, P. A 
Letters. Park science 1993, 13(4):23 
Childers, Eddie 
Wild turkey restoration at Indiana Dunes. Pa* 

science. 1993. 13(4): 19. 
Cinnamon, Steve 

Sen/ice reviews effectiveness of resource man- 
agement plans Park science. 1993, 13(3):13,15. 
Clark, Dave 
Interpreting resource management on a self -guid- 
ing nature trail. Park science. 1993, 13(3):8. 
Cofer-Shabica, Stephen V. 
A photopoint archival system. Park science. 1993, 

Coffey, Jenness 
Illegal collection of plants in units of the national 
pa* system. Park science. 1993, 13(2):27 
Colyer, M. 
Succession and biological invasion at Mesa Verde 

NP. Park science. 1993, 13(4):16-18. 
Connor. Melissa 

Effects of fire on cultural resources at Mesa Verde 
NP. Park science. 1993, 13(3):28-30. 
Corless, Jim 
Albright expands leadership and management 

course. Park science. 1993, 13(3):24. 
Comu, Craig E 
Restoration of estuanne tidelands in South Slough 
National Research Reserve. Park science. 1993, 
Cranson, K. R. (Rod) 
Four new videos made in NPs take honors at film 
festival. Park science. 1993, 13(4):27. 
Crawford, Paul 
Olympic mountain goat update. Park science. 

1993, 13(31:15. 
Crock, J.G. 

USGS provides baselines for two Alaska parks. 
Park science. 1993. 13(3)1 1 . 
Cunningham. Dick 
Campfires and firewood, a global perspective. 

Park science. 1993. 13(4):32. 
Curry, Richard W 

Coastal geology and national parklands: an exam- 
ple from Biscayne NP. Park science. 1993, 

Curtin, Gary C. 
Energy and mineral resources in and near NP 

lands. Park science. 1993, 13(1):10-11. 
Davila, Vidal 

Great Basin NP and USGS cooperate on a geolog- 
ic mapping program. Park science. 1993, 
Davis, Gary 

NPS team documents hurricane damage at Ever- 
glades National Park. Park science. 1993, 
de Toledo. Peter M. 
New fossil mammals found at Florissant Fossil 

Beds NM. Park science. 1993, 13(4):13. 
Deshler, Elena T. 

Colorado Plateau Vegetation Advisory Commit- 
tee: a working model tor standardization. Park 
science. 1993, 13(4):27. 
Devine, Hugh 
Data base mapping and management at Colonial 

NHP. Park science. 1993. 13(1):28. 
Doren, Robert F 

Reorganization of the South Florida Research 
Center. Park science. 1993, 13(3): 1,4-5. 
Ek, David A. 
Fori Clatsop schedules wetlands restoration. Park 

science. 1993, 13(4):3. 
Ellison, Laura E. 

Southwestern Willow Flycatcher declines in Grand 
Canyon National Park. Park science. 1993, 
Evanoff, Emmett 
New fossil mammals found at Florissant Fossil 

Beds NM. Park science. 1993, 13(4):13. 
Ewert, Alan 

High altitude mountaineering: visitor types and 
management preferences. Park science. 1993, 
Fels, John 
Data base mapping and management at Colonial 

NHP. Park science. 1993, 13(1):28. 
Fenn, Denny 

Director accepts Academy report recommenda- 
tions. Park science. 1993, 13(1):17. 
Flattau, Edward 
Dollar value of wetlands. Park science. 1993, 

Floyd-Hanna, Lisa 
Effects of fire on cultural resources at Mesa Verde 

NP. Park science. 1993, 13(3):28-30. 
Succession and biological invasion at Mesa Verde 

NP. Park science. 1993, 13(4):16-18. 
Frank, Philip A. 

Anastasia Island beach mouse 'at home' at Fori 
Matanzas National Monument. Park science. 
1993. 13(1)30 31. 
Gibbons, Stephen T. 
Impact monitoring and restoration in Mount Rainier 
NP. Park science. 1993, 13(1):29-30. 
Gough, L.P 

USGS provides baselines for two Alaska parks. 
Park science. 1993, 13(3):11. 
Gregg, Bill 

MAB notes. Park science. 1993, 13(1)21. 
MAB notes. Park science. 1993, 13(2)31. 
Halley, Robert B. 

Coastal geology and national parklands: an exam- 
ple from Biscayne NP. Park science. 1993, 
Heliker, C. 

Volcano studies in national parks: USGS helps 
NPS to keep a watchful eye on restless volca- 
noes while improving our underst... Park sci- 
ence. 1993, 13(1):6-7. 
Herrmann, R. 

Volcano studies in national parks: USGS helps 
NPS to keep a watchful eye on restless volca- 
noes while improving our understanding. Park 
science. 1993, 13(1):6-7. 
Hester, F. Eugene 

Editorial. Park science. 1993, 13(2):2. 
National Biological Survey : a progress report. Park 

science. 1993, 13(3):5. 
Editorial: The National Biological Survey: opening 

day. Park science. 1993, 13(4):2. 
Hostetler, Steve 

Modeling the effects of climate change on the 
thermal structure of Yellowstone Lake. Park 
science. 1993, 13(1):16. 

Hunt, Adrian 

Late Triassic vertebrate tracks discovered at Pet- 
rified Forest NP. Park science. 1993, 13(4):14. 
Hunt, Adrian P. 

Paleoecology of Late Triassic metoposaurid am- 
phibians: evidence from Petrified Forest Nation- 
al Park. Park science. 1993, 13(4):12. 
Jackson, Larry 

NPS/USGScooperative biochemistry studies. Park 
science. 1993, 13(1):14. 
Jan/is, Jonathan B. 

Action vs. rhetoric: resource management at the 
crossroads. Park science. 1993, 13(3)6-7,10. 
Johnson, Janet L. 
Data base mapping and management at Colonial 
NHP. Park science. 1993, 13(1):28. 
Johnson, Matthew J. 

Southwestern Willow Flycatcher declines in Grand 
Canyon National Park. Park science. 1993, 
Karish, J.F. 

Pollen analysis in historical landscape studies: Fort 
Necessity, Pennsylvania. Park science. 1993, 
Kavanagh, Ross 
Al Lovaas: 1953-1993 - a professional obituary. 

Park science. 1993,13(4)7. 
Kelso, G.K. 

Pollen analysis in historical landscape studies: Fort 
Necessity, Pennsylvania. Park science. 1993, 
Kendall, D. 
Succession and biological invasion at Mesa Verde 

NP. Park science. 1993, 13(4):16-18. 
Krohn, Kathleen K. 
Energy and mineral resources in and near NP 

lands. Park science. 1993, 13(1 ):1 0-11. 
Loy, A. 
Succession and biological invasion at Mesa Verde 

NP. Park science. 1993, 13(4):16-18. 
Maciha, Mark J. 
Albright expands leadership and management 

course. Park science. 1993, 13(3):24. 
Marzolf, G. R. 
Long-term monitoring and research in Lake Powell . 

Park science. 1993, 13(1):7-9. 
Maser, Chris 

Interpreters note!. Park science. 1993, 13(3):10. 
Matthews, Jean 

Editorial. Park science. 1993, 13(1):2. 
Book review: Complexity: life at the edge of chaos, 
by RogerLewin. Park science. 1 993, 1 3(3):1 9,22. 
Can we afford biodiversity?. Park science. 1993, 

Mayo, Charles W. (Corky) 
Interpretation is management. Park science. 1993, 
Mazzu, L. 

Measuring Colorado water quality in the Grand 
Canyon NP. Park science. 1993, 13(1):12-14. 
McCalpin, James P. 

Seasonal and diurnal discharge fluctuations in 
Medano Creek, Great Sand Sunes National 
Monument. Park science. 1993, 13(4):22-23. 
McCutchen, Henry E. 

Ecology of high mountain black bear popuation in 
relation to land use at Rocky Mountain NP. Park 
science. 1993, 13(1)25-27. 
Mclntyre, Carol L. 

Notes from abroad. Park science. 1993, 13(2): 14. 
McNulty-Huffman, Carol 
Window to the past: providing a framework for the 

future. Park science. 1993, 13(2): 1,3. 
Meiman, Joe 
Karst groundwater basins: an abstract of analysis. 

Park science. 1993, 13(4):26. 
Nodvin, Stephen C. 

Using GIS to assess potential impacts of gypsy 
moth infestations at Great Smoky Mountains 
NP. Park science. 1993, 13(2):26-27. 
Nowak, Erika 
Amphibian decline on the Colorado Plateau. Park 

science. 1993, 13(4) :1 0-11. 
Peck, Dallas 

USGS and NPS: science partners in the parks. 
Park science. 1993, 13(1):1,32. 

Peterson, David L. 

Support tools for l&M decision-making: moving 
from the ideal to the real. Park science. 1993, 
Genetic diversity and protection of alpine heather 
communities in Mount Rainier National Park. 
Park science. 1993, 13(2):28-29. 
Pojeta, John 
Fossils, U.S. Geological Survey and the public 

lands. Park science. 1993, 13(1):15. 
Rafkind, Chuck 
Data base mapping and management at Colonial 

NHP. Park science. 1993, 13(1):28. 
Reed, Nathaniel P. 
Dare to save the Everglades. Park science. 1993, 

Rhem, Karen 

Service reviews effectiveness of resource man- 
agement plans. Park science. 1 993, 1 3(3): 1 3, 1 5. 
Riehle, James 

Volcano studies in national paries: USGS helps 
NPS to keep a watchful eye on restless volca- 
noes while improving our understanding. Park 
science. 1993, 13(1):6-7. 
Rochefort, Regina M. 
Impact monitoring and restoration in Mount Rainier 

NP. Park science. 1993, 13(1):29-30. 
Genetic diversity and protection of alpine heather 
communities in Mount Rainier National Park. 
Park science. 1993, 13(2):28-29. 
Romme, W. 
Succession and biological invasion at Mesa Verde 

NP. Park science. 1993, 13(4):16-18. 
Romme, William H. 
Effects of fire on cultural resources at Mesa Verde 

NP. Park science. 1993. 13(3):28-30. 
Roth, John 

Limburger cheese attracts new species to pit traps 
at Oregon Caves. Park science. 1 993, 1 3(1 ):21 . 
Rugh, June C. 

Support tools for l&M decision-making: moving 
from the ideal to the real. Park science. 1993, 
Subaipme meadows: a promising indicator of glo- 
bal climate change. Park science. 1993, 13(2): 
Rumrill, Steven S. 

Restoration of estuarine tidelands in South Slough 
National Research Reserve. Parkscience. 1993, 
Samora, B. 

Volcano studies in national parks: USGS helps 
NPS to keep a watchful eye on restless volca- 
noes while improving our underst... Park sci- 
ence. 1993, 13(1):6-7. 
Samora, Barbara A. 
Nisqually Glacier records a century of climate 

change. Park science. 1993, 13(2):30-31. 
San Miguel, George L. 
Turner River restoration at Big Cypress Preserve. 

Parkscience. 1993, 13(3):16-17. 
Santucci, Vincent L. 

Paleoecology of Late Triassic metoposaurid am- 
phibians: evidence from Petrified ForestNation- 
al Park. Park science. 1993, 13(4):12. 
Late Triassic vertebrate tracks discovered at Pet- 
rified Forest NP. Parkscience. 1993, 13(4):14. 
Schmierer, Alan 
5th Wilderness Conference addresses changing 

picture. Parkscience. 1993, 13(4):13. 
Schwalbe, Cecil R. 

Status of amphibians in Arizona. Park science. 
1993, 13(4):10. 
Severson, R.C. 
USGS provides baselines for two Alaska parks. 

Parkscience. 1993, 13(3):11. 
Shafer, Craig 

20th Annual Natural Areas Conference. Park sci- 
ence. 1993, 13(4):21. 
Shelton, Napier 

MAB notes. Park science. 1993, 13(2):31. 
MAB notes. Park science. 1993, 13(3)31. 
MAB notes. Pa* science. 1993, 13(4):25. 
Singer, Francis J. 

Dall sheep trophy hunting in Alaska's parks and 
preserves: biological implications. Parkscience. 
1993, 13(2) :24-25. 

Winter 1 994 


Insularity problems in Rocky Mountain bighorns. 
Park science. 1993, 13(3):14-15. Preoption of 
Yellowstone elk calves. Park science. 1993, 
Smith, C. 

Pollen analysis in historical landscape studies: Fort 
Necessity, Pennsylvania. Park science. 1993, 
Smith, J. Dungan 

Channel margin and eddy bar deposition along the 
Colorado River in Grand Canyon NP. Park 
science. 1993, 13(1):3-4. 
Sogge, Mark K. 

Southwestern Willow Flycatcher declines in Grand 
Canyon National Park. Park science. 1993, 
Soukup, Michael 
Reorganization of the South Florida Research 

Center. Park science. 1993, l3(3):1,4-5. 
Starkey, Edward E. 

Book review: Extinction: bad genes or bad luck? by 
David M. Raup. Park science. 1993, 13(4): 
Forest ecosystem management in the Pacific 
Northwest: a new approach. Parkscience. 1993, 
Stubbs, Tim 
Wildland fire management at Carlsbad Caverns 

NP. Parkscience. 1993, 13(3)26-27. 
Symonds, Kate K. 

Predation of Yellowstone elk calves. Park science. 
1993, 13(3)18. 
Taylor, Dale 
Shared Beringian Heritage Program underway. 
Parkscience. 1993, 13(4)28-30. 
Taylor, H. E. 

Measuring Colorado water quality in the Grand 
Canyon NP. Park science. 1993, 13(1):12-14. 
van Riper, Charles 

Book review: ecoiogy and our endangered life- 
support systems, by Eugene P. Odum. Park 
science. 1993, 13(4):15. 
van Riper, Sandra G. 
Book review: ecology and our endangered life- 
support systems, by Eugene P. Odum. Park 
science. 1993, 13(4):15. 
Varley, John 

Modeling the effects of climate change on the 
thermal structure of Yellowstone Lake. Park 
science. 1993, 13(1):16. 
Wall, William P. 
Paleoecology of Late Triassic metoposaurid am- 
phibians: evidence from Petrified Forest Nation- 
al Park. Park science. 1993, 13(4):12. 
Watson, Alan E. 
Wilderness research institute named for Aldo 

Leopold. Parkscience. 1993, 13(3):12. 
When scientific and cultural values meet. Park 
science. 1993, 13(3):12. 
Williams, Gary 
NPS-75: guideline for service. Parkscience. 1993, 
Winter, Lois 
Bridging the communication gap: linking interpret- 
ers, resource managers, and researchers. Park 
science. 1993, 13(3):9-10. 
Woodward, Andrea 

Subalpine meadows: a promising indicator of glo- 
bal climate change. Parkscience. 1993, 13(2): 
Zimmerman, Michael 
Dollar value of wetlands. Park science. 1993. 

Park Science citations by keyword 


Regional highlights. Park science. 1993, 13 (1): 
Africanized honey bees 
Regional highlights. Park science. 1993, 
Air quality 
Window to the past: providing a framework for 

the future. Parkscience. 1993, 13(2):1,3. 
Aldo Leopold Award 

Dave Mech receives national award. Park sci- 
ence. 1993, 13(4):32. 


Aldo Leopold Research Institute 
Wilderness research institute named for Aldo 

Leopold. Parkscience. 1993, 13(3):12. 
Regional highlights. Park science. 1993, 13(3): 

Declining amphibian populations in perspective. 

Parkscience. 1993, 13(4):8-9. 
Status of amphibians in Arizona. Park science. 

1993, 13(4):10. 
Amphibian decline on the Colorado Plateau. 

Parkscience. 1993, 13(4):10-11. 
Paleoecology of Late Triassic metoposaurid am- 
phibians: evidence from Petrified Forest Na- 
tional Park. Parkscience. 1993. 13(4):12. 

USGS provides baselines for two Alaska parks. 
Parkscience. 1993, 13(3):11. 
Beach mice 

Anastasia Island beach mouse 'at home' at Fort 
Matanzas National Monument. Park science. 
1993, 13(1):30-31. 

Ecology of high mountain black bear popuation 
in relation to land use at Rocky Mountain NP. 
Parkscience. 1993, 13(1)25-27. 
Bears found to be significant predators of neo- 
natal ungulates across North America. Park 
science. 1993, 13(3):18. 
Beringian research 
Shared Beringian Heritage Program underway. 

Park science. 1993, 13(4)28-30. 
Bighorn sheep 

Insularity problems in Rocky Mountain bighorns. 
Parkscience. 1993, 13(3):14-15. 
Biochemistry studies 
NPS/USGScooperativebiochemistry studies. Park 

science. 1993, 13(1):14. 

Interpreters notel. Park science. 1993, 13(3):10. 
Can we afford biodiversity?. Park science. 1993, 

Biological control 

Regional highlights. Parkscience. 1993, 13(1): 
Biological invasion 
Succession and biological invasion at Mesa Verde 

NP. Parkscience. 1993, 13(4):16-18. 
Biosphere reserves 

MAB notes. Park science. 1993, 13(1)21. 
MAB notes. Parkscience. 1993, 13(2):31. 
MAB notes. Parkscience. 1993, 13(3):31. 
MAB notes. Park science. 1993, 13(4)25. 
Bird species 

Letters. Park science. 1993, 13(4)23. 
Book reviews 

Book review: Complexity: life at the edge of chaos, 
by Roger Lewin. Park science. 1993, 13(3):19,22. 
Book review: Extinction: bad genes or bad luck? 
by David M. Raup. Park science. 1993, 13(4): 
Book review: ecology and our endangered life 
support systems, by Eugene P. Odum. Park 
science. 1993, 13(4):15. 
Campfires and firewood: a global perspective. 

Parkscience. 1993, 13(4):32. 

Information crossfile. Park science. 1993, 13(2): 
Cave survey 
Regional highlights. Park science. 1993, 13(3): 

Limburger cheese attracts new species to pit traps 
at Oregon Caves. Park science. 1993,13(1)21. 

Book review: Complexity: life at the edge of chaos, 
by Roger Lewin. Park science. 1993, 13(3): 
Climate change 

Modeling the effects of climate change on the 
thermal structure of Yellowstone Lake. Park 
science. 1993, 13(1):16. 
Climatic changes 
Climate change conference. Park science. 1993, 

Subalpine meadows: a promising indicator of 
global climate change. Park science. 1993, 

Nisqually Glacier records a century of climate 
change. Parkscience. 1993, 13(2):30-31. 
Coastal geology 

Coastal geology and national parklands: an ex- 
ample from Biscayne NP. Park science. 1993 
Colorado Plateau 

Colorado Plateau Vegetation Advisory Com- 
mittee : a working model for standardization. 
Parkscience. 1993, 13(4)27. 
Colorado River 

Channel margin and eddy bar deposition along 
the Colorado River in Grand Canyon NP. Park 
science. 1993, 13(1):3-4. 
Long-term monitoring and research in Lake Powell. 

Parkscience. 1993, 13(1)7-9. 
Measuring Colorado water quality in the Grand 

Canyon NP. Park science. 1993, 13(1):12-14. 

Bridging the communication gap: linking interpret- 
ers, resource managers, and researchers. Park 
science. 1993, 13(3):9-10. 
Compact discs 
A photopoint archival system. Park science. 1 993. 


Book review: Complexity: life at the edge of chaos, 
by Roger Lewin. Parkscience. 1 993, 1 3(3) : 1 9,22. 

Editorial. Parkscience. 1993, 13(1)2. 
Climate change conference. Park science. 1993. 

5th Wilderness Conference addresses changing 

picture. Parkscience. 1993, 13(4):13. 
20th Annual Natural Areas Conference. Park sci- 
ence. 1993, 13(4)21. 

Coastal geology and national parklands: an exam- 
ple from Biscayne NP. Park science. 1993, 
Coral colonies' violent chemical warfare. Park 
science. 1993, 13(2):31. 
Cost benefit analysis 

Regional highlights. Park science. 1993, 13(3): 
CPSU program 

Regional highlights. Park science. 1993, 
Crater Lake 
Crater Lake study peer review panel meets. Park 

science. 1993, 13(2)27. 
Cultural resources 
Effects of fire on cultural resources at Mesa Verde 
NP. Parkscience. 1993, 13(3)28-30. 
Oall sheep 

Dall sheep trophy hunting in Alaska's parks and 
preserves: biological implications. Park science. 
1993, 13(2):24-25. 
Database mapping 

Data base mapping and management at Colo- 
nial NHP. Park science. 1993. 13(1)28. 

Support tools for l&M decision-making: moving 
from the ideal to the real. Park science. 1993, 
Tracking dinosaurs in Virginia and Arizona. Park 

science. 1993, 13(1 ):1. 
New natural resources directory available on discs. 
Parkscience. 1993, 13(4):6. 
Dutch elm disease 

Regional highlights. Parkscience. 1993, 13(1):18. 

Book review: ecology and our endangered life- 
support systems, by Eugene P. Odum. Park 
science. 1993, 13(4): 15. 
Predation of Yellowstone elk calves . Park science. 

1993, 13(3):18. 
Endangered species 
T & E workshop in Southwest draws on several 

agencies. Park science. 1993, 13(4)27. 
Energy assessments 
Energy and mineral resources in and near NP 

lands. Parkscience. 1993, 13(1):10-11. 
Environmental change 

Information crossfile. Park science. 1993, 13(2): 


Restoration of estuarine tidelands in South Slough 
National Research Reserve. Parkscience. 1993, 
13(4): 1,4-5. 
Reorganization of the South Florida Research 

Center. Parkscience. 1993, 13(3):1,4-5. 
Dare to save the Everglades. Park science. 1993, 


Book review : Extinction : bad genes or bad luck? by 
David M. Raup. Park science. 1993, 13(4): 
Fire management 
Wildland fire management at Carlsbad Caverns 

NP. Parkscience. 1993, 13(3)26-27. 
Fire research 
Wildland fire management at Carlsbad Caverns 

NP. Parkscience. 1993, 13(3)26-27. 
Effects of fire on cultural resources at Mesa Verde 

NP. Park science. 1993, 13(3)28-30. 
Campfires and firewood: a global perspective. 

Parkscience. 1993, 13(4):32. 
Flood control 

Hot Springs NP considers floodcontrol alterna- 
tives. Parkscience. 1993, 13(4)26. 

Coastal geology and national parklands: an exam- 
ple from Biscayne NP Park science. 1993, 
Forest ecosystems 

Forest ecosystem management in the Pacific 
Northwest: a new approach. Parkscience. 1993. 
Forest management 

Forest ecosystem management in the Pacific 
Northwest: a new approach . Park science. 1 993, 
Fossil tracks 

Late Triassic vertebrate tracks discovered at Pet- 
rified Forest NP. Park science. 1993, 13(4):14. 
Tracking dinosaurs in Virginia and Arizona. Park 

science. 1993, 13(1 ):1 
Fossils, U.S. Geological Survey and the public 

lands. Park science. 1993, 13(1):15. 
New fossil mammals found at Florissant Fossil 
Beds NM. Parkscience. 1993. 13(4):13. 
Genetic diversity 

Genetic diversity and protection of alpine heather 
communities in Mount Rainier National Park. 
Parkscience. 1993, 13(2)28-29. 
Geologic maps 

Geologic maps and digital data sets: their role in 
management and preservation of NPS lands. 
Parkscience. 1993, 13(1):11-12. 
Great Basin NP and USGS cooperate on a geolog- 
ic mapping program. Park science. 1993, 

Geologic maps and digital data sets: their role in 
management and preservation of NPS lands. 
Parkscience. 1993, 13(1):1 1-12. 
Data base mapping and management at Colonial 

NHP. Parkscience. 1993, 13(1)28. 
Great Basin NP and USGS cooperate on a geolog- 
ic mapping program. Park science. 1993, 
Using GIS to assess potential impacts of gypsy 
moth infestations at Great Smoky Mountains 
NP. Park science. 1993, 13(2)26-27. 

Nisqually Glacier records a century of climate 
change. Parkscience. 1993, 13(2):30-31. 
Glen Canyon Dam 

Channel margin and eddy bar deposition along the 
Colorado River in Grand Canyon NP. Park 
science. 1993, 13(1):3-4. 
Measuring Colorado water quality in the Grand 
Canyon NP. Parkscience. 1993. 13(1):12-14. 
Grizzly bears 
Regional highlights. Parkscience. 1993, 13(1):18. 

Karst groundwater basins: an abstract of analysis. 
Parkscience. 1993, 13(4)26. 

Park Science 

Gypsy moths 

Using GIS to assess potential impacts of gypsy 
moth infestations at Great Smoky Mountains 
NP. Park science. 1993, 13(2):26-27. 

Genetic diversity and protection of alpine heather 
communities in Mount Rainier National Park. 
Park science. 1993, 13(2):28-29. 
Historical landscapes 

Pollen analysis in historical landscape studies: Port 
Necessity, Pennsylvania. Park science. 1993, 

Dall sheep trophy hunting in Alaska's parks and 
preserves: biological implications. Park science. 
1993, 13(2)24-25. 
Hurricane Andrew 
Regional highlights. Park science. 1993, 13(1): 

NPS team documents hurricane damage at Ever- 
glades National Park. Park science. 1993, 
Illegal collection of plants 
Illegal collection of plants In units of the national 

park system. Park science. 1993, 13(2):27. 
Impact monitoring 

Impact monitoring and restoration in Mount Rainier 
NP. Park science. 1993, 13(1)29-30. 
Interagency cooperation 
USGS and NPS: science partners in the parks. 

Park science. 1993, 13(1):1,32. 
Interpretation ismanagement. Park science. 1993, 

Bridging the communication gap: linking interpret- 
ers, resource managers, and researchers. Park 
science. 1993, 13(3):9-10. 
Introduced plants 
Succession and biological invasion at Mesa Verde 

NP. Park science. 1993, 13(4):16-18. 
Inventory and monitoring 
Support tools for l&M decision-making: moving 
from the ideal to the real. Park science. 1993, 
NPS-75: guideline for service. Park science. 1 993, 
Information crossfile. Park science. 1993, 13(1):17. 
New mountain journal originates in Slovakia. Park 

science. 1993. 13(2)19. 
Regional highlights. Park science. 1993. 13(2):20. 
Information crossfile. Park science. 1993, 13(2): 


Karst groundwater basins: an abstract of analysis. 

Park science. 1993. 13(4):26. 
Lake modeling 

Modeling the effects of climate change on the 
thermal structure of Yellowstone Lake. Park 
science. 1993. 13(1):16. 
Lake Powell 
Long-term monitoring and research in Lake Powell. 

Park science 1993. 13(1)7-9. 
Land acquisition 

Information crossfile. Park science. 1993, 13(3): 
Lewin, Roger 

Book review: Complexity : life at the edge of chaos, 
by Roger Lewin. Park science. 1993, 13(3):19,22. 
Life support systems 

Book review: ecology and our endangered life- 
support systems, by Eugene P. Odum. Park 
science. 1993. 13(4): 15. 
Crater Lake final report. Park science. 1993, 

Lovaas, Al 
Al Lovaas: 1953-1993 - a professional obituary. 

Park science 1993. 13(4)7. 
Data base mapping and management at Colonial 

NHP. Park science. 1993. 13(1):28. 
Window to the past: providing a framework for the 

future. Park science. 1993, 13(2):1,3. 
Mech, L. David 

Dave Mech receives national award. Park science. 
1993. 13(4):32. 

Medicinal plants 

Illegal collection ol plants in units of the national 
park system. Park science. 1993, 13(2):27. 

Meetings of interest. Park science. 1993, 13(1):24. 
Ecological Society meeting. Parksdence. 1993, 
Meetings of interest. Parksdence. 1993, 13(2):19. 
Meetings of interest. Park sdence. 1 993, 1 3(3):1 1 . 
Meetings of interest. Parksdence. 1993, 13(4)21. 
T 4 E workshop in Southwest draws on several 

agendes. Park sdence. 1993, 13(4):27. 

Paleoecology of Late Triassic metoposaurid am- 
phibians: evidence from Petrified Forest Nation- 
al Park. Park sdence. 1993, 13(4):12. 

Anastasia Island beach mouse 'at home' at Fort 
Matanzas National Monument. Park sdence. 
1993, 13(1):30-31. 
Mineral resources 
Energy and mineral resources in and near NP 
lands. Parksdence. 1993, 13(1):10-11. 
Mountain goats 
Olympic mountain goat update. Park science. 

1993, 13(3): 15. 

High altitude mountaineering: visitor types and 
management preferences. Parksdence. 1993, 
New mountain journal originates in Slovakia. Park 
sdence. 1993, 13(2):19. 
National Biological Survey 
Editorial. Park sdence. 1993, 13(2):2. 
National Biological Survey: a progress report. Park 

sdence. 1993, 13(3):5. 
Editorial: The National Biological Survey: opening 

day. Park sdence. 1993, 13(4):2. 
Some additional thoughts on the NBS. Park sci- 
ence. 1993. 13(4):31. 
Natural areas 

20th Annual Natural Areas Conference. Park sd- 
ence. 1993, 13(4) :21. 
Natural resource monitoring 
Window to the past: providing a framework for the 

future. Park science. 1993, 13(2):1,3. 
Natural resources 
New natural resources directory availableon discs. 

Parksdence. 1993, 13(4):6. 
Biology colloquium explores harmony with nature. 

Parksdence. 1993, 13(3):32. 

Bajada takes prize. Park sdence. 1993, 13(4):6. 
NPS publications 
Publication order form. Park science. 1993, 

Interpretive handout. Parksdence. 1993, 13(4):6. 
Odum, Eugene P. 
Book review: ecology and our endangered life- 
support systems, by Eugene P. Odum. Park 
sdence. 1993, 13(4):15. 

Paleoecology of Late Triassic metoposaurid am- 
phibians:evidencefrom Petrified ForestNation- 
al Park. Park sdence. 1993, 13(4):12. 
Park management 

Action vs. rhetoric, resource management at the 

crossroads. Park sdence. 1993, 13(3)6-7,10. 

Albright expands leadership and management 

course. Park sdence. 1993, 13(3):24. 
Park Sdence index 
Index for volume 12. Park sdence. 1993, 13(2): 

Photographic archives 
A photopoint archival system. Park sdence. 1993, 

Pollen analysis 

Pollen analysisin historical landscape studies: Fort 
Necessity, Pennsylvania. Park sdence. 1993, 
Public lands 
Fossils, U.S. Geological Survey and the public 

lands. Park sdence. 1993, 13(1):15. 

Information crossfile. Parksdence. 1 993, 1 3( 1 ):1 7. 
Regional highlights. Park sdence. 1993, 13(1): 

Regional highlights. Parksdence. 1993, 13(2):20. 
Regional highlights. Park sdence. 1993, 13(3): 

Information crossfile. Park science. 1993, 13(3): 

Regional highlights. Park sdence. 1993, 13(4): 
Radio collars 
Predationof Yellowstone elk calves. Park sdence. 

1993, 13(3): 18. 
Motion-sensitive collars: a technological break- 
through. Park sdence. 1993, 13(3):18. 

Notes from abroad. Parksdence. 1993, 13(2):14. 
Raup, David M. 

Book review: Extinction : bad genes or bad luck? by 
David M. Raup. Park sdence. 1993, 13(4): 

Action vs. rhetoric: resource management at the 
crossroads. Park sdence. 1993, 13(3)6-7,10. 
Bridging the communication gap: linking interpret- 
ers, resource managers, and researchers. Park 
sdence. 1993, 13(3):9-10. 
Long-term monitoring and research in Lake Powell. 

Parksdence. 1993, 13(1)7-9. 
Resource allocation 

Support tools for l&M decision-making: moving 
from the ideal to the real. Park sdence. 1993, 
Resource management 

Action vs. rhetoric: resource management at the 
crossroads. Parksdence. 1993, 13(3)6-7,10. 
Interpreting resource management on a self-guid- 
ing nature trail. Park sdence. 1993, 13(3):8. 
Bridging the communication gap: linking interpret- 
ers, resource managers, and researchers. Park 
sdence. 1993, 13(3):9-10. 
Resource management planning 
Service reviews effectiveness of resource man- 
agementplans. Parksdence. 1 993, 1 3(3):1 3,1 5. 
Resource management training 
Resource management program trains 1 17 in 10 

years. Parksdence. 1993, 13(2):31. 
Impact monitoring and restoration in Mount Rainier 

NP. Parksdence. 1993, 13(1):29-30. 
Dare to save the Everglades. Park sdence. 1993, 

Restoration of estuarine tidelands in South Slough 
National Research Reserve. Parksdence. 1 993, 
Fort Clatsop schedules wetlands restoration. Park 

sdence. 1993, 13(4):3. 
Wild turkey restoration at Indiana Dunes. Park 

sdence. 1993, 13(4):19. 
Restoration ecology 
Information crossfile. Park science. 1993, 13(2): 
Riparian ecosystems 

Channel margin and eddy bar deposition along the 
Colorado River in Grand Canyon NP. Park 
sdence. 1993, 13(1):3-4. 
River restoration 
Turner River restoration at Big Cypress Preserve. 

Parksdence. 1993, 13(3):16-17. 

Measuring Colorado water quality in the Grand 
Canyon NP. Parksdence. 1993, 13(1):12-14. 
Scientific research 

Director accepts Academy report recommenda- 
tions. Parksdence. 1993, 13(1):17. 

Channel margin and eddy bar deposition along the 
Colorado River in Grand Canyon NP. Park 
sdence. 1993, 13(1):3-4. 
South Florida Research Center 
Reorganization of the South Florida Research 

Center. Parksdence. 1993, 13(3): 1,4-5. 
South Slough National Research Rese 
Restoration of estuarine tidelands in South Slough 
National Research Reserve. Park science. 1 993, 
Stream fluctuations 

Seasonal and diurnal discharge fluctuations in 
Medano Creek, Great Sand Sunes National 
Monument. Parksdence. 1993.13(4):22-23. 

Subalpine meadows 

Subalpine meadows: a promising indicator of glo- 
bal dimate change. Parksdence. 1993, 13(2): 
Succession and biological invasion at Mesa Verde 

NP. Park sdence. 1993, 13(4): 16- 18. 
Succession and biological invasion at Mesa Verde 

NP. Park sdence. 1993, 13(4):16-18. 
Regional highlights. Park sdence. 1 993, 1 3( 1 ): 1 8. 
Interpreting resource management on a self-guid- 
ing nature trail. Park sdence. 1993, 13(3):8. 
Triassic Period 

Late Triassic vertebrate tracks discovered at Pet- 
rified Forest NP. Park sdence. 1993, 13(4):14. 
Wild turkey restoration at Indiana Dunes. Park 

sdence. 1993, 13(4):19. 
U.S. Geological Survey 
USGS and NPS: sdence partners in the parks. 

Parksdence. 1993, 13(1 ):1, 32. 

sdence. 1993, 13(1):14. 
Fossils, U.S. Geological Survey and the public 

lands. Parksdence. 1993, 13(1):15. 
Great Basin NP and USGS cooperate on a geolog- 
ic mapping program. Park science. 1993, 
USGS provides baselines for two Alaska parks. 

Parksdence. 1993, 13(3):11. 

Bears found to be significant predators ofneonatal 
ungulates across North America. Park sdence. 
1993, 13(3):18. 
Vegetation classification 
Colorado Plateau Vegetation Advisory Commit- 
tee: a working model for standardization. Park 
sdence. 1993. 13(4):27. 

Four new videos made in NPs take honors at film 
festival. Park science. 1993, 13(4):27. 
Visitor surveys 

High altitude mountaineering: visitor types and 
management preferences. Parksdence. 1993, 

Volcano studies in national parks: USGS helps 
NPS to keep a watchful eye on restless volca- 
noes while improving our underst.... Park sd- 
ence. 1993, 13(1)6-7. 
Regional highlights. Parksdence. 1993, 13(2):20. 
Water quality 

Measuring Colorado water quality in the Grand 

Canyon NP. Parksdence. 1993, 13(1):12-14. 


Restoration of estuarine tidelands in South Slough 

National Research Reserve. Parksdence. 1993, 

13(4): 1,4-5. 

Fort Clatsop schedules wetlands restoration. Park 

sdence. 1993, 13(4):3. 
Dollar value of wetlands. Park sdence. 1993, 
When sdentific and cultural values meet. Park 

sdence. 1993, 13(3):12. 
5th Wilderness Conference addresses changing 

picture. Parksdence. 1993, 13(4):13. 
Wilderness research 
Wilderness research institute named for AWo 

Leopold. Park sdence. 1993, 13(3):12. 
Willow Flycatcher 

Southwestern Willow Flycatcher declines in Grand 
Canyon National Park. Park sdence. 1993, 
Regional highlights. Park sdence. 1993, 13(3): 

Park Science citations by park code 

Turner River restoration at Big Cypress Preserve. 

Parksdence. 1993, 13(3):16-17. 

Coastal geology and national parklands: an exam- 
ple from Biscayne NP. Park sdence. 1993. 

Winter 1994 



Wildland fire management at Carlsbad Caverns 

NP. Park science. 1993, 13(3)56-27. 

Data base mapping and management at Colonial 
NHP. Park science. 1993, 13(1):28. 

Volcano studies in national parks: USGS helps 
NPS to keep a watchful eye on restless volca- 
noes while improving our underst.... Park sci- 
ence. 1993, 13(1):6-7. 

Crater Lake study peer review panel meets. Park 
science. 1993, 13(2):27. 

Crater Lake final report. Park science. 1993, 


Interpreting resource management on a self-guid- 
ing nature trail. Park science. 1993, 13(3):8. 

Dall sheep trophy hunting in Alaska's parks and 
preserves: biological implications. Park science. 
1993, 13(2)24-25. 

USGS provides baselines for two Alaska parks. 
Park science. 1993, 13(3):11. 

High altitude mountaineering: visitor types and 
management preferences. Park science. 1 993, 

Fossils, U.S. Geological Survey and the public 
lands. Park science. 1993, 13(1):15. 

NPS team documents hurricane damage at Ever- 
glades National Park. Park science. 1993, 

Reorganization of the South Florida Research 
Center. Park science. 1993, 13(3):1,4-5. 

Dare to save the Everglades. Park science. 1993, 


New fossil mammals found at Florissant Fossil 

Beds NM. Park science. 1993, 13(4):13. 

Fort Clatsop schedules wetlands restoration. Park 

science. 1993, 13(4):3. 

Anastasia Island beach mouse 'at home' at Fort 
Matanzas National Monument. Park science. 
1993, 13(1):30-31. 

Pollen analysis in historical landscape studies: Fort 
Necessity, Pennsylvania. Park science. 1993, 

Great Basin NP and USGS cooperate on a geolog- 
ic mapping program. Park science. 1993, 

Channel margin and eddy bar deposition along the 
Colorado River in Grand Canyon NP. Park 
science. 1993, 13(1)3-4. 

Measuring Colorado water quality in the Grand 
Canyon NP. Park science. 1993, 13(1):12-14. 

Southwestern Willow Flycatcher declines in Grand 
Canyon National Park. Park science. 1993, 

Seasonal and diurnal discharge fluctuations in 
Medano Creek, Great Sand Sunes National 
Monument. Park science. 1993, 13(4):22-23. 

Using GIS to assess potential impacts of gypsy 
moth infestations at Great Smoky Mountains 
NP. Park science 1993. 13(2):26-27. 

Volcano studies in national parks: USGS helps 
NPS to keep a watchful eye on restless volca- 
noes while improving our underst.... Park sci- 
ence. 1993, 13(1):6-7. 

Wild turkey restoration at Indiana Dunes. Park 

science. 1993, 13(4):19. 

Effects of fire on cultural resources at Mesa Verde 
NP. Park science. 1993, 13(3)28-30. 

Succession and biological invasion at Mesa Verde 
NP. Park science 1993, 13(4): 16- 18. 


Volcano studies in national parks: USGS helps 
NPS to keep a watchful eye on restless volca- 
noes while improving our underst.... Park sci- 
ence. 1993, 13(1)3-7. 

Impact monitoring and restoration in Mount Rainier 
NP. Park science. 1993, 13(1):29-30. 

Subalpine meadows: a promising indicator of glo- 
bal climate change. Park science. 1993, 13(2): 

Regional highlights. Park science. 1993, 13(2):20. 

Genetic diversity and protection of alpine heather 
communities in Mount Rainier National Park. 
Park science. 1993, 13(2) 28-29. 

Nisqually Glacier records a century of climate 

change. Park science. 1993, 13(2)30-31. 

Subalpine meadows: a promising indicator of glo- 
bal climate change. Park science. 1993, 13(2): 

Olympic mountain goat update. Park science. 
1993. 13(3):15. 

Limburger cheese attracts new species to pit traps 
at Oregon Caves. Park science. 1993, 13(1):21. 

Fossils, U.S. Geological Survey and the public 
lands. Park science. 1993, 13(1):15. 

Paleoecology of Late Triassic metoposaurid am- 
phibians: evidence from Petrified Forest Nation- 
al Park. Park science. 1993, 13(4):12. 

Late Triassic vertebrate tracks discovered at Pet- 
rified Forest NP. Park science. 1993, 13(4):14. 

Support tools for l&M decision-making: moving 
from the ideal to the real. Park science. 1993, 

Forest ecosystem management in the Pacific 
Northwest: a new approach. Park science. 1993, 

Ecology of high mountain black bear popuation in 
relation to land use at Rocky Mountain NP. Park 
science. 1993, 13(1)25-27. 

Window to the past: providing a framework for the 

future. Park science. 1993, 13(2):1,3. 

T & E workshop in Southwest draws on several 
agencies. Park science. 1993, 13(4):27. 

USGS provides baselines for two Alaska parks. 

Park science. 1993. 13(3):11. 

Modeling the effects of climate change on the 
thermal structure of Yellowstone Lake. Park 
science. 1993, 13(1):16. 

Predation of Yellowstone elk calves. Park science. 
1993, 13(3):18. 

Park Science citations by title 

20th Annual Natural Areas Confer- 

5th Wilderness Conference addresses changing 

Action vs. rhetoric: resource management at the 

crossroads. 1 993, 1 3(3)6-7, 1 0. 
Al Lovaas: 1953-1993 - a professional obitu- 

Albright expands leadership and management 

course. 1993,13(3)24. 
Amphibian decline on the Colorado Plateau. 1993, 

Anastasia Island beach mouse 'at home' at Fort 

Matanzas National Monument. 1993, 13(1): 

Bajada takes prize.l993,13(4):6. 
Bears found to be significant predators ofneonatal 

ungulates across North America. 1 993, 1 3(3) : 1 8. 
Biology colloquium explores harmony with nature. 

Book review: Complexity: life at the edge of chaos, 

by Roger Lewin.1993,13(3):19,22. 
Book review: ecology and our endangered life- 
support systems, by Eugene P.Odum.1993, 


Book review: Extinction: bad genes or bad luck? by 

David M. Raup.1993,13(4):15-16. 
Bridging the communication gap: linking interpret- 
ers, resource managers, and research- 

Campfires and firewood: a global perspec- 

-Can we afford biodiversity?. 1993, 13(4):1 1. 
Channel margin and eddy bar deposition along the 

Colorado River in Grand Canyon 

Climate change conference. 1 993, 1 3( 1 ): 1 7. 
Coastal geology and national parklands: an example 

from Biscayne NP.1993,13(1):4-5. 
Colorado Plateau Vegetation Advisory Committee: 

a working Wxlel for standardization. 1993. 

13(4)27. \ 
Coral colonies' violent chemical warfare. 1993, 

Crater Lake final report.1993,13(3):24. 
Crater Lake study peer review panel meets. 1993, 

Dall sheep trophy hunting in Alaska's parks and 

preserves: biological implications. 1993,13(2): 

Dare to save the Everglades.1993,13(3):3. 
Data base mapping and management at Colonial 

Dave Mech receives national award. 1 993, 1 3(4) :32. 
Declining amphibian populations in perspec- 

Director accepts Academy report recommenda- 

Dollar value of wetlands. 1 993, 1 3(4) :3. 
Ecological Society meeting.1993,13(1):24. 
Ecology of high mountain black bear popuation in 

relation to land use at Rocky Mountain 

Editorial: The National Biological Survey: opening 

Effects of fire on cultural resources at Mesa Verde 

Energy and mineral resources in and near NP 

Forest ecosystem management in the Pacific North- 
west: a new approach. 1993,13(4)24. 
Fort Clatsop schedules wetlands restora 

Fossils, U.S. Geological Survey and the public 

Four new videos made in NPs take honors at film 

Genetic diversity and protection of alpine heather 

communities in Mount Rainier National 

Park. 1993, 13(2) 28-29. 
Geologic maps and digital data sets: their role in 

management and preservation of NPS 

Great Basin NP and USGS cooperate on a geologic 

mapping program. 1993, 13(2):6-7. 
High altitude mountaineering: visitor types and man- 
agement preferences. 1 993, 1 3(3) :2527. 
Hot Springs NP considers floodcontrol alterna- 

Illegal collection of plants in units of the national park 

Impact monitoring and restoration in Mount Rainier 

NP.1993, 13(1)29-30. 
Index for volume 12.1993,13(2):15-18. 
Information crossfile. 1993,1 3(1):17. 
Information crossfile. 1 993, 1 3(2) :22-23. 
Information crossfile. 1 993, 1 3(3) :23-24. 
Insularity problems in Rocky Mountain big- 
horns. 1993, 13(3): 14- 15. 
Interpretation is management. 1993,1 3(3) :8. 
Interpreters notel.1993,13(3):10. 
Interpreting resource managementona self-guiding 

nature trail. 1 993, 1 3(3) 8. 
Interpretive hanoout.1993,13(4):6. 
Karst groundwater basins: an abstract of analy- 

Late Triassic vertebrate tracks discovered at Petri- 
fied Forest NP.1993,13(4):14. 

Limburger cheese attracts new species to pit traps 

at Oregon Caves.1993,13(1)21. 
Long-term monitoring and research in Lake 

Measuring Colorado water quality in the Grand 

Canyon NP.1993,13(1):12-14. 
Modeling the effects of climate change on the 

thermal structure of Yellowstone Lake.1993, 

Motion-sensitive collars: a technological break- 
through. 1993, 13(3):18. 
National Biological Survey: a progress re- 
port. 1993.13(3):5. 
New fossil mammals found at Florissant Fossil Beds 

NM. 1993, 13(4):13. 
New mountain journal originates in 

New natural resources directory available on 

Nisqually Glacier records a century of climate change. 

1993, 13(2)30-31. 
Notes from abroad.1993,13(2):14. 
NPS team documents hurricane damage at Ever- 
glades National Park. 1993,1 3(2) :4-5. 
NPS-75: guideline for service.1993, 13(1)23. 
NPS/USGS cooperative biochemistry studies. 1 993. 

Olympic mountain goat update. 1993. 13(3):15. 
Paleoecology of Late Triassic metoposaurid am- 
phibians: evidence from Petrified ForestNation- 

alPark.1993, 13(4):12. 
A photopoint archival system. 1993, 13(3):31. 
Pollen analysis in historical landscape studies: Fort 

Necessity, Pennsylvania. 1993. 13(2):8-10. 
Predation of Yellowstone elk calves. 1 993, 1 3(3) : 1 8. 
Publication order form. 1993,1 3(2) :32. 
Reorganization of the South Florida Research Cen- 
ter. 1993, 13(3): 1,4-5. 
Resource management program trains 117 in 10 

years. 1 993, 13(2) :31. 
Restoration of estuarine tidelands in South Slough 

National Research Reserve. 1993, 13(4): 1,4-5. 
Seasonal and diurnal discharge fluctuations in 

Medano Creek, Great Sand Sunes National 

Service reviews effectiveness of resource manage- 
ment plans. 1993, 13(3): 13, 15. 
Shared Beringian Hentage Program underway. 1 993, 

Some additional thoughts on the NBS. 1993, 

Southwestern Willow Flycatcher declines in Grand 

Canyon National Park. 1993, 13(2):12-13. 
Status of amphibians in Arizona . 1 993, 1 3(4) : 1 0. 
Subalpine meadows: a promising indicator of global 

climate change. 1993, 13(2):10-11. 
Succession and biological invasion at Mesa Verde 

NP. 1993, 13(4)16-18. 
Support tools for l&M decision-making: moving from 

the ideal to the real. 1993, 13(1)22-23. 
T 4 E workshop in Southwest draws on several 

agencies. 1993, 13(4)27. 
Tracking dinosaurs in Virginia and Arizona. 1993, 

Turner River restoration at Big Cypress Preserve. 

1993, 13(3): 16- 17. 
USGS and NPS: science partners in the parks. 

1993, 13(1):1,32. 
USGS provides baselines for two Alaska parks. 

1993, 13(3):11. 
Using GIS to assess potential impacts of gypsy moth 

infestations at Great Smoky Mountains NP. 

1993, 13(2)26-27. 
Volcano studies in national parks: USGS helps NPS 

to keep a watchful eye on restless volcanoes 

while improving our understanding. 1993, 

When scientific and cultural values meet. 1993, 

Wild turkey restoration at Indiana Dunes. 1993, 

Wilderness research institute named for Aldo Leopold . 

1993, 13(3): 12. 
Wildland fire management at Carlsbad Caverns NP 

1993, 13(3)26-27. 
Window to the past: providing a framework tor the 

future. 1993, 13(2):1, 3. 


Park Science 

Information Crossfile 

Frequent, abrupt changes in the climate of 
Earth have been the rule over the past 250,000 
years, according to climate specialists' anal- 
ysis of ice extracted from the full depth of the 
Greenland ice sheet. 

Walter Sullivan of the New York Times 
wrote in mid-July that the ' ' astonishing' ' find- 
ings suggest that the period of stable climate 
in which human civilization has flourished 
may be unusual and that the present climate 
may get either warmer or colder much more 
quickly than had been believed — "in spans 
of decades or even less." 

J.W.C. White of the Institute of Arctic and 
Alpine Research at U/CO noted that whereas 
adaptation — the peaceful shifting of food- 
growing areas, coastal populations, 
etc. — seemed possible if change meant a few 
degrees in a century, the new studies indicate 
change of as much as 1 8 degrees in a couple 
of decades. The new results, reported in 
Nature, unexpectedly showed abrupt cli- 
mate changes in inter-glacial as well as in 
glacial periods. The Nature article authors 
had no explanation for the rapid shifts, nor 
for the "mystery" of why the climate of the 
last 8,000 to 1 0,000 years has been "strange- 
ly stable." 


Merck, Sharp and Dohme, the pharma- 
ceutical company, has agreed to pay Costa 
Rica $ 1 million plus royalties from products 
developed as part of the on-going hunt for 
new chemicals in nature that may prove 
useful to human beings. The $1 million is 
being applied by Costa Rica toward its con- 
servation effort, and represents industry's 
acknowledgement that helping to preserve 
biodiversity is a wise investment. 

Thomas Eisner, Shurman Professor of 
Biology at Cornell Institute for Research in 
Chemical Ecology and a member of the 
National Academy of Sciences, was quoted 
in the July 6, 1 993 issue of the Oregonian as 
having proposed creation of a Biotic Explo- 
ration Fund of about $250 million (the ap- 
proximate cost of bringing a single pharma- 
ceutical drug to market) to receive contribu- 
tions from industrial and governmental sourc- 
es. The fund would then help finance 
biodiversity institutes in developing nations 
and help create partnerships between those 
nations and industry. The donors would 
recover their investments from the new prod- 
ucts developed; the developing nations would 
acquire the resources needed for conserva- 

Only a tiny fraction of the millions of 
species of animals, plants and microorgan- 
isms on Earth have been tested for useful 
chemicals, Eisner said, "but the shelf of 

natural molecules is fast disappearin. . . being 
cut down, eroded away, lost to urbaniza- 


Norman Myers, an environmental con- 
sultant in Headington, Oxford, UK, and a 
senior fellow of the World Wildlife Fund, 
US, is the author of an article titled The 
Question of Linkages in Environment and 
Development in BioScience, 43:5,302-310. 

The article, based on an extended policy 
backgrounder for the secretariat of the UN 
Conference on Environment and Develop- 
ment, analyzes die character and prevalence 
of linkages, illustrates linkages through in- 
stances from several spheres of human activ- 
ity, and concludes by considering the sorts of 
policy initiatives that would enable us to deal 
with linkages in a manner and on a scale to 
reflect the challenge they represent. 

He describes ourworld view as "tradition- 
ally grounded in a practice of splitting it up 
into manageable components' ' that consider 
linkages as "an incidental factor too com- 
plex to be reflected (operationalized) through 
institutional responses," and concludes: 
"We will respond to linkages either by reac- 
tions of sufficient scope and character, or by 
salvage measures in a world impoverished by 
our disregard for linkages. Linkages will 
eventually be addressed, whether by design 
or by default." 


Revelstoke, a community in the Columbia 
Mountains of interior British Columbia (and 
near Glacier NP), has developed a "vision 
statement," described by Jenny Feick and 
Dr. Albert Einsiedel, Jr. in Research Links 
(Spring 1993), Vol. l,No. 1 of the Canadian 
Park Service, Western Region's Forum for 
Cultural and Social Studies. The authors 
question Revelstoke 's Vision: Will It Help 
Achieve Sustainable Development? and de- 
scribe the evidence supporting the notion 
that goals have a motivating effect on behav- 

Revelstoke has experienced a boom and 
bust economy based on resource exploita- 
tion of the Columbia River, its neighboring 
forests, and major transportation corridor. 
Community residents decided they wanted 
to shape their destiny rather than be subject- 
ed to the whims of transient developers and 
government. In 1992 an interdisciplinary 
team prepared a vision statement and in 
February 1 993 the Revelstoke citizens voted 
to purchase the tree farm license north of 
Revelstoke "to gain local control of forest 
management, thus taking a first step toward 
making their vision a reality. ' ' Their stated 
goal is "achieving sustainable growth by 

balancing environmental, social, and eco- 
nomic values within a local, regional and 
global context." 


From Cliff Martinka, NPS Senior Re- 
search Scientist at Glacier NP, comes word 
of a new book, Parks, Peaks, and People, 

compiled and edited by Lawrence S. 
Hamilton, Daniel P. Bauer, and Helen F. 
Takeuchi and produced by the East- West 
Center with assistance from the Woodlands 
Mountain Institute, the U.S. NPS, and IUCN's 
Commission on NPs and Protected Areas. 
The book is an outstanding collection of 
papers arising from an international consul- 
tation on protected areas in mountain envi- 
ronments, held in Hawaii Volcanoes NP Oct. 
26-Nov. 2, 1 99 1 . The book is available from 
East- West Center, Program on Environment, 
1777 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96848. 
The cost is $5, and Martinka notes: "A good 
value nowadays." 


The Pacific Northwest Region's Resource 
Management newsletter recently highlight- 
ed, from the 11/30/92 issue of U.S. News 
and World Report, a paragraph that de- 
serves repetition. It appeared as part of a 
review of The Diversity of Life, by E.O. 

' ' A vital reason to protect biodiversity is to 
preserve the ecosystems that we depend on to 
enrich the soil, modify the climate, even 
create the air we breathe. Turning over a 
stump, Wilson pointed out the profusion of 
small and obscure life forms — a metallic 
blue beetle, a centipede, mites, a crane fly, 
slugs galore, and a riot of orange, white, and 
yellow fungi, topped by green and eggplant 
hued colonies of algae. These, he said, are 
the organisms that 'hold the world steady." 


Henri Grassino-Mayer, a researcher from 
U/AZ, is working on his PhD studying trees 
at El Malpais National Monument in New 
Mexico and developing a tree ring chronolo- 
gy and climatic history of the area. A recent 
presentation at El Malpais by Grassino-Mayer 
for an audience of people from NPS, BLM, 
USFS, and Los Amigos del Malpais (an 
organization of volunteers who assist on park 
projects) was written up by J.D. Meisner and 
appeared in the Cibola County Beacon (Aug. 
4, 1993) of Grants, New Mexico. Grassino- 
Mayer told his listeners that grazing, fire 
suppression, and logging showed up in his 
studies as having a solid impact on the natural 
record of fire and climate. His studies have 
provided what he called "the deepest fire 

Continued on page 20 

Winter J 994 


Information Crossf ile 

history ever obtained in the southwest" and 
showed that many trees had survived 20 to 30 
fires in their lifetimes. 

a a a 

For an arresting evocation of landscape in 
the form of words, see Gary Dwyer's de- 
scription of the three landscapes that have 
been ' 'most influential/important' ' to him in 
his work. The piece appears on page 169 of 
Landscape Journal (Fall 1993), and 
Dwyer's No. 1 choice is a National Park 
System site — which shall be nameless here, 
so as not to spoil the punch line at the end of 
Dwyer's astounding word picture. 

For contrast, read Carol Franklin/ 
Andropogon's essay (following Dwyer's) on 
the Russel Wright Garden ofWoodland Paths, 
Garrison, NY. . . "an expression of the Amer- 
ican landscape as opposed to imposing a 
European vision on it." She calls it "an 
ecological garden" because, as she says, 
Wright asked the question "What is this 
place?" and then brought the skills and the 
sensitivity of a designer to the task of discov- 
ering and dramatizing the patterns and pro- 
cesses of this landscape. 


"They came, they multiplied, they con- 
quered" is the opening of a Science News 
report (Vol. 144, p.20) on zebra mussels. 
These hitchhikers entered the Great Lakes in 
the ballast tanks of a transoceanic cargo ship 
and triggered one of the most disastrous 
ecological invasions in recent U.S. history. 
But they were only the first of many such 
invaders reaching saltwater ports, inland wa- 
terways, and marine estuaries "on a vast and 
largely unnoticed scale," says marine ecolo- 
gist James T. Carlton of Williams College in 
Willamstown, MA. 

Carlton (whose complete article appeared 
in the July 2, 1993 Science) studied the 
ballast water of 159 ships in Coos Bay, 
OR — ships that hailed from 25 Japanese 
ports — and found 367 different marine spe- 
cies, including shrimps, sea anemones, jelly- 
fish, snails, clams, fish, flatworms, and a 
variety of microscopic life forms. These 
"invaders" are rarely noticed until, like the 
zebra mussel, they becaome a major nui- 
sance. John Chapman, marine biologist at 
Oregon State University's Hatfield Marine 
Science Center in Newport, OR, calls it a 
lottery. ' ' We can speculate, ' ' says Chapman, 
"but there are no data." 

* * A 

Biological Diversity: Conserving the 
Earth's Wild Wealth is the title of a poster- 
sized brochure produced by the NPS's Wild- 
life and Vegetation Division in Washington, 

DC, and the Harpers Ferry Center in West 
Virginia. The attractive, colorful design fo- 
cuses on the history and diversity of the 
planet's life forms, as found and studied in 
World Heritage sites and Biosphere Reserves. 
Interspersed with maps and photos, the text 
describes the evolution of our present finely 
woven fabric of life and suggests that its 
current unraveling can "harm human civili- 
zation too, by foreclosing opportunities for 
spiritual, intellectual, social, and economic 

* * * 

"Some basic ideas about ecology are 
changing. A change in theory may end up 
profoundly changing the physical world." 
With that provacative subtitle, Steve 
Packard's Restoring Oak Ecosystems in the 
Summer 1993 issue of Restoration & Man- 
agement Notes, tackles the emerging debate 
about the nature of ecosystems and ofNature 

' 'Conservation biology, natural areas man- 
agement, and restoration ecology are emerg- 
ing disciplines that have been generatingnew 
definitions, information, understandings, 
goals and values," he says in opening. He 
then summarizes the elements of earlier con- 
ventional wisdom and proceeds to try to 
"untangle some of the interrelated ideas" 
they involve. The 11 -page article covers 
Natural vs. Artificial Succession, the Power 
of Definitions, and the Setting of Manage- 
ment Priorities, all within the context of 
Midwestern tallgrass savanna restoration. 

* * * 

Worth sharing (in the context of restora- 
tion) is this quotation from The New Repub- 
lic, Dec. 28, 1 992, carried inside the cover of 
the Summer 1993 Restoration & Manage- 
ment Notes: 

"Break a vase, and the love that 
reassembles the fragments is stronger than 
that love that took its symmetry for granted 
when it was whole." 


For readers interested in Old-growth for- 
ests of Eastern North America, the April 
1993 Natural Areas Journal carries an 
article by Gregory J. Nowacki (U.S.F.S., 
P.O. Box 2 1628, Juneau, AK 99802-1628) 
and Paul A. Trianosky (Duke University 
School of the Environment, Durham, NC 
27708) that gives 749 literature citations, 
listed alphabetically by author. Numbered 
citations are cross-referenced with broadly 
defined forest types and selected old-growth 

The New York State Parks Agency's Fos- 
tering Environmental Stewardship Plan, 

undertaken in response to Governor Cuomo' s 
1990 State of the State directive, presents a 
10-year stewardship action plan that would 
strengthen preservation and maintenance 
efforts on behalf of the State Park System, 
and also would dovetail with recommenda- 
tions in the 1984 NPCA Adjacent Land Sur- 
vey: No Park Is an Island. The National Park 
and Conservation Association report stated 
that "Unless all levels of government mount 
a concerted effort to deal with adjacent land 
problems in a coordinated manner, the NPS 
mandate will be completely undermined." 

New York State Parks Agency Commis- 
sioner Orin Lehman noted that "other state 
park agencies and the National Park Service 
are looking introspectively and recommit- 
ting to their stewardship responsibilities." 

Copies of the 81 -page report and its 37 
pages of appendices, plus a 1 6-page execu- 
tive summary, may be requested from Tho- 
mas L. Cobb, N YS Office of Parks, Recre- 
ation and Historic Preservation, Bldg. 1, 
Nelson A. Rockefeller Empire State Plaza, 
Albany, NY 12238. The summary was 
presented by Dr. Dobb at the 5th Annual 
Northeastern Recreation Research Sympo- 
sium at Saratoga Spa State Park, Saratoga 
Springs, NY, April 18-20, 1993. 


Pilobolus Ecology: Fungal forests, fecal 
ecosystems, and the wild ride of lungworm 
lan'ae. This is the intriguing title of an article 
by K. Michael Foos in the Spring 1993 issue 
of Yellowstone Science (Vol. 1, No. 3), 
complete with photos, charts, and maps. Also 
carried in the Spring 1993 issue is an inter- 
view with Pete Feigley, project coordinator/ 
zoologist and a staff botanist, on the new 
Greater Yellowstone Conservation Data 
Center — a Natural Heritage Program funded 
by The Nature Conservancy with logistical 
support from the NPS. The project's aim is 
to inventory and monitor a wide variety of 
species in greater Yellowstone in order to 
improve understandingofthe status and trends 
in ecosystem health. 


Resource Management Notes, the Flor- 
ida Dept. ofNatural Resource quarterly news- 
letter, noted in its July 1993 issue a new 
program to help address the conservation 
and management needs of neotropical mi- 
grants that occur in Florida. The state's 
Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission's 
research, survey, and educational activities 


Park Science 

Information Crossfile 

will focus on breeding species suffering wide- 
spread declines, key habitats that support 
rare breeding species, and migration counts 
in many coastal areas. 

These activities will be undertaken in co- 
operation with the Partners in Flight pro- 
gram, a nationwide effort being promoted by 
several federal agencies, including the Na- 
tional Park Service. 

* * * 

From Giovanni Puggioni , Natural Resource 
Officer for the B.C. Ministry of Environ- 
ment, Lands, and Parks, comes a copy of A 
Protected Areas Strategy for British Co- 
lumbia and a 1 -square-yard poster/foldout 
ofmaps/artwork/text. The Strategy describes 
the policies and process necessary to protect 
12 percent of the Province on a representa- 
tive basis. 

Copies of the 40-page Strategy publica- 
tion and the associated poster/brochure may 
be had by contacting Puggioni at the Minis- 
try, 2nd fir, 800 Johnson St., Victoria, BC, 
Canada; V8V 1X4; (604)387-5002. 

* * * 

Environmental Concern Inc.'s Wetland 
Journal, (Vol. 5, No. 2) introduces a new 
feature into the journal: TheDOsandDONTs 
of Wetland Planning. The correct proce- 
dures associated with planned wetlands that 
will assist and often assure the success of 
such work will be listed under DOs. The 
errors associated with planned wetlands that 
will jeopardize the success of, and often 
cause the failure of, such work will be listed 
under DON'Ts. Contributors to this Resto- 
ration Techniques feature will be acknowl- 
edged, according to Dr. Edgar W. Garbisch, 
president of the publication's environmental 
concern staff. 

* * * 

PEER: A Publication of Public Em- 
ployees for Environmental Responsibili- 
ty, began publication (Vol. l,No. 1) in Sum- 
mer 1993. Billing itself editorially as "a new 
voice for environmental ethics," the publica- 
tion received national press coverage. Its 
first issue carried news of a new organization 
formed by employees of the Bureau of Rec- 
lamation in Denver — REOEI (Reclamation 
Employee Organization for Ethics and Integ- 
rity), and a white paper written by employees 
of the DI's Bureau of Land Management 
(BLM). The white paper is entitled Grazing 
report: Gross BLM Mismanagement Cited, 
and is available from PEER, 810 First St., 
N.E., Suite 680, Washington, DC 20002; 

An article entitled NPWS — licenced to 
kill! in the Australian Ranger (Spring 1 993) 
by Lorraine Donne, describes a new and 
successful line of attack by environmental- 
ists against logging activities in New South 
Wales. Under the National Parks and Wild- 
life Act there, it is illegal to "take or kill" 
fauna without permission (licence) from the 
National Parks and Wildlife Service (NPWS). 
The court found that the forestry activities in 
northern NSW's Chaelundi State Forest fell 
within this definition and were both a direct 
and indirect threat to endangered fauna in the 

As a result, the Endangered Fauna/Interim 
Protection (EFIP) Act of 1 99 1 and the Envi- 
ronmental Planning and Assessment Act of 
1979 (EPA Act) were amended. A signifi- 
cant change is expansion of the definition of 
"take or kill" to include "hunt, shoot, poi- 
son, net, snare, spear, pursue, capture, dis- 
turb, lure, or injure..." and also includes 
"... significant modification of the habitat of 
the fauna likely to affect its essential 
behavioural patterns. ' ' (All spellings reflect 
British style). 

* * * 

Nature Conservancy, TNC's bi-monthly 
publication, devotes its Ecology Forum in the 
November/December 1993 issue to "Flori- 
da's Plumbing Problems," and contains a 
beautifully illustrated look by Greg Breining 
at America's once-vast savanna: "The Case 
of the Missing Ecosystem," where did it go 
and can we bring it back? 

* * * 

More than 5,000 miles of beach were 
scoured in 1992 by some 160,000 volunteers 
as part of an international litter removal 
program coordinated by the Center for Ma- 
rine Conservation (CMC) in Washington, 
DC. Trash brigades in the U.S. and 32 other 
countries retrieved 5,328,000 pieces of de- 
bris, 58.8 percent of which was plastic (in- 
cluding styrofoam). 

This depressing item is carried in the Oc- 
tober 9, 1993 issue of Science News, page 
235. The CMC survey points out that fishing 
paraphernalia (monofilament line, floats, and 
lures), while it accounts for only 1 percent of 
the retrieved litter, kills more marine wildlife 
than any other category of beach debris. 

* * * 

The upcoming "Pacific Salmon & Their 
Ecosystems" conference in Seattle, WA, 
Jan. 10-12, 1994 will look at the status of 
Pacific Northwest salmonids, regional trends, 
salmon policies and politics, technological 
solutions (cost effective restoration), and 
institutional solutions (effective long-term 

planning and management). One of the 
sessions is titled "Managing Resources with 
Incomplete Information: Making the Best of 
a Bad Situation" — surely an excessive re- 

The Portland Oregonian, editorializing 
on the salmon situation in the Nov. 21,1 993 
paper, describes the "scientific consensus" 
for salmon recovery, beyond fishing restric- 
tions: aggressive state and federal crack- 
down on salmon habitat destroyers — the log- 
ging, grazing, and mining practices that strip 
streambanks of vegetation and destroy spawn- 
ing beds. 

"Even more than freedom from fisher- 
men's hooks or nets, ' ' the Oregonian editors 
wrote, "wild salmon need homes to return 

* * * 

Jack Ward Thomas, newly appointed Chief 
of the U.S. Forest Service, delivered his 
inaugural speech as chief to an overflow 
crowd at Oregon State University on Nov. 
18,1 993 ... a speech that at least one reporter, 
covering if for the Oregonian, found to be 
"in an academic way, profound." 

What Thomas talked about was the role of 
science in decision-making. "The public," 
he said, "should not expect too much from 
scientists because science is a method. ' ' He 
took aim at "professional gladiators" on 
both sides of the old-growth forest 
conflict — people who aren't interested in 
collaboration but are only in the fight to win. 
He understands that such people are a part of 
the political system, but they're not part of 
the approach Thomas sees evolving in the 
management of public lands. He character- 
izes this new approach as "an attempt to 
preserve biodiversity through ecosystem man- 
agement at the landscape scale, ' ' with people 
an integral part of that landscape. 
* * * 

Wire service reports and work by the 
Oregonian staff describe how researchers at 
U/WA have cloned the insect juvenile hor- 
mone receptor — the cellular gateway that 
controls metamorphosis in caterpillars and 
butterflies. The receptor is the docking point 
in each insect cell for juvenile hormone, a 
protein substance that prevents the caterpil- 
lar from entering the pupal stage until its 
body has grown sufficiently. The insect 
matures only when the hormone is absent. 

Hormone-based pesticides offer a way to 
control targeted bugs without hurting other 
creatures. Lynn Riddiford, a U/WA zoology 
professor who led the research, said the 
description of the receptor's biology will 
give the pesticide industry a road map for 

Continued on page 22 

Winter J 994 


Information Crossfile 

designing dummy proteins that plug into 
cells of caterpillars, blocking the insect's 
natural hormone from the binding site and 
allowing premature metamorphosis. 
a A * 

The status and prospects for success of the 
Endangered Species Act (ESA) is the subject 
of an article in the Policy Forum section of 
Science, Nov. 12, 1993, pp 976-7. Four 
authors, two from U/ID, one from the USFWS 
unit there, and a research biologist for USFWS 
in Alaska, attempted to assess the validity of 
recent criticisms regarding the level of pro- 
tection provided by the ESA and the recovery 

They found that recovery plans all too 
often "manage for extinction" rather than 
for survival. "We need to be more realistic 
in setting biologically defensible recovery 
goals," they stated. If suitable habitat is 
severely limited, then habitat restoration 
should be included as a necessary component 
of recovery efforts. 

They also pointed out that the ESA re- 
quirement that species should be recovered 
within their ecosystems "often may not be 
done. ' ' They propose ' 'initiating an aggres- 
sive, proactive effort to save species while 
they are still common, viable parts of their 
self-sustaining natural ecosystems." An im- 
portant step in that direction, they conclude, 
would be to ensure that a minimum of three 
viable representatives of each vegetation cover 
type are pre served in each ecoregi on in which 
they occur. 

* * * 

A discussion of "sustainable use of re- 
newable resources" in the Policy Forum 
section of Science, Nov. 5, 1993, pp 828-9, 
starts with the definition of sustainable use 
(as published in Our Common Future, 
Oxford Univ. Press, by the World Commis- 
sion on Environment and Development): It is 
defined as use that "meets the needs of the 
present without compromising the ability of 
future generations to meet their own needs. ' ' 

From there, five distinguished authors, 
(whose scientific expertise is mainly in fish- 
eries), found that the challenges to sustain- 
able use in the area of fisheries management 
are not insurmountable. ' 'To meet these chal- 
lenges," they write, "we must address fun- 
damental economic biases against 
sustainability, particularly in open-access 
management regimes; continue the develop- 
ment and application of methods that directly 
integrate sources of uncertainty into scientif- 
ic advice; and learn from past management 
failures and successes." 


Their conclusion is that "Sustainable de- 
velopment is achievable if scientific advice 
based on biological, social, and economic 
considerations is an integral part of the devel- 
opment of policies for renewable resource 


The Cowbird Peril: A Resource Man- 
agement Problem and an Interpretive 
Story is the title of a 33-page paper, written 
and distributed to selected NP sites and per- 
sonnel by Richard L. Cunningham, NPS 
Western Region's Chief of Interpretation. 

Cunningham notes that the National Park 
Service is a signatory agency to the Migrato- 
ry Bird Conservation Program (also known 
as Partners in Flight). In spite of the fact that 
migratory birds are an important part of the 
biological diversity of the National Park Sys- 
tem and a resource the NPS is committed to 
conserve, too little is understood about one of 
the major threats — brood parasitism by cow- 

Three species of the cowbird now reside in 
the United States, and Cunningham has ad- 
dressed his paper to NPS interpreters and 
resource management specialists to inform 
and educate park staffs and the public about 
the cowbird menace and methods for com- 
batting it. 

The paper while still in draft form 
prompted the Western Regional Office to 
prepare and submit an NRPP Proposal ( WR- 
N-02, Neotropical Migratory Bird Popula- 
tion Management: Parasitic Cowbird Re- 

For copies of the paper or further informa- 
tion, contact Cunningham at (4 1 5 ) 744-39 10. 


The Oct. 15, 1993 issue of Science de- 
scribes (on p 4 1 0-4 1 2) a 5000 year record of 
extreme floods and climate change in south- 
western U.S. The regional paleoflood chro- 
nology, based on flood deposits from 19 
rivers in Arizona and Utah, shows the largest 
floods in the region cluster into distinct time 
intervals that coincide with periods of cool, 
moist climate and frequent El Nino events. 


Fire History andClimate Change inGiant 
Sequoia Groves, by Thomas W. Swetnam of 
the U/AZ Laboratory ofTree-Ring Research, 
describes how fire scars in giant sequoia 
{Sequoiadendron giganteium) were used to 
reconstruct the spatial and temporal pattern 
of surface fires that burned episodically 
through five groves in the past 2,000 years. 
Regionally synchronous fire histories dem- 
onstrate the importance of climate in main- 
taining nonequilibrium conditions. The arti- 
cle appears in pp 885-9 of Science, Nov. 5, 

Thirteen New Titles 

From Donna O'Leary comes word of 13 
new titles, obtainable by writing to her: 
Publications Coordinator 
National Park Service 
Natural Resources Publication Office 
P.O. Box 25287 (WASO-NRPO) 
Denver, CO 80225-0287 

1 . Ecological effects of the Lawn Lake flood 
of 1982, Rocky Mountain National Park. 
Henry E. McCutchen, Raymond 
Herrmann, and David R. Stevens, editors 

2. Demography of grizzly bears in relation 
to hunting and mining development in 
northwestern Alaska. W.B. Ballard, LA. 
Ayres, D.J. Reed, S.G. Fancy, and Kate 
Faulkner. NRSM-93/23 

3. Proceedings of fourth conference on re- 
search in California's national parks 
Stephen D.Veirs, Jr., Thomas J. Stohlgren, 
Christine Schonewald-Cox, editors. 

4. Proceedings of first biennial conference 
on research in Colorado Plateau national 
parks. Peter Rowlands, Charles van Rip- 
er, III, and Mark Sogge, editors. NRTP- 

5. National Park Service paleontological re- 
search abstract volume. Vincent L. 
Santucci, editor. NRTR-93/1 1 

6. Proceedings of fourth western black bear 
workshop. Jeffrey A Keay, editor. NRTR- 

7. Proceedings of the Seventh Annual 
GRASS Users Conference, 1992. Gary 
W. Waggoner, editor. NRTR-93-13 

8. Handbook for ranking exotic plants for 
management and control. Ronald D. 
Hiebert and James Stubbendieck. NRR- 

9. Permit application guidance for new air 
pollution sources. John Bunyak. NRR- 

10.1 992 highlights of natural resources man- 
agement. Lissa Fox, editor. NRR-93/10 

1 1. The Pacific Northwest Region resource 
database project: a synthesis. R. Gerald 
Wright. NRR-93/1 1 

12. Problems and practices in backcountry 
recreation management: a survey of Na- 
tional Park Service managers. Jeffrey 
Marion, Joseph Roggenbuck, and Robert 
Manning. NRR-93-12 

13. 1992 annual science reports 

Data sorted by region and park: NRSR-93/08 
Data sorted by field of study: NRSR-93/09 

Park Science 


To the Editor: 

This is a plea: Don't Bury Resource 

In the 1970s, several parks, including Se- 
quoia/Kings Canyon and Yosemite, orga- 
nized independent resource management 
programs. Management review reports over 
the past decade, from State of the Parks 
( 1 980) to the Vail Agenda ( 1 992), have stat- 
ed an urgent need for more and better trained 
NPS natural resource managers and better 
program focus. The Natural Resource Man- 
agement Trainee Program was begun in 1983 
in reponse to the identified need to increase 
the number of professional natural resource 
managers and to upgrade the effectiveness of 
NPS resource management. 

Professional Parity - Protection/emer- 
gency services have become so complex that 
just sustaining full performance level skills 
and maintaining quality standards has be- 
come an arduous task for rangers. Rather 
than pursue a futile attempt to require rangers 
to do everything, the time has come to em- 
brace the concept of professional parity be- 
tween rangers and resource managers. 

Certainly more individuals are needed who 
possess the knowledge and who are provided 
the time to contribute significantly to re- 
source management activities. It is impera- 
tive that a corps of individuals is dedicated 
fulltime to resource management 
functions — to provide program direction, 
development, operation, and evaluation. Just 
as technical requirements for ranger profi- 

In the next issue . . . 

T Three articles on reveg: from Olym- 
pic NP (by Ed Schreiner), from Gla- 
cier NP (by Kristin Vanderbilt), and 
from Grand Teton NP (by Redente, 
Cotts and Schiller) 

"V "Ash Yellows and Defoliating In- 
sects in ZionNP"byW.A.Sinclair,etal 

T David Ek's "Notes From China" 

T "Beaver Recolonization at Indi- 
ana Dunes NL" by Eddie Childers 

*^ "How to Prepare Veg Overlays" 
(as done at Harpers Ferry) by 
Collins et al 

T "Trail Conditions and Manage- 
ment Practices in NPS" by JeffMarion 

T ...and much, much more. Al- 
though, as readers may have noticed, 
some of this is tentative. 

ciency have increased, so too has the need for 
educated, technically proficient and experi- 
enced resource managers to accomplish sci- 
entifically valid resource management. 

Scientific Credibility - High-quality data 
are important for many management deci- 
sions and are critical to support controversial 
ones. Since the park ranger series has no 
science education requirements, its ranks 
lack scientific credibility. Such credibility is 
necessary for the NPS to participate effec- 
tively in complex resource management 
conflicts — especially when dealing with re- 
source managers and scientists from other 
agencies, institutions, and private industry. 

Science information is often too technical 
for managers to interpret alone, and the man- 
agement implications may be unclear. The 
Vail Agenda stated, "Managers have little 
training and experience to learn the uses and 
needs of research outputs." Acceptance by 
management of the value of research results 
can go a long way toward promoting manag- 
er-scientist cooperation. 

Parners in Park Management - Com- 
plex social, political, environmental, and eco- 
logical considerations warrant interdiscipli- 
nary consultation. The natural resource man- 
agement component deserves Divisional sta- 
tus and presence at Divisional Chief meet- 
ings so that specific ecological implications 
of management actions can be communicat- 
ed. The separation of professional resource 
management disciplines from decision mak- 
ing is unconscionable. The integration of 
natural resource information into park man- 
agement decisions often depends on the man- 
ner in which it is communicated to park 
managers, and on the level at which such 
input occurs. It is high time to accept and 
recognize natural resource professionals as 
full partners in providing the National Park 

Service with science-based management. 
Everyone who works in a national park unit 
contributes, either directly or indirectly, to 
resource management. Rangers who are 
better educated in science will be able to 
contribute more. But program development, 
guidance, and evaluation must be provided 
by individuals educated and experienced in 
science and resource management and ded- 
icated fulltime to those tasks. 

Resource management is a science. 

Gary Vequist 
Brad Cella 
Susan Mills 
Ross Kavanagh 

NPS Alaska Regional Office 
Anchorage, AK 99503 

To the Editor: 

This letter is a response to Camp/ires and 
Firewood: A Global Perspective by Dick 
Cunningham (Fall 1993, p.32). I had a 
chance to read this paper earlier, as Chief of 
Interpretation and Education at Big Thicket 
National Preserve. Undoubtedly many would 
agree that the information presented in this 
paper is interesting and very well researched. 
I do feel, however, that a major piece of the 
deforestation equation is curiously 
missing — the growth rate of Human Popula- 

Deforestation is directly related to popula- 
tion growth. In the Worldwatch Institute 
publication Vigal Signs — J 993, some of the 
countries Mr. Cunningham mentions show 
strong population growth. Interestly, the 
growth in non-industrialized countries i s caus- 
ing a decline in their populations' wellbeing. 
Latin America is second only to Africa as the 
fastest growing population area in the world. 
Guatemala and Honduras are seeing a 3 
percent growth rate annually. 

A recommended read for those wanting a 
calmly argued historical perspective on pop- 
ulation expansion, natural resources extrac- 
tion and exhaustion, and the human out- 
come, please read A Green History of the 
World, the Environment, and the Col- 
lapse of Great Civilizations, by Clive 
Ponting, 1991. 

I f I hear " Ranger, throw another log on the 
fire," I will respond with "That reminds 
me. . . I have some facts of history I want to 
share with you. . . something we humans need 
to be frequently reminded of. . . " 


Bob Valen 

60 Candlelight Lane 
Lumber ton, TX 77656 

Winter 1994 


Regional Highlights 

Western Region 

Two recently published Technical Re- 
ports are available from NPS/CPSU at U/ 
AZ: Technical Report NPS/WRU A/NRTR- 
93/01, Case study of research, monitor- 
ing, and management programs associat- 
ed with the saguaro cactus (Carnegiea 
gigantea) at Saguaro National Monument, 
Arizona, by Joseph R. McAuliffe; and Tech- 
nical Report NPS/WRUA/NRTR-93-09, 
Review of the Air Quality Biological Ef- 
fects Research Program, Saguaro National 
Monument, Arizona, by Saguaro National 
Monument Air Quality Biological Effects 
Research Review Panel. To obtain copies 
write to NPS/CPSU/UA, 1 25 Biological Sci- 
ences East, The University of Arizona, Tuc- 
son, AZ 85721, or call 602-670-6885. 

Water Resources Division 

A revision to the NPS Floodplain Guide- 
lines was formally adopted by the National 
Park Service. The new guideline maintains 
the policy of protecting life, property, and 
natural floodplain resource values by avoid- 
ing use of floodplains whenever possible. 
The principal changes in the new guideline 
are separation of Floodplain and Wetlands 
guidance and delegation of Statement-of- 
Findings approval from the Director to the 
Regional Director. 

Additionally, the revised guideline is in- 
tended to be more concise and procedurally 
efficient than the previous guideline. 

* * A 

WRD staff traveled to Hagerman Fossil 
Beds National Monument in the Pacific 
Northwest Region to take part in a meeting of 
the Erosion Task Force. The Task Force is 
addressing the problem of continuing land- 
slides that threaten fossil beds at the Monu- 
ment. There was unanimous agreement that 
the landslides are caused by a buildup of the 
water table in perched aquifers caused by 
leakage from irrigation practices on the bench 
above the river. An article on this project will 
appear in a later issue of Park Science. 

* * A 

For a summary of programs, activity ar- 
eas, and accomplishments involving the Water 
Resources Division in 1 992, the 1 992 Annu- 
al Report of the Division is available from 
Judy Rouse, (303) 225-3502. 

Pacific Northwest Region 

The Regional headquarters have been 
moved, as of December 1993, to the follow- 
ing address: 909 First Ave., Seattle, WA 
98 1 04- 1 060; the telephone number has been 
changed to (206) 220-4798. 

"Distribution and Status of the Fisher 
(Maries pennant i) in Washington" is the 
title of an article in Northwestern Natural- 
ist (73:69-79) by Wildlife Ecologist Doug 
Houston (at Olympic NP) and Keith B. Aubry, 
USFS Pacific Northwest Research Station at 
Olympia, WA. The fisher is a marten-like 
animal almost twice the size of the marten. 

Aubry and Houston determined the cur- 
rent distribution of fishers in Washington 
using sighting and trapping records and found 
their occurrence west of the Cascade crest to 
be strongly skewed toward low to mid-eleva- 
tions. The animal still occurs in the Cascade 
Range and Olympic Mountains and in por- 
tions of the Okanogan Highlands, but appar- 
ently it is very rare. They predict that avail- 
able habitat for fishers would be enhanced by 
minimizing forest fragmentation, maintain- 
ing high forest-floor structural diversity, pre- 
serving snags and live trees with dead tops, 
and protecting swamps and other forested 

Alaska Region 

The 3rd Glacier Bay Science Symposium, 
' 'Creating Glacier Bay'sResearch Role With- 
in Park, Regional and Global Contexts—a 
Plan for Action," was held in September 
1 993 at Glacier Bay NP and Preserve (GLB A) 
headquarters in Bartlett Cove. The confer- 
ence was dedicated to the memory of Rich- 
ard Goldthwait, one of the pioneer glaciolo- 
gists to work in the bay, and was jointly 
sponsored by GLB A, Friends of Glacier Bay, 
and Northern Illinois University. 

Dr. Daniel Engstom of the U/MN chaired 
the meetings. More than 130 attended, in- 
cluding scientists, members of the local com- 
munity, and representatives from the new 
National Biological Survey (NBS). A series 
of technical sessions covered all aspects of 
research within the park — geology and glaci- 
ology, terrestrial and marine succession, and 
various species accounts, both botanical and 

Five workshops, with participation from 
all attendees, brainstormed a vision for the 
future of science at Glacier Bay. The hoped- 
for result will be an action plan to help guide 
the park's science program as the NBS is 
created and as resource issues continue to 
face the park. Symposium proceedings will 
be published in 1994. 


Larry Whalon has been selected as new 
Chief of Resources for Northwest Alaska 
parks (Cape Krusenstern National Monu- 
ment, Kobuk Valley NP, and Noatak Nation- 
al Preserve). Whalon comes from the Bu- 

reau of Land Management, where he was a 
Natural Resource Specialist/Botanist. He 
holds a master' s degree in botany (rare plants) 
from U/WY. 

Mary Beth Moss has been named new 
Chief of Resource Management for Glacier 
Bay NP and Preserve. She comes from the 
USFS's Oregon Dunes NRA, where she was 
a Resource Management Specialist. 


A panel of park and regional natural re- 
source staff, appointed by the Regional Di- 
rector, is evaluating the existing AK Region 
natural resource program and alternatives 
for its redesign. A professional outside facil- 
itator, who has worked with several natural 
resource agencies, is guiding the process. 
The panel is focused on the natural resource 
functions needed for the region, as opposed 
to narrow subject areas. The intent is to 
develop an organization that provides man- 
agement with strong science and natural re- 
source information for use in their everyday 
decision making. 

Southeast Region 

From Bob Hickman, Resource Manage- 
ment Specialist at SERO, comes a 3-page 
single-spaced listing of the research scien- 
tists and employees who are transferring 
from the SE Region of NPS to the National 
Biological Survey (NBS). The detailed list- 
ing expresses appreciation and recognition 
for their contributions to the Region and the 
heartfelt hope for a continuing close relation- 
ship with the NPS. "They have been," he 
says, "and we hope will continue to be 
'highlights' in the Southeast Region. 

Hickman's submission is evidence of thor- 
ough research into the expertise and accom- 
plishments of each of the fond-farewellers. 
Here, regrettably, we have space only to list 
their names: 

Joseph D. Clark, Stephen Cofer-Shabica, 
D. Martin Fleming, Gary Y. Hendrix, Willi- 
am F. Loftus, Stephen C Nodvin, Francis P. 
Noe, Charles R. Parker, John D. Peine, Micha- 
el B. Robblee, William B. Robertson, Jr., 
Caroline S. Rogers, Theodore R. Simons, 
James R. Snyder, Michael A. Soukup — all 
scientists. Also transferring to NBS are 
Michael Kunze, Janet Rock, Virginia Garri- 
son, Ellen Gorman, Linda Grober, Holly 
Belles, and Marlena Hovorka. All will be 
missed and are wished well. 


A recently published report from the Re- 
gion is B. R. Johnson's Mitigation of Visi- 
tor Impacts on High Montane Rare Plant 
Habitat: An integrated strategy of design, 


Park Science 

Regional Highlights 

interpretation, and restoration at Craggy Gar- 
dens, Blue Ridge Parkway. NPS/SERBLRI/ 

S. P. Bratton and S. Miller have had ac- 
cepted for publication a report on Historic 
Field Systems and the Structure of Mar- 
itime Oak Forests, Cumberland Island 
National Seashore, GA. 

Mid-Atlantic Region 

For several years, Shenandoah NP has 
undertaken to control exotic brown trout 
populations in four park streams. More than 
two decades ago, exotic brown trout were 
introduced into the lower reaches of these 
streams outside the park boundary. Under an 
agreement with the VA Dept. of Game and 
Inland Fisheries (DGIF), the stocking of non- 
native trout in waters continuous with park 
waters was discontinued in 1985. Theprima- 
ry method of control is intensive 
electroshocking of known brown trout habi- 
tat in the park, and removal of browns during 
low water periods in late summer. 

Despite five years of intensive efforts, 
significant populations persist; their range 
continues to expand upstream. In 1993, 
several hybrid brown/brook trout (tiger trout) 
were captured, indicating a new threat to the 
genetic purity of the native trout populations 
of isolated park streams. 


A recovery plan for the Shenandoah 
salamander is in the final stages of develop- 
ment. No substantial change in park manage- 
ment appears to be required in order to 
implement this plan. The recovery strategy 
will be to protect the habitat from human 
disturbance. Some minor restrictions con- 
cerning trail maintenance and fireline con- 
struction may be necessary. 

* * * 

Shenandoah NP's Natural Resources and 
Science Chief David Haskell attended the 
final 1933 meeting of Virginia State Science 
Advisory Board for Air Pollution. Final 
reports from the committees on Adverse 
Impacts, Pollution Prevention, and Risk As- 
sessment were presented and discussed. Also 
discussed were progress of the park's Air 
Quality Management Plan and the NPS East- 
ern Region's Air Quality Plan. 

* * * 

Concerns about excessive white-tailed deer 
populations in Shenandoah NP's eastern park 
units continue to be studied. Park resource 
management staff have been involved in a 
cooperative effort with the Virginia DGIF to 
assess deer health throughout the state. Anal- 
ysis of parasites and fat storage from six park 

deer indicated the deer were in good health 
this summer, despite observations that deer 
habitat condition has been degrading for the 
past decade. 

The reason for the good current health of 
these sample deer seems to be the recent 
increase in understory vegetation in response 
to gypsy moth-induced tree mortality. This 
sudden increase in forage may be improving 
deer health and thus increasing birth rates 
and the deer population in general . Concerns 
are that widespread tree mortality in the park 
could lead to a deer population explosion. 


Colonial National Historical Park, work- 
ing with VA Institute of Marine Science, has 
begun a parkwide urban groundwater impact 
study. Wells have been installed at 2 1 loca- 
tions and first quarter samples are being 
analyzed. Quarterly sampling will include 
inorganics and organics over a 1 -year period. 
Final results and available data will be ana- 
lyzed and recommendations made for long- 
term monitoring and management. 

Under a challenge cost share cooperative 
agreement with NC/State/U, the park is de- 
veloping automated GIS applications deal- 
ing with wildfire analysis and planning, and 
wildlife observations. Also, fire manage- 
ment unit values-at-risk maps are being final- 
ized using the GIS and integrating cultural, 
natural, and infrastructure information. 
The park has contracted with the VA Divi- 
sion ofNatural Heritage to prepare a detailed 
monitoring plan for the different natural her- 
itage occurrences and habitats identified in a 
recent survey. This will include both state 
and federally listed species. 


MicheleBatchellerofPA/State/U has been 
hired as the wildlife biologist responsible for 
researching and developing the DEIS for 
white-tailed deer management at Gettysburg 
National Military Park/Eisenhower National 
Historic Site. Four chapters already are 

Gettysburg NMP/Eisenhower NHS has 
begun to inventory all its fauna. The research 
is being conducted by PA/State/U students 
Greg Keller, Ian Harrell, and Ron Rohrback 
under direction of Dr. Richard Yahner, wild- 
life management professor. Historical fauna 
research reports, park maps, and wildlife 
observation records have been investigated 
and field work began in Spring 1993. The 
study is expected to take several years. Al- 
though no state or federal rare, threatened, or 
endangered fauna species have been discov- 
ered within the parks, some species not pre- 
viously known to occur here have been doc- 

Piping Plover 

Protection Wins 

Cape Cod NS 



Cape Cod National Seashore recently 
gained international recognition for out- 
standing efforts to protect piping plo- 
vers, a federally listed species under the 
Endangered Species Act (ESA). In Sep- 
tember 1993, the Western Hemisphere 
Shorebird Reserve Network ( WHSRN) 
named Cape Cod NS to its Piping Plover 
Registry, making Cape Cod one of 13 
sites in the U.S. and Canada approved as 
part of the Network. 

The piping plover is a small shorebird 
that nests and feeds along sandy beach- 
es. It has suffered greatly from in- 
creased development and recreational 
use of beaches on the Atlantic Coast) 
since World War II, and habitat loss in 
the Northern Great Plains and Great 
Lakes regions. Despite its listing under 
the U.S. ESA in 1986, the bird has not 
shown strong signs of recovery. A 1991 
survey by the USFWS Piping Plover 
Recovery Team came up with only 5,482 
adult birds in an exhaustive search of 10 

The WHSRN initiated the Piping Plo- 
ver Registry to highlight the critically 
important roles played by individuals, 
public agencies, and non-profit groups 
who work to protect this bird. The 
Registry also will help facilitate infor- 
mation exchanges among sites working 
to improve conservation efforts. 

Cape Cod NS has registered success 
in protecting piping plovers on the Sea- 
shore ' s beaches by working to minimize 
disturbance of nesting birds, conducting 
public education programs, and fencing 
nests from predators. Nesting success is 
closely monitored. 

Winter 1994 


Beyond the Mission: 

'"f he mission of the National Park Service, 
I as stated by the 1916 Organic Act, has 
J been the focal point of debate and discus- 
sion both within the NPS and by agency 
supporters and critics for several decades. 
The list of reports and commentary that have 
been prepared over the past thirty years in 
particular, repeatedly refer to the "dual mis- 
sion of the NPS ' ' . Discussions have even 
referred to the Organic Act as being impossi- 
bly schizophrenic, a statement of mission 
that requires the agency to pursue two dia- 
metrically opposing goals; To protect park 
resources, and to provide for public enjoy- 
ment. The most recent public mention of this 
duality of mission can be found in the open- 
ing paragraph of the National Research Coun- 
cil Report, Science in the National Parks 
where the dual mission is referred to as "a 
losing battle ' ' . One would think that if a crest 
was designed for the agency the central fea- 
ture would be a two headed eagle, a bird that 
sees all but can never get off the ground. 

Presenting the NPS mission in a seeming- 
ly new, different, or novel light has been the 
hallmark of several NPS Directors since the 
stalwart leadership style of George Hartzog 
brought the agency the "Parks for People" 
program. We even momentarily set aside the 
NPS arrowhead in favor of the Parkscape 
triangle tie tac and the beloved buffalo gave 
way to the design of the century, the "You're 
in good hands with the NPS" badge. Many 
remember the day when the NPS badge was 
stripped away from all employees except 
those with law enforcement authority. We 
have had some interesting times, all in the 
name of clarifying the NPS mission. 

Perhaps the most intensive mission analy- 
sis since the drafting of the Organic Act took 
place during the National Park Service 75th 
Anniversary Conference held in Vail Colo- 
rado, now known affectionately as the Vail 
Conference. The report that grew out of this 
landmark event, "National Parks for the 2 1 st 
Century" (The Vail Agenda), brought an 
intense focus on professionalizing the NPS 
workforce. There was a particularly strong 
focus on improving the agency's capability 
to provide a science based resource manage- 
ment program. The message from and to the 
attendees was clear. In his closing remarks 
Director Ridenour emphatically stated that 
the very resources for which the parks were 
created were at serious risk and that we could 
no longer allow this to continue. In his words 
he stated that from now on, if we are to err, we 
are to err on the side of the resource. The 
order was clear, we were to protect the re- 
sources at all cost. 


An Essay 



By David A. Haskell 

From the Organic Act of 1916 to the 
Leopold Report in 1963, and on to the NRC 
report on Science in the National Parks in 
1992, there is general agreement that re- 
source stewardship is the NPS mission. Pas- 
sive protection can no longer be counted on 
to assure the continuation of resource integ- 
rity in this rapidly changing world. 

We can finally put our minds at ease, the 
dual mission has been reduced to a single 
mission, resource stewardship, the eagle with 
the single head can now fly. These recent 
events have put the minds of many NPS 
employees at ease, or have they? Is this a 
complete picture or is something still missing 
here? What about the last word of the agency 
title, the National Park Service? What about 
the fact that the NPS is an agency funded by 
tax dollars in a democratic society where the 
government is expected to serve the needs of 
the public? In a manner of thinking, the 
American people created the parks for their 
use and enjoyment. Many fallen govern- 
ments have failed to recognize the stark 
reality that what the people giveth, the people 
can taketh away. Governments that are not 
responsive to the people are eventually re- 
placed. It is easy to lose sight of the fact that 
the existence of each national park is only 
one piece of legislation away from being 
voted out of existence! Does this realization 
change the mission? I think not, but it should 
cause us to look beyond the mission and ask 
ourselves the big question; WHY? 

There must be something to consider be- 
yond the mission of the National Park Ser- 
vice. We must have not only have a mis- 
sion, there must be a purpose. When we 
think of what the NPS is all about, it may be 
easier to think in terms of both mission and 
purpose. The mission is what we do, the 
purpose is why we do it. In war, the mission 
is to win the battle, to win the war, but the 
purpose is to bring about peace. The battles 
are the action. Some of the action is not 
pleasant but it has to be done. Peace is the 
human value that is derived from all of the 
effort and sacrifice. What is achieved is 
cherished because it has a cost and a great 
value. In a way this is analogous to the 
preservation of the natural and cultural heri- 
tage of our people. 

In the mission and purpose paradigm, the 
NPS mission is to preserve the natural condi- 
tion of the national parks, the cultural re- 
sources and values of the historic, military, 
and cultural parks, and the recreational val- 
ues of the national seashores, lakeshores, 
rivers, and recreation areas. In most cases, 
the values to be protected are identified in the 
enabling legislation for each unit. The pur- 
pose for doing so may not be quite so self- 
evident. Understanding the purpose is not 
just a philosophical exercise; it is essential to 
maintaining a focus on how we manage 
national parks. It order to stay on track in the 
complex world of today and into the near 
future, we have continually to ask ourselves, 
WHY ? Answering the why question often 
produces the most useful rationale for mak- 
ing difficult management decisions. Let's 
examine the purpose behind the mission. 

In the simplest general terms, WHY we 
engage in the NPS mission is that the Nation- 
al Park Service is a public service agency of 
the U.S. Government. The Congress has 
stated via several pieces of legislation that 
they want the parks to be aggressively man- 
aged so that the resources are protected from 
significant damage. This enlightened public 
perspective was most eloquently stated in the 
1970 Administration of the National Park 
Service Act ( 1 6 USC la- 1 - 1 c), "These areas, 
though distinct in character, are united through 
their inter-related purposes and resources 
into one National Park System as cumulative 
expressions of a single national 
heritage. . . Individually and collectively, these 
areas derive increased national dignity and 
recognition of their superb environmental 
quality through their inclusion jointly in one 
national park system preserved and managed 
for the benefit and inspiration of all the 
people of the United States". This message 
was again reaffirmed with similar language 
in the 1978 Redwoods Act (16 USC la-1). 
This wording describes the public value to be 
achieved in managing the National Park Sys- 
tem. It speaks well to the WHY question, it 
helps to define the PURPOSE, at least from 
the legislative perspective. 

Early American philosophers and students 
of the natural world such as Henry Thoreau 
and John Muir expressed the more passion- 
ate view that some of the natural world, as 
created by a force greater than ourselves, 
must be maintained in pristine condition. In 
these places humans would have a place to go 
where the mind and soul would not be bom- 
barded with the sights and sounds of human 
activity. These would be places where the 
forces of nature reign supreme, and as mor- 
tals we must acknowledge our place in an 
order that is not dominated by man. When 

Park Science 

the crazy world spins out ofbalance these are 
the places where we go to keep things in 
perspective. There are many people among 
us today who believe this to be an important 
part of the WHY question. 

Perhaps a more mainstream public per- 
spective that contributes to our understand- 
ing of the NPS PURPOSE is the realization 
and appreciation that preserving the variety 
of natural American landscapes, complete 
with their full complement of flora and fauna 
(the ecosystem) is important to maintaining 
our sense of national identity. Superimposed 
upon these landscapes is the story of the 
founding and growth of our nation that is 
being preserved as national historic parks, 
cultural parks, battlefields, and other sites 
that provide the window into our past. In the 
management of most units of the national 
park system it is impossible to separate the 
human history from the natural history. The 
relationship of the land to the American 
identity has been most profoundly exempli- 
fied by the culture and beliefs of the native 
Americans, who have perhaps, more than 
any other segment of the public, mourned the 
loss of the native American landscape. The 
national parks and federal Wilderness Areas 

will soon be all that remains of America not 
dominated by the works of human beings. 
They will indeed be not only the last of the 
great places, they will be the only great 
places. This is WHY their integrity can not be 

Unfortunately not all segments of the pub- 
lic feel strongly about these values. A com- 
mon trait among people of all nations is to be 
most concerned about today. Somebody else 
can plan for tomorrow. In democratic societ- 
ies the people tend to delegate planning for 
tomorrow to their elected governments. In 
the early days of American democracy the 
first governments were charged with looking 
after the general public good. Government 
remains today as the constitutionally desig- 
nated representative of the people, and thus 
must assume a great measure of responsibil- 
ity for the future of the people. Imperfect as 
we may find government at times, there is no 
other group on the horizon that even seeks to 
fulfill that awesome responsibility. There is, 
therefore, no more fundamental purpose for 
the National Park Service, as a government 
agency, then to assume responsibility for the 
long-term preservation of the natural and 
cultural heritage of the nation. 

These several facets of the NPS PUR- 
POSE provide the strongest rationale for not 
allowing short-term public interests to com- 
promise the effective long-term management 
and preservation of the parks. When faced 
with difficult mission-related decisions that 
pit the short-term interests and demands of 
certain segments of the public against the 
long-term stewardship mission of the agen- 
cy, it may be more fruitful to present a defense 
based on PURPOSE rather than relying sole- 
ly on a statement of mission. Even in the 
absence of Congressional or special interest 
public pressure it may often be less troubling 
for park managers to ask the WHY question 
that will reveal the PURPOSE which will be 
served. The view that is provided when 
mission is seen in conflict with purpose tends 
to give us a cross-eyed vision of our task. The 
use of mission and purpose together, in a 
focused way, could conceivably provide us 
with a new, stereopticon picture- — one that 
would cast positive 1 ight from both directions 
and more clearly show us the way to good 
management decisions. 

Haskell is the Natural Resources and Science 
Chief for Shenandoah NP. 

Haskell Explores NPS "Commitment" in 

"Is the NPS Ready for Science?" is the 
question asked by David Haskell in a provoc- 
ative essay appearing this month in the George 
Wright Society's FORUM. Haskell cites the 
shelved reports so ably discussed by Jonathan 
Jarvis in the Summer 1993 issue of Park 
Science (Vol. 13, No. 3, pp 6,7, and 10), and 
proposes one way to effect a change in the 
NPS science and stewardship paradigm. 

Despite the plethora of reports and recom- 
mendations, Haskell states, the will to change 
has been notably lacking to date. He hails the 
recent line-up of favorable aspects for sup- 
porting ecologically and scientifically sound 
park stewardship, terming it "an astrological 

window," and adds: "This may be the only 
time in the history of NPS that the Service 
itself is the only obstacle to accomplishing 
this shift." 

Haskell describes "the worries of a lot of 
park managers" at the transfer of all the 
biological science research personnel sta- 
tioned in parks, CPSUs and central offices to 
the National Biological Survey. He muses on 
the fact that these Research Grade Evaluation 
(RGE) personnel have been relied on heavily 
by superintendents, because the resource man- 
agement specialists ("although many of them 
are skilled and dedicated") are spread so thin 
that "they rarely have the time to address the 

Roger G. Kennedy, Director 

Eugene Hester, Associate Director for Natural Resources, 

National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior 

Editorial Board 

Gary E. Davis, Marine Research Scientist, Channel Islands NP 

John Dennis, Biologist, Washington Office 

James W. Larson, Editorial Board Chair and Chief Scientist, Pacific NW Region 

Harvey Fleet, Chief, Digital Cartography, GIS Division, Denver, CO 
Harold Smith, Superintendent, Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument, Ajo, AZ 

Jean Matthews, Editor, 4 1 50-A SW Fairhaven Dr., Corvallis, OR 97333 

(503)754-0263 or (503) 758-8503 

Park Service FAX (503) 737-2668, c/o Forest Resources 


FORUM Essay 

larger strategic resource management needs 
of the parks." In addition, they can aspire to 
no more than a GS-1 1 grade and "very little 
training and career development has been 
offered to enhance the basic skills they have 
brought to the job." 

The question now, Haskell says, is 
why — considering the repeated recommen- 
dations of past review commissions — the 
Service didn't start decades ago the process 
of building a scientifically credible resource 
management program carried out by park 
biologists and other "applied scientists." He 
cites "substantial institutional inertia (euphe- 
mistically termed 'tradition')" as perhaps the 
major obstacle to any meaningful change in 
the fundamental management strategy. 

Haskell first asks "Is the NPS ready to 
adopt a resource stewardship paradigm based 
on science, that looks to the future and insures 
the ecological integrity of the parks?" and 
then presents some of the key recommenda- 
tions that have been made to date — care-fully 
arranged as "stepstones" to the preferred new 

The essay in its entirety appears in the 
GWS's FORUM, Vol. 10, No. 4, due out in 
December/January . 

Winter 1994 


Crater Lake continued from page 1 

An ecosystem approach was used to de- 
velop the program. Conceptual models of 
the lake ecosystem were developed and used 
to guide research and analyses. Studies 
included quantity and chemistry of precipita- 
tion, lake level fluctuations, solar radiation, 
chemistry of intra-caldera springs, lake clar- 
ity, lake color, lake chemistry, particle flux, 
chlorophyll, primary production, phytoplank- 
ton, zooplankton, bottom fauna and flora, 
and fish. An extensive data base was assem- 
bled for each aspect of the study. 

A Study in Complexity 

Crater Lake was found to be a complex, 
dynamic, and oligotrophic (nutrient-poor) 
system. The volume of the lake responded 
quickly to changes in precipitation because 
the basin has no surface outlet. Water leaves 
the lake through seepage and evaporation. 
Although the lake level normally fluctuates 
about 0.5m annually, the lake surface dropped 
about 3 m in elevation between 1984 and 
1992. The lake was relatively high in dis- 
solved salts, total alkalinity, and conductivi- 
ty; pH ranged between 7 and 8. Hydrother- 
mal fluids from the lake bottom contributed 
to the relatively high salt content of the lake. 
Phosphorus and nitrate were low in concen- 
tration, although the concentration of the 
latter increased substantially below a depth 
of 200 m. On an annual basis, atmospheric 
bulk deposition accounted for about 90 per- 
cent of the nitrogen and 30 percent of the 
phosphorus input to the lake. Recycling of 
nutrients was important to the internal nutri- 
ent budget of the lake. 

Wind-driven circulation mixed the lake in 
winter and spring to a depth of about 200 m. 
Some deep-water mixing was indicated by 
high concentrations of dissolved oxygen at 
the lake bottom. The lake was thermally 
stratified in summer and fall. The interface 
between the warmed surface waters and the 
cold waters of the deep lake was at a depth of 
about 80 m. 

Secchi disk clarity was in the high-20-m to 
mid-30-m range. The depth of 1 percent of 
the incident surface light generally was be- 
tween 80 and 100 m. Seasonal changes in 
Secchi disk readings and the depth of 1 
percent incident light were observed. In 
summer, a layer of near-surface turbidity was 
associated with changes in Secchi disk clar- 
ity. Lake color measurements indicated that 
the near-surface water was very blue. 

Wide Ranging Water Chemistry 

Water chemistry of the caldera inlet springs 
exhibited a wide range of chemical concen- 
trations and total ionic compositions over 
short distances around the lake's perimeter. 
Calcium, magnesium, and sodium were the 

Crater Lake from the west rim, looking east to Mt. Scott with Phantom Ship at lower right 


major cations; bicarbonate was the major 
anion. Contribution of nitrates to the lake 
from the springs was studied specifically 
because of concerns about a sewage drain 
field for visitor facilities located just outside 
the caldera wall. One spring located on the 
caldera wall near the drain field system ex- 
hibited relatively high nitrate concentrations 
but contributed less than 1 percent of the total 
annual input of new nitrate into the lake. 
Although an analysis of the water chemistry 
of the spring could not confirm the source of 
the nitrates, the drain field was removed in 
1991 as a precautionary measure. 

Chlorophyll, phytoplankton, and zooplank- 
ton were distributed uniformly in winter and 
spring from the lake surface to the depth of 
mixing (maximum depth about 200 m), and 
maximum primary production occurred be- 
tween 40 and 60 m. A deep-water chloro- 
phyll maximum developed between 100 and 
140 in summer and fall, and maximum pri- 
mary production typically occurred between 
40 and 80 m. About 96 percent of total 
primary production was associated with nu- 
trients recycled in the euphotic zone. A 
sparse but complex phytoplankton commu- 
nity partitioned the water column to a depth 
of 200 m. A high density of phytoplankton 
typically developed in the warm near-surface 
waters. Cyclic seasonal and annual changes 
in chlorophyll, primary production, and phy- 
toplankton density were observed. Periods 
of upwelling of nutrient-rich waters from the 
deep lake were thought to influence lake 

In summer and fall the zooplankton com- 
munity, which was comprised of 8 rotifer 
species and 2 species of crustaceans, parti- 
tioned the water column to a depth of 200 in. 
Zooplanton abundance in the upper 20 m of 
the water column was very low. Highest 
densities of zooplankton were located in the 

depth interval of 80 to 1 80 m. Closely related 
or competing species were found in different 
portions of the water column. The largest 
crustacean species was cyclic in abundance, 
and its abundance was related to lake produc- 
tivity and fish predation. When it was abun- 
dant, rotifer abundances declined, and chang- 
es in the distribution of the other crustacean 
species were observed. 

Trout and Salmon Persist 

Two species of fish, rainbow trout and 
kokanee salmon, still persist in the lake. Both 
species were stocked many years a^o, con- 
tinued to reproduce in the lake, and had long- 
term effects on the lake system. Kokanee 
salmon mostly were pelagic and fed primari- 
ly on crustacean zooplankton and small- 
bodied bottom fauna. Abundance of ko- 
kanee was cyclic owing to the numerical 
dominance of one year class. Rainbow trout 
were found along the littoral zone of the lake 
and fed on terrestrial insects at the lake 
surface, large-bodied bottom fauna, and ko- 

Benthic macroinvertebrate richness was 
moderate in Crater Lake and comparable to 
the richness found in other large, cold, olig- 
otrophic lakes in the northern hemisphere. 
Densities of epibenthic macroinvertebrates 
on rocky substrates in the littoral zone were 
relatively high. Most taxa in the littoral zone 
were types common to streams and nvers in 
montane areas of western North America. 
Snails were common to a depth of 100 m. 
Oligocheata worms and chironomid midges 
were common in the deep lake. 

A new species of aquatic mite, 
Algophagopsis sp., was found in the lake. 
Crater Lake remains the only known locale 
for this species. The mite was abundant on 
rock surfaces in association with aquatic 
Continued on page 29 


Park Science 

Water Quality Litigation: An Update From the Everglades 

By Michael Soukup 

Nutrient enrichment of the Everglades by 
the Everglades Agricultural Area(EAA) had 
been reported by scientists since the 1970s. 
In 1988, the acting U.S. Attorney in Miami 
filed suit against the State on behalf of Ever- 
glades NP and Loxahatchee National Wild- 
life Refuge to compel enforcement of State 
water quality law. The Settlement Agree- 
nent reached between the State and Federal 
governments in 1 99 1 obligated the State to 
construct wetlands in the EAA and to force 
he primarily sugar cane growers to reduce 
he phosphorus in their runoff by 25 percent. 

When the State sought to effect this Agree- 
nent through implementation of a Surface 
Water Improvement and Management 
;SWIM) Plan (under the State SWIM Act), 
he agriculture industry filed more than 30 
egal and administrative suits to block imple- 
nentation. After six months of intensive 
preparation for trials set to begin in mid- 
1993, all parties agreed to enter into media- 
ion. Mediation began in January 1 993 and is 
still in progress. 

The process began on two levels: Policy 
and Technical. Technical representatives 
from all parties met for several months to 
lammer out a consensus plan; the Technical 
Mediation Group went further than the S WI M 

Crater Lake continued from page 28 

ichen and Nosloc in the main lake, on fila- 
nentous algae in Emerald pool located on 
Wizard Island, and on the deep-water moss, 
Drepanocladus aduncus, with the deepest 
collection from I 18 m. 

Beds ofmacrophytes were found on some 
jf the sand-gravel benches around the perim- 
:ter of the lake. Drepanocladus aduncus 
ivas present in dense beds in the lake in the 
iepth interval of 30 to 120 m. Several species 
)f diatoms were associated with the moss. 
3 eriphyton was collected from many sites 
iround the lake margin, as well as from 
iepths of 120 m or more. 

Comparisons of limnological data collect- 
ed prior to the study with data collected 
hiring the study did not reveal any major 
ong-term changes in the near-surface water 
quality of the lake. Hydrothermal inputs 
were responsible for the stable concentra- 
ions of dissolved salts through time. The 
uialysis of Secchi disk records collected 
jetween two time intervals, 1913-1969 and 
1978- 1 99 1 , suggested that the data sets were 
fairly comparable. However, this finding 
was insufficient to dismiss summarily the 
possibility of subtle long-term change to the 
ake. Changes in nutrient input from the 

Plan in attacking the water quality issue, 
including greater protection for the 
Miccosukee Tribal Lands and Lake 
Okeechobee, and added additional construct- 
ed wetland treatment capacity for Lake 
Okeechobee and C-51 (a suburban basin) 
water as a first step in restoring Everglades 
hydroperiods to pre-drainage levels. The 
new plan costs roughly $465 million in to- 
day's dollars (of which roughly $200 million 
covers the hydroperiod benefits.) 

The Policy level group, with direct 
imvolvement of DOI Asst. Secretaries 
Frampton and Cohen, reached a financial 
agreement in July. The industry would pay 
$233 million over 20 years while increasing 
their on-farm reductions of phosphorus run- 
off gradually to 45 percent (or pay up to $322 
million). This led to an announcement by 
DOI Secretary Babbitt and the other poten- 
tial signatories of a Statement of Principles 
on July 13,1993. 

The Statement was not well received by 
environmentalists, largely due to a percep- 
tion that the sugar industry was not paying its 
fair share, (their payments were not indexed 
for inflation, etc.), and some public lands in 
the EAA were to be used for cleaning Lake 
Okeechobee waters. 

atmosphere and potential local sources of 
nutrients may have some long-term roles lo 
play in the productivity and clarity of Crater 

Variability Factors Elusive 

It remained difficult to separate the natural 
variability of the Secchi disk readings from 
any changes that may have resulted from 
human-related activities. Disk readings in 
the range of 39-40 m, which were recorded in 
August of 1 937 and 1 969, were not repeated 
in readings taken in August from 1 978 through 
1991. However, readings of 37 and 39 m 
were recorded in July of 1985 and June of 
1 988, respectively. The absence of extreme- 
ly deep Secchi disk readings during this study 
may have been a sign of change, but a 33.5 m 
reading in August 1954, the only bona-fide 
August Secchi disk reading between 1937 
and the late 1 960s, illustrated the problem of 
separating the natural dynamics of lake clar- 
ity from any long-term decreases in clarity. 

In general, the Crater Lake ecosystem was 
extremely reponsive and sensitive to envi- 
ronmental change and was judged to be 
pristine, except for the consequences offish 
introductions. The study documented many 
of the components and processes important 

Since July, intense negotiations have at- 
tempted to produce a detailed agreement that 
includes some accommodation of the envi- 
ronmental position plus all the difficult is- 
sues not addressed in the broad Statement of 
Principles. Negotiations have been difficult, 
partly because the agriculture industry re- 
mains unwilling to admit in the agreement 
that there is a problem or that they are the 
cause. This posture preserves their rights to 
challenge the agreement if additional clean- 
up expense is necessary. 

A good probability exists that a Phase II 
effort will be necessary to get down to thresh- 
old levels for phosphorus when such levels 
are experimentally determined. The exact 
level of phosphorus necessary to maintain 
the Everglades as it originally evolved, and 
the effectiveness of the proposed construct- 
ed wetlands, are important areas of research 
during the first 10 years of any eventual 

The construction and operation of over 
40,000 acres of wetland for low level phos- 
phorus removal never before has been at- 
tempted. As with all Everglades projects, the 
problems and their solutions are grand in 
scale, and the potential reward for restoring 
and preserving the system is equally so. 

Soukup is Director of (he NPS/CPSU at FL 
International Univ. 

to lake clarity and the lake system as a whole. 
Knowledge of the relative importance of 
these components and processes was high in 
many instances, although the level of knowl- 
edge of any one of the complex features 
tended to be low to moderate. 

The study also identified many questions 
needing further study. Long-term change 
could not be fully evaluated because very 
little historical data were available to com- 
pare with the detailed data base assembled 
during this study. The situation underscored 
the need for a long-term monitoring program 
to evaluate future change against the bench- 
mark set in the 10-year study. Global climate 
change, air pollution, on-site auto and boat 
use, and non-native fish present the greatest 
potential human-related threats to the pris- 
tine nature of Crater Lake. 

Additional studies would refine knowl- 
edge of the components and dynamic pro- 
cesses of the lake system as well as help to 
separate changing lake conditions caused by 
natural phenomena from those caused by 
human-related activites. 

Larson isan Aquatic Ideologist with the Nation- 
al Biological Survey, stationed at the Oregon 
State University NPS/CPSU. 

Winter 1994 


MAB Notes 

A recent assessment of U.S. biosphere 
reserve regional programs by Sarah Bishop 
of Partners for Parks gives a good picture of 
how the biosphere reserve concept is faring. 
In general, most of the programs are showing 
results and appear to be growing, as partici- 
pants gradually learn how to work together 
for mutual benefit and the regional good. As 
might be expected, however, the degrees of 
success vary widely. 

The oldest regional program, that of the 
Southern Appalachian Man and the Bio- 
sphere Cooperative (SAMAB), which in- 
cludes Great Smoky Mountains NP, proba- 
bly has advanced the farthest. With about 10 
federal, state, and private partners, and the 
SAMAB Foundation for fund-raising, the 
Cooperative has published a strategic plan- 
ning process for tourist-based communities, 
acts as a regional clearinghouse for informa- 
tion on environmental education programs, 
and conducts many other research and edu- 
cation activities. 

SAMAB enjoys the growing confidence 
of the public and increasing cooperation 
among members. "Tensions and suspicions 
have faded as SAMAB members learn more 
about one another's agencies and their mis- 
sions and goals," according to Bishop. She 
finds the major problem to be a reluctance of 
regional and national agency administrators 
to support SAMAB efforts — support that is 
needed to supplement the thus-far modest 
fund-raising by the SAMAB Foundation. 

The Mammoth Cave Area Biosphere 
Reserve in Kentucky consists of Mammoth 
Cave NP (core) and the groundwater re- 
charge area that surrounds it (zone of coop- 
eration). The Mammoth Cave Area BR 
Cooperative coordinates the BR program. It 
was established as an adjunct to the Natural 
Resources Planning Council of the Barren 
River Area Development District (BRADD). 
BRADD serves as the biosphere reserve 
secretariat. The basic issue is achieving 
sustainable development within the zone of 
cooperation that improves the economic and 
cultural well-being of local people while 
protecting core area values — especially the 
quality of groundwater, which is critical for 
cave biota. 

Measures to achieve these goals are pro- 
gressing, thanks to the nurturing of local 
trust. "Public acceptance was due in part to 
the early efforts of the park and BRADD to 
focus the BR program on meeting the needs 
of the surrounding community... and then 
assess the benefits to the park. . . In a region 
where the federal presence is viewed with 
suspicion [the park superintendent] has as- 

sumed the role of one who is willing to help 
solve the problems of others as the route to 
protecting park values." 

The Sonoran Desert Biosphere Reserve 
in Arizona presently consists only of Organ 
Pipe Cactus National Monument, but the 
possibilities for a regional MAB program, 
including adj acent parts ofMexico, are grow- 
ing. Concerns about the drawdown of ground- 
water for agricultural development in Mexi- 
co, the effects of changing U.S. -Mexico trade 
relationships, maintaining the traditional dry- 
land farming and ranching practices of indig- 
enous people, and other issues are drawing 
people on both sides of the border together. 

Two developments in 1993 have boosted 
the process. The Sonoran Desert Alliance, 
with a board of directors consisting of four 
residents each from Mexico, the Tohono 
O'odham tribe, and the U.S., was formed to 
promote cooperation in improving the eco- 
nomic, cultural, and environmental health of 
the region. Mexico has established a large 
biosphere reserve with three core areas in 
northwest Sonora. Carlos Nagel, President 
of Friends of ProNatura, and Superintendent 
Harold Smith and the staff of Organ Pipe 
Cactus NM have played large roles in the 
ongoing development of the Sonoran Desert 

Many U.S. BRs were established as parts 
of clusters of areas that had differing mis- 
sions. A need now with many of these BR 
clusters is to develop more coordination and 
cooperation among the member units. The 
Glacier Area biosphere reserves — Glacier 
NP, Coram Experimental Forest, and 
Waterton Lakes NP in Alberta — have sepa- 
rately developed BR programs that strength- 
en their relationship with adjoining land 
owners, but a regional BR program linking 
all three is not presently on the horizon. 

Glacier NP has become involved in the 
Flathead Basin Commission to address re- 
gional water quality issues, and Waterton 
Lakes NP continues its modestly-funded BR 
program with its Alberta neighbors. Similar- 
ly, the Chihuahuan Desert biosphere re- 
serves mostly go their own ways. Big Bend 
NP emphasizes research on sustainable con- 
servation; the Jornado Experimental Range 
in southern New Mexico conducts range 
research; the Mapimi BR in northern Mexico 
focuses on studies of ecologically sustain- 
able ways local people can use their desert 
environment more productively. 

The Chihuahuan Desert Biosphere Tech- 
nical Group, an informal consortium of sci- 
entists, educators, public lands managers, 
and interested private land owners, hopes to 

gain international support for the formation 
of a regional BR in the Chihuahuan Desert 
that will include the three existing BRs as 
well as other federal, state, and private enti- 
ties. The Central California Coast BR 
with its 1 3 member units, makes a greater 
effort at cooperative action, but not surpris- 
ingly encounters caution when an agency is 
asked to view its role more broadly than its 
basic mission. The CCCBR has been most 
successful with its research and education 
projects. Shared management concerns have 
been more difficult to identify and address. 

The Virgin Islands Biosphere Reserve 
presently consists only of Virgin Islands NP. 
It "has conducted a remarkable research, 
monitoring, and resource management train- 
ing program that will contribute most signif- 
icantly to a broader based BR program when 
it is put in place. ' ' The challenge here is to 
bring other entities besides the park into the 
program and focus it more on ecologically 
sound economic development. 

Perhaps the most unwieldy BR assessed 
by Bishop is the Champlain-Adirondack 
Biosphere Reserve. Development of this 
3,990,000-ha BR is currently stalled, largely 
because of political and cultural differences 
between Vermont and New York, and con- 
cern of many Adirondack residents about 
infringement on property rights. Meanwhile, 
some BR goals are being addressed through 
the federal ly supported Lake Champlain Basin 
Program, which deals mainly with water 
quality issues. 

The greatest need among U.S. biosphere 
reserve programs, as Bishop (and her infor- 
mants) see it, is for workable administrative 
structures and increased funding for admin- 
istration and projects. Her reports were to be 
used as background for developing a BR 
action plan at the U.S. Biosphere Reserve 
Action Plan Workshop in December 1993. 

Napier Shelton 

NPS Washington Office 


Park Science 

High Tech Meets Old Bones: 
Accurate Location of Fossil 

\ dilemma paleontologists and archaeolo- 
* I gists have long faced is how to identify 
i-l accurately but discretely a site's location. 
Die staff at Hagerman Fossil Beds National 
Monument has found a high tech answer. 

Hagerman Fossil Beds NM is located in 
south-central Idaho on the bluffs of the Snake 
River west of the town of Hagerman. These 
500 foot bluffs, composed of the Glenns 
Ferry Formation sedi- 
nents, produce a wide va- 
•iety of fossils (over 100 
species including verte- 
orates, invertebrates and 
slants) of Pliocene age. 
Hie sediments within the 
nonument represent a 
Floodplain environment 
;omposed of river chan- 
lel sands, overbank clays 
md silts, highly organic 
sond deposits, volcanic 
ishes and basalt flows, 
rhese sediments are easi- 
ly eroded and contain lo- 
ialized concentrations of 
small vertebrate fossils, as 
well as sites with larger 
nammal remains. 

Although this area has 
seen known throughout the world as rich in 
fossils since its scientific discovery in 1929, 
it did not receive status as a National Monu- 
ment until 1988. From 1929-1988 several 
academic institutions collected fossils on 
what is now the Monument. Today we know 
of over 300 recorded fossil localities identi- 
fied by these various institutions. 

The Monument needs a completed baseline 
nventory to identify the exact location of 
hese fossil sites. This baseline information 
ivill provide the framework for the develop- 
ment of the legislatively mandated research 
jrogram at the Monument, and for its devel- 
oping resource management plan and gener- 
il management plan. Knowing the precise 
ocation of sites helps in planning for visitor 
iccess by indicating where to locate trails and 
facilities, and how to minimize the impact to 
he fossil resource. To document these sites, 
he NPS staff and volunteers are using the 
atest available technology, a Global Posi- 
:ioning System (GPS) and a laser transit. 

The Global Positioning System was devel- 
oped by the military to determine the location 
of military vehicles or units on the earth's 

Resources at 
Fossil Beds 

By Chris Force 

Bob Willhite, Hagerman' s Chief Ranger, takes 
a sighting using the laser transit to pinpoint 
accurately the fossil site. 

surface. It utilizes satellites that send signals 
to a back-pack receiver, which computes the 
exact location. Using a special, high-preci- 
sion Global Positioning System, surveyors 
from the Bureau of Land Management and 
NPS staff established a grid of 60 reference 
points throughout the Monument that are 
accurate within several centimeters. 

A laser transit, the Criterion produced by 
Laser Technology Incorporated of 
Englewood, CO, is used to accurately survey 
each fossil site It works by firing a laser 
beam at a mirror prism on a height-adjustable 
pole, and measures the reflected beam of 
light. A computer within the transit calcu- 
lates die horizontal distance, azimuth, slope 
distance, percent slope, and inclination from 
the transit to the prism. Although the laser is 
designed to be hand-held, it is mounted on a 
tripod to capitalize on its precision limits. 

Because readings can be done quickly, 
three replications are taken of each measure- 
ment to detect operator error. A limiting 
factor of the instrument is that directions are 
based on a magnetic azimuth. For this rea- 
son, staffhas developed procedures focusing 

on distances and triangulation. By sighting at 
the fossil locality and two of the GPS refer- 
ence points, the exact position of the fossil 
locality is computed using trigonometric cal- 
culations. By this process, the fossil site is 
located in space horizontally and vertically 
with a margin of error in tenths of feet. The 
fossil locality does not have to be physically 
marked, thus protecting the site's integrity. 
Each site is given a 
unique identifier and a per- 
manent locality code, and 
will be entered into a GIS 
system along with perti- 
nent associated data such 
as species present, num- 
ber of specimens, and sed- 
iment type. Such an accu- 
rate baseline inventory will 
allow us to discover possi- 
ble patterns in site loca- 
tions throughout the mon- 
ument. Analysis of these 
patterns may help explain 
how these fossil concen- 
trations formed. 

The hand-held attribute 
of this laser will save sub- 
stantial time when it comes 
time to relocate any docu- 
mented site. It has a navigation function that 
uses as coordinates the closest reference 
points, and audibly tells the operator when 
the instrument is sighted on the fossil local- 
ity. The operator can then direct a field crew 
person to the exact location. 

During the course of the baseline invento- 
ry for known fossil sites, numerous new sites 
have been found as well as significant indi- 
vidual specimens. One example is the most 
complete Borophagus (hyena-like dog) 
known from Hagerman. It'salowerjawthat 
contains the canine, fourth premolar and first 
molar. Also discovered were several new 
mastodon localities and a sandstone concre- 
tion with a high concentration of frog bones. 
It is not yet known how many individuals are 
represented in this concretion, but at least 
two species of frogs are present. 

High tech measurements, such as those 
possible using this system, will play a major 
role in managing and scientifically evaluat- 
ing the fossil resources at Hagerman Fossil 
Beds NM. 

Force is a Museum Technician at Hagerman 
Fossil Beds NM 

Winter 1994 


°- u. 
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29.3/4: 14/2 


A Resource Management Bulletin 

/dume 14 — Number 2 National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior 

Spring 1994 

User Study Contributes to Rio Grande Management 

By W. P. Stewart, K. A. Yarborough, and J.R. Skiles 



MOV 5 1998 

A recently completeduserstudy oftheRio 
l\ Grande in Big BendNP, undertaken in 
L }\_ pursuit of a river use management 
•Ian, comprised four areas of investigation 
ssociated with river users: 

(1) a trend study of 16,500 river permits 
iat documented river use from 1983 through 

(2) a survey of boaters who obtained pri- 
ate river use permits; 

(3) a survey of visitors who obtained over- 
ight backcountry permits to camp at desig- 
ned sites adjacent to the river, and 

Raft in Boqufflas Canyon, Big Bend NP. 

This river section is also part of the Rio 

Grande Wild and Scenic River. El Pico, of 

the Sierra Del Carmens, b die prominent 

peak in the background. 

(4) a survey of patrons of commercial 
outfitters associated with float trips on the 
Rio Grande. 

The forthcoming River Use Management 
Plan (RUMP) will be the first of its kind for 
the Rio Grande River in Big BendNP. Big 
Bend's regulations pertaining to river opera- 
tions heretofore have been contained in other 

types of management plans. The RUMP is 
being developed as a response to specific 
questions regarding river management ob- 
jectives and use procedures. 

It also is being designed to provide stan- 
dard operational information to patrol rang- 
ers, resource management, and visitor con- 
tact staff. In addition to the user study, an on- 
going study regarding recreation and tres- 
pass-livestock impacts to the riparian ecosys- 
tem will provide research-based information 

to the developing RUMP. 

Continued on page 3 









SPRING 1994 

A report to park managers of recent and on-going 
research in parks with emphasis on its implications 
for planning and management. 



• User Study Contributes to 

Rio Grande Management 1 „,-,, .... ,- , - 

._ ~" . ___. Yo,fieldtroops!Adispatehfromthefront 

• Abandoned Road Restoration Methods u«.a.»1m««i «.u *„L> ^^^^^^^a «./%«,» 
Tested at Grand Tetons National Park 4 ^vmg^ felt, even expenenced some 

of the angst that currently is rocking the 

•Glacier NP Undertakes National Park Service field personnel, I can 

Revegetation Monitoring 6 Kpon ^ j appmachsd me m^ M j^. 

• Olympic Revegetation gional Chief Scientists meeting in Washing- 
Efforts Continue To Evolve 7 ton> D c with equal parts of hope and fear. 

• How to Prepare Vegetation Overlays After sitting through one full day of fairly 
as Accomplished at Harpers Ferry 8 frank and open discussion among key players 

• Isle Royale Wolf/Moose Update 11 in the National Biological Survey and the 

• Potential Beaver Recolonization National Park Service, and two more days of 
Being Evaluated at Indiana even franker and more open thrashing over of 
Dunes by Means of GIS Analysis 15 the situation with NPS personnel only, my 

• Trail Conditions and Management assessment is as follows: 
Practices in the National Park Service 16 The NBS is currently anon-negotiable fact 

• Working with Williams in WASO 19 of Department of the Interior life. The Sec- 

•Ash Yellows and Defoliating retai y md ±e Diiect0T staad "^ he ^ nd 

Insects Related to Decline of lts organization and implementation. The 

Velvet Ash in Zion National Park 20 two most powerful players in its make- 

• Partnerships: NBS and the States 22 "P-?* US 'S^ f d WMife Service and 

_^ , _ *_»»*_.*, the National Park Service — are doing their 

•Study Documents Mountain Goat level best to make it work. 

Impacts at Olympic National Park 23 , DeSl TO j* " Z 

. I saw good people from two very different 

•Prescribed Fue: science programs striving with good will and 

Current Status and Future Directions 26 . MM i„„««w»iJL.™.«A-'..j«, 

commrtmentto recognize one another sview- 

• Latest Research at El Malpais points and responsibihties. Theyacknowl- 
Reveals Dating Errors 29 ed&d ^ ^ &aMes they face in trying to 

• CPSU Hosts 2nd Biennial meld their different skills and resources, and 
Conference on Colorado Plateau Research ... 30 mey ga Ve evidence ofbeing willing to tackle 

• Cooperative Efforts Improve what must eventually become their mutual 
Forest Health at Coulee Dam 3 1 problems. 

Promises and pitfalls are a natural cou- 
pling that occurs at all major crossroads; 

DEPARTMENTS jitters are natural and understandable. Into 

• Editorial 2 ^ e sw "* °^ event s that constitute "present 

• Notes From Abroad 10 

• Regional Highlights 12 

• MAB Notes 14 " 

• Information Crossfile 18 REGIONAL H«fl,i>a« 

fTmri? crf^rxi*ikm'c*ro ROCKY MOUNTAIN 

• Book Reviews 27 chief SCIENTISTS p.o. Box 25827 

Denver, CO 80225 

• Meetings of Interest back cover 8-327-2650 / (303) 969-2650 

conditions" must go not just the best-laid 
plans of the well intentioned, but also the 
human climate such conditions engender. 
The human perception today seems to range 
from supreme confidence, downhill through 
educated doubts, and ending in stark terror. 
Also very present is "the butterfly wing 
effect" Given the extremely fluid state of the 
emerging new order, the softest bump from 
anywhere could tip the balance of direction. 
Frantic phone calls from the field during the 
March RCS meeting in D.C. emphasized the 
wisdom of keeping field personnel fully ad- 
vised as to developments. Well meaning 
people are attempting to shape an approach 
that will be stronger, better armed, and more 
responsive to park management needs. The 
very real fears of resource managers need to 
be recognized, honored, and dealt with open- 


To pull off what is being attempted here 
would be a monumental task even in the best 
of all possible circumstances. To do so in 
straitened fiscal times is even more challeng- 
ing. Small factors can have huge effects at 
times of "initial conditions." So grab the 
moment all you positive butterflies, and beat 
your wings! 

Editor's Note: For additional thoughts on this 
especially the portion dealing with Leadership 

and the New Science by Margaret J. Wheatleyon 
page 28. 

Aaderson, WUUam H. 
1100 Ohio Drive, SW 
Washington. DC 20242 
8 (202) 342-1443 

Kimball, Snzette 
75 Spring. Sl SW 
Atlanta, GA 30303 

Foley, Mary 

15 State St 
Boston, MA 02109 
(617) 742-3094 
FAX (617) 367-8515 


1709 Jackson St 
Omaha, NE 68102 
8-864-3438 / (402) 221-3438 

Karlsh, John F. 

Ferguson Bldg., Room 209-B 
Pennsylvania State University 
University Park, PA 16802 
8 (814) 865-7974 

Kllgort, Brace 


600 Harrison St, Suite 600 

San Francisco, CA 94107-1372 

8-484-3955 / (415)744-3955 

Kunkle, Sam 
PO. Box 728 
Santa Fe,NM 87501 
8-476-6870 / (505) 988-6870 

Larson, James W. 


909 1st Ave. 

Seattle, WA 98104-1060 


Stevens, Dave & Deschew, Nancy 



2525 Gambcll St, Room 107 

Anchorage, AK 99503-2892 

8-869-2568 / (907) 257-2568 

Park Science 

Rio Grande Management conunuedfrom 

Recreational Access 

The Rio Grande is unusual among western 
i vers in that it can be accessed at several 
oints along its course. Within Big Bend NP, 
. 1 18-mile stretch of the Rio Grande forms 
lie international boundary with Mexico and 
uts through three deep, steep-walled, lime- 
tone canyons: 8 miles in Santa Elena, 6 miles 
i Mariscal and 32 miles in Boquillas. Two 
on-canyon river segments are: (1) between 
lanta Elena and Mariscal, referred to as the 
lio Vista segment; and (2) between Mariscal 
nd Boquillas, referred to as the San Vicente 
egment Paved and unpaved roads provide 
everal opportunities to access, launch-on, 
nd take-out from these 5 segments of the 

Results of the Trend Study 

Of the 10 examined years, 1985 was the 
eak year for use. Approximately twice as 
lany permits were issue in 1 985 as for 1 989, 
990, or 1991. A general drop in total 
umber of permits since 1985 appears to be 
ttributable to a drop in the number of private 
ximpared to commercial) permits issued, 
fhe proportion of private to commercial use 
ermits in 1992 was about 50/50.) 

Over the past 1 years, less than 4 percent 
f the permits issued were for more than one 
ver segment In other words, most users 
avel one canyon or segment at a time. The 
end study indicates that the historic use 
atterns are different for each river segment 
anta Elena has been the most popular can- 
on to float and is associated with four times 
le number of annual permits issued for any 
f the other four river segments. 

lcreased dramatically in the mid-1980s and 
ince have leveled off, whereas overnight 
ermits for Santa Elena have decreased since 
le mid- 1980s. Commercial use is primarily 
)cused on Santa Elena Canyon. More than 
5 percent of 1 992 commercial permits were 
sued for Santa Elena, whereas private use in 
992 was spread evenly among the Santa 
lena, Boquillas, and San Vicente segments, 
rivate use levels in Mariscal Canyon, which 
; accessedprimarily by unpaved orprimitive 
>ads, is aboutone-third the private use levels 
fthe other river segments (most likely due to 
s remote access points). 

Results of the Visitor Surveys 

The social setting varied across the five 
ver segments. Santa Elena Canyon was the 
:gment associated with the most reported 
ratacts with other rafters: 56 percent of 
anta Elena private-permittee respondents 
ldicated seeing more than 10 non-motor- 

izedrafts. Bouqirillas was second in terms of 
contacts with other rafts, with 41 percent of 
private-permittees indicating they saw more 
than 10 rafts. Mariscal segment was associ- 
ated with the least number of raft contacts; 
just 9 percent of private-permittees reported 
greater man 10 raft encounters. 

The importance of solitude and being alone 
varied across respondents from the different 
river segments. Boquillas floaters were most 
likely to report solitude as extremely impor- 
tant; Santa Elena floaters were least likely to 
report solitude as extremely important 

The importance of fishing also varied across 
the river segments. Rio Vista and San Vicente 
permittees were more than twice as likely to 
fish as Mariscal floaters, and they were more 
than five times as likely to fish as either 
Boquillas or Santa Elena floaters. 

The type of trip planning varied, with Rio 
Vista and San Vicente floaters indicating the 
least amount of advance planning for their 
trips and the most flexibility regarding the 
whereabouts of their river recreational expe- 

Trespass livestock (mainly equine) has 
been a longstanding problem along the Rio 
Grande corridor of the park. The user study 
provided information as to the social impacts 
of trespass livestock. The apparentness of 
livestock impacts (e.g., trampling, grazing, 
and manure) varied across the river seg- 
ments. Rio Vista and San Vicente permittees 
were least likely to perceive evidence of 
livestock; Boquillas permittees were most 
likely to note such evidence. 

The perception of livestock impact varied 
by season, with fall floaters noting the most 
impact compared to either spring or summer 
floaters. These social impacts correspond 
with a seasonal "recovery" period noted in 
the study of impacts on biota. Summer rains 
renew the grasses and "sweep" clean the river 
corridor. In fall and winter, the corridor is 
less resilient due to the absence of rains and 
subsequent renewed vegetative growth. 

Management Recommendations 

The primary recommendation from the 
user study is to maintain and explicitly devel- 
op the diversity of recreation opportunities 
afforded by the Rio Grande. 

Maintaining diversity of recreation expe- 
riences entails recognizing the variety of 
river recreation opportunities associated with 
each segment of the river and establishing 
distinct management strategies for each seg- 
ment The results ofresearch indicate that the 
recreation experience differs across the vari- 
ous river segments, mat use levels have dif- 

fered historically across the segments, and 
that users recognize differences across die 
river segments. 

In die past management operations im- 
plicitly have facilitated the provision of dif- 
fering opportunities. Providing for the long- 
run continuation of such diversity is an im- 
portant directive for Rio Grande manage- 
ment Compared to other western rivers, 
recreational use of die Rio Grande in the park 
is not considered too high; however, recom- 
mendations are offered in preparation for 
changing (increasing) use levels in the future, 
should such occur. They are: 

a) Consider adopting a river permit pro- 
cess that allows for managerial control of 
private permittee use levels; 

b) Consider an advanced reservation sys- 
tem for river use permits; 

c) Insure that staff members issuing river 
use permits have field knowledge of the sites 
and conditions of the Rio Grande; 

d) Continue to work with Mexican author- 
ities to direct the coordination of river man- 
agement; and 

e) Insure the periodic clean-up of litter in 
the river corridor. 

Development of the River Use 
Management Plan 

A team has been developing the RUMP 
since June 1 993 and the plan is scheduled for 
completion by fall 1994. Information from 
social and ecology-based research, commer- 
cial use licensees, private user groups, and 
Mexican authorities will contribute to its 
development Following an in-house re- 
view, the first draft of the RUMP will be 
distributed for pubhc comment by mid-1994. 
Workshops will be held to encourage pubhc 
comments; information obtained from these 
workshops will be considered for incorpora- 
tion into the plan. 

For further information on the RUMP 
process contact Yarborough or Sidles, both at 
Big BendNP, TX 79834; (915) 477-2251. 
For a copy of the user study technical report 
contactStewartat College Station, TX 77843- 

Stewart is an Associate Professor at Texas 
A&MUmversity, College Station, TX; Yarborough 
is Park Scientist and SMles is a Wildlife Resource 
Management Specialist, both at Big Bend NP. 


Abandoned Road Restoration Methods Tested 
at Grand Tetons National Park 

By Edward Rederrte, Nicholas Cotts, 
and Robert Schiller 

Every park, monument, and historic site 
within the National Park System has some 
disturbance that can be associated with either 
pastorpresentanthropogenicactivities. These 
disturbances alterboththestmctureandtunc- 
tion of ecosystems and may result in land- 
scape features that are aesthetically unac- 
ceptable. Disturbed areas also become ideal 
locations for establishment and spread of 
exotic plants and noxious weeds. 

Restoration is the process of intentionally 
altering a site to establish a defined, indige- 
nous, historic ecosystem. The goal is to 
emulate the structure, function, diversity, and 
dynamics of the specified ecosystem. Recla- 
mation, on the other hand, has been defined 
historically as the process of returning dis- 
turbed land to a condition that approximates 
the original site conditions and is habitable by 
the same or similar plants and animals as 
existed on the site before disturbance. 

Reclamation typically involves the resto- 
ration of certain processes or functions, but 
typically stops well short of restoration. It 
may however be viewed as an important step 
toward restoration. Restoration will be suc- 
cessful only if we (1) adequately understand 
how the disturbed system functions and what 
the limiting factors are, and (2) develop and 
apply the correct prescriptions. The restora- 
tion process is not simple and in most cases 
requires enough time to allow natural biolog- 
ical process, such as succession, to occur. 

The NPS can use restoration techniques to 
treat disturbed sites so as to control erosion, 
remove exotic and noxious plant species, 
increase biodiversity of indigenous species, 
reestablish nutrient cycles, and improve aes- 
thetic values. This report summarizes results 
from a research project designed to test the 
effectiveness of different restoration tech- 
niques on an abandoned road in Grand Teton 
NP. The specific objectives of this project 
were (1) to evaluate the effectiveness of 
various levels of site manipulation such as 
seeding, fertilizing, scarifying, topsoiling, 
and mulching, and (2) to compare the perfor- 
mance of seed from native species collected 
within the park to seed from native species 
obtained from commercial sources. 

This research was part of a larger road 
construction project that included a seed col- 
lection and increase program in association 
with the Soil Conservation Service. Seed that 
was collected in Grand Teton was increased 
by the Environmental Plant Center in Meek- 
er, CO, for restoration work in the park. 

Test plot construction in the fall of 1988. 

Abandoned road site at the north end of 
Timbered island in Grand Teton NP. Seed in 
the area was collected to compare the effective- 
ness of indigenous seed vs. commercial seed 

The Study Site 

The study was conducted within the dis- 
turbed tracks of an abandoned road at a 2,075 
m elevation. Climate there is semiarid, with 
hot, dry summers and cool, wet winters. 
Average annual precipitation is 68 cm, with 
a mean annual temperature of 2.2 C. The 
soils of the area were formed on stream 
terraces and alluvial fans as well as glacial 
outwash materials from the Teton range. The 
soils are characterized as well drained, with 
moderate permeabilities. 

The undisturbed community surrounding 
the study site can be classified as a low 
sagebrush/big sagebrush mosaic. The dis- 
turbed, abandoned road site consisted ofhigh- 
ly compacted soils, low organic matter and 
nutrient levels, and absence of vegetation. 


The study was begun in the fall of 1988. 
Over a four year period, 14 treatments were 
tested A detailed description of them can be 
found in Cotts et al. ( 1 99 1 ). Plant cover was 
measured by species during the growing sea- 
sons of 1989 through 1992. In addition, 
woody plant density was determined during 
the same time period and aboveground pro- 
duction was estimated, using a direct harvest 
method in 1992. 

Infiltration and bulk density tests were 
conducted on scarified/non-scarified treat- 
ments and topsoiled/non-topsoiled treatments 
to assess the effect of soil scarifying and 
topsoiling on infiltration and bulk density. 
Aggregate stability analyses also were com- 
pleted on the same treatments following the 
procedures of Kemper and Rosenau (1986) 
to understand the relationship between bulk 
density, infiltration, and aggregate size and 
stability of the treated and untreated soils on 
the site. 

Results and Discussion 

After four growing seasons we found that 
the topsoiled treatments supported the most 
plant cover and biomass, with5 cmoftopsoil 
providing more favorable results than 1 5 cm 
of topsoil (Fig. 1). Topsoil treatments that 
were seeded (to either indigenous or com- 
mercial seed) were dominated by perennial 
grasses, while non-seeded topsoil treatments 
were dorninatedby big sagebrush — the dom- 
inant species in the surrounding plant com- 

Non-topsoil treatments had significantly 
less plant cover and biomass than topsoiled 
treatments, but those treatments that were 
seeded to the indigenous mixture showed 
good plant community development Scari- 
fying the original road substrate yielded bet- 
ter plant growth than non-scarifying, and 
mulching produced no differences in plant 
cover or production. 

Infiltration and bulk density analyses were 
conducted to determine if compaction was a 
problem and if the selected treatments of 
scarifying and topsoiling improved the phys- 
ical parameters of the road substrate. The 
undisturbed soil surrounding the road had the 
lowest bulk density, while the non-scarified 
road surface had the highest bulk density, 
confirming that the road had been compacted 
as aresult of many years of vehicular activity. 

It was expected the infiltration rates would 
be inversely correlated with bulk density; in 
other words, as bulk density increased, infil- 
tration would decrease. The results of our 
testing showed that scarifying the road sub- 
strate reduced bulk density, but infiltration 
rates were not improved. Additional analy- 
ses of aggregate stability showed that the 
compacted soil from the road substrate had 
smaller and less stable aggregates than either 
the undisturbed soil or the topsoil used in the 

We found that these less stable aggregates 
would disintegrate upon wetting, thus plug- 
ging macropores in the soil and reducing 
infiltration. It must therefore be recognized 
that although scarifying soil may reduce bulk 

Park Science 

tensity and create more favorable seedbed 
baracteristics, it may not improve infiltra- 
ion if an aggregate stability problem exists, 
aggregate stability will only improve with 
le addition of organic matter and after other 
oil building processes occur, such as soil 
sicrobial development 


Our research has shown that disturbances 
uch as abandoned roads can be restored 
uccessfully with a variety of approaches that 
ary in the level of resource inputs and also in 
me required for complete restoration to 
ccur. The applications of small amounts of 
)psoil (as little as 5 cm) in combination with 
seding of indigenous seed will produce a 
lant community that will emulate the sur- 
>unding undisturbed community in as little 
s 15 years in environments similar to that at 
ur Grand Teton study site. 

We believe, however, that less intensive 
pproaches, such as soil scarification in com- 

bination with seeding indigenous species, 
will result in successful restoration in a time 
frame of 20 to 25 years. Since indigenous 
seed performed better than native seed ob- 
tained commercially, we recommend that 
restoration projects use seed from sources 
known to be adapted to the climate and soil 
characteristics of the area to be restored. 

With respect to economic considerations, 
the cost associated with adding 5 cm of 
topsoil and seeding indigenous plant materi- 
als would be approximately $5,000/ha 
($2,100/ac). These costs are based on esti- 
mates associated with restoration work in the 
Grand Tetons and will vary depending on site 
conditions, sources of topsoil, and distance 
required to transport soil. 

Restoration is a long-term process that is 
dependent upon natural physical and biolog- 
ical processes to bring it to completion It is 
therefore critical that patience be seen as a 
necessary virtue for all resource managers 

involved in such projects. Also, it should be 
understood that limited resource inputs can 
prove to be valuable approaches where the 
time frame for success is not a major restric- 

Redente is a professor in the RangelandEco- 
system Science Dept, CO/State/U, Fort Collins; 
Cotts previously was a graduate student at Colo- 
rado State and currently is a reclamation special- 
ist with Shepherd Miller, Inc., of Fort Collins; 
Schiller is Chief, Branch of Science in the NPS 
Denver Regional Office. 

Literature Cited 

Cotts, N.E. E.F. Redente, and R. Schiller. 1991 . "Restora- 
tion methods for abandoned roads at lower elevations In 
Grand Teton NP, WY." Arid Soil Research and Rehabili- 
tation. 5235-249. 

Kemper, W.D. and R.C. Rosenau. 1 986. 
and size dtetribution." Chpt 17, in: KLrte ed., Methods of 
Soil Analysis, Part 1. Physical and Mineralogical Methods- 
Agronomy Monograph 09. American Society of Agrono- 
my-Soil Science Sec of Amer., Madson, Wl. 

Figure 1. Total plant cover in 1992, four years following initial treatment Treatments with the same letter are not significantly different at PO.05. 
30 -t 






« _ 




Perennial Grasses 

Perennial Forbs 
Annual Grasses 

I Shrubs 

1. Control 

2. Control and Mulch 

3. Indigenous Seed 

4. Commercial Seed 

5. Scarify, No Seed 

6. Scarify, Rock Raking 

7. Scarify, Indigenous Seed 

8. Scarify, Commercial Seed 


9. IS cm Topsoil and Scarify 
10.15 cm Topsoil, Scarify, Fertilize 
11. 15 cm Topsoil, Scarify, Indigenous Seed 
12. 5 cm Topsoil, Scarify, Indigenous Seed 

13. 15 cm Topsoil, Scarify, Commercial Seed 

14. 15 cm Topsoil Scarify, Indigenous Seed, Mulch 

ring 1994 

Glacier NP Undertakes Revegetation Monitoring 

Visitor impacts, facility maintenance, and 
road reconstruction in Glacier National Park 
present a continuously recurring problem of 
disturbed lands and the need for effective 
revegetation procedures. While roadcuts 
covered with native grasses and forbs point 
to some of Glacier's successes, areas of high 
exotic species density or bare slopes suggest 
that revegetation treatments were inadequate, 
or that it may be impossible to re-establish a 
native community on all disturbed sites. 

In 1992, Glacier NP began a monitoring 
program to record the status of revegetated 
sites in order to evaluate possible sources of 
failure. Monitors describe target plant com- 
munities for project locations, against which 
overall revegetation success may be mea- 
sured. Program objectives are to improve the 
methods and learn the limits of what revege- 
tation can accomplish, so that realistic resto- 
ration goals may be established 

The monitoring program includes (1) a 
pre-disturbance visit to describe the site and 
establish goals in terms of a reasonable target 
community, and (2) periodic monitoring of 
revegetated areas to judge how well the seed- 
ed and planted species are faring and how 
satisfactorily long-term goals are being met 

Site Analysis 

Effective revegetation efforts begin with 
thorough site evaluations. The monitoring 
program's Site Analysis procedure, loosely 
based on Forest Service ECOD ATA (Jensen 
et al, 1992) ocular plot methodology, pro- 
vides a systematic framework for recording 
soils, microclimate, animal use, vegetation 
structure, and species canopy cover informa- 
tion relevant to revegetation needs. 

Data on these characteristics are taken 
from a representative plot Based on what 
vegetation is on the site, what grows nearby, 
and the management plan forthe area,atarget 
community is suggested. For example, a 
deleted roadside turnout in a lodgepole for- 
est which will be mowed yearly, may be 
targeted for the understory lodgepole low 
shrub and herbaceous community. Two site 
analyses frequently are conducted, one to 
describe the disturbed site to be revegetated, 
the other to describe an undisturbed plot that 
represents the target community. 

Once goals for the area have been set the 
site analysis involves making recommenda- 
tions for plant material use, fertilizer applica- 
tion, mulch, plant salvage, and soil salvage. 
The site analysis procedure is structured to 
record current site and plant community con- 
ditions, set revegetation goals, and guide 
efforts to meet those goals. 

By Kristin Vanderbflt 

Various staffmembers who conducted site 
analyses during the summer of 1993 have 
found this a valuable planning tool The 
detailed record of species and their abun- 
dance in the target community is useful when 
seed mixes are prepared and nursery stock 
needs estimated. Soils and microsite infor- 
mation may suggest special planting and 
watering requirements, which are figured in 
during the planning process. The value of the 
site analysis will be realized fully many years 
down the road, when it will serve as a refer- 
ence for detennining how closely the product 
of revegetation and succession resembles the 
target community. 

Revegetation Monitoring 

Monitoring procedures utilize both 
microplot and ocular survey methods, and 
involve recording many of the same plot 
characteristics that site analysis does: Ground 
cover, species cover, erosion status, vegeta- 
tion structure, and disturbance history. In the 
long-term, these data will allow successional 
trends to be followed to determine the time- 
frame in which components of target com- 
munities establish, or to reveal that the target 
community was not a reasonable goal for the 
area, given our methods. In the short-term, 
by systematically revisiting monitoring sites 
and recording, for example, exotic species 
presence, germination of seeded species, and 
vigor of planted shrubs, we will be able to 
identify areas where we need to improve our 

Four monitoring schemes of increasing 
complexity have been devised, suited to dif- 
ferent needs. The intensity of monitoring 

required for each area depends on the reveg- 
etation measures applied, site location, and 
likelihood of the site's being problematic due 
to factors such as continued disturbance, 
poor soil, or slope. 

A backcountry campsite that has been 
blocked off, seeded, and mulched is appro- 
priate for very basic Level I monitoring. The 
questions of interest here, rapidity of site 
recovery and exotic presence, are addressed 
readily by ocular plot estimates of ground 
cover and canopy cover of trees, shrubs, 
herbaceous species, and noxious weeds. No 
specific data about revegetation species are 
collected. This rapid site assessment is in- 
tended to flag any area that needs remedial 
action due to exotic encroachment erosion, 
or continued disturbance. 

Level n monitoring is the backbone of 
Glacier's program and has been used exten- 
sively. In addition to making a general 
evaluation of soil surface status and total 
vegetation cover, the monitor makes species 
lists of at least the dominant exotic and native 
species present Mortality, growth, and vigor 
of planted shrubs and forbs is quantified, as 
are cover, density, and reproductive status of 
seeded species. This level addresses success 
of revegetation measures and may prompt 
changes in procedure. For example, numer- 
ous exotic species were recorded in monitor- 
ing plots on imported soil used at a construc- 
tion site, while salvaged soil in the same area 
had very low exotic cover. These observa- 
tions suggest the use of unpasteurized im- 
ported topsoil is questionable. 

Continued on page 7 

Rachel Potter, Biological Technician, collects microplot data from a roadside revegetation site. 


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Park Science 

Olympic Revegetation Efforts Continue to Evolve 

By Edward Schreiner and Ruth Scott 

Revegetation in the backcountry of Olym- 
pic National Park (OLYM) began in 1975 as 
a strictly seat-of-the-pants operation. We 
would judge which campsites and trails had 
unacceptable levels of human impact, close 
them, and move plants into the sites from 
nearby. The learning curve was steer* — we 
had spectacular failures and moderate suc- 
cesses. We learned, among other things, that 
survival of transplants from nearby locations 
was variable, depending on plant size (i.e. 
neither too big nor too small) and weather 
conditions at the time of transpanting (i.e. 
best when cool and rainy). 

Our early efforts, while well-meaning, have 
evolved into a more organized program. We 
now use native plants propagated in a green- 
house from seeds and cuttings. Mostreveg 
work is conducted in the rail, resulting in 
higher survival rates. Revegetation priorities 
are based on parkwide surveys of human 
impact, visitor use levels, and wilderness 
classification. We use transplanted vegeta- 
tion (that which is not produced in the green- 
house) only under limited circumstances such 
as small-scale fire line restoration projects 
(i.e. not on the scale of Yellowstone fire 

The OLYM revegetation program has im- 
proved from the early days, but new issues 
require resolution. Raising plants in a green- 

house has increased plant survival in restora- 
tion sites and also allows us to obtain materi- 
als for propagation from more locations, but 
the latter carries the risk that, however unin- 
tentionally, we could alter the genetic make- 
up of park ecosystems. Most debate seems to 
center around setting a maximum distance 
away from revegetation sites for collection of 
propagating materials. 

We recognize that maintaining the genetic 
integrity of park ecosystems is an important 
and worthy goal. We also believe common 
sense needs to be part of the decision-making 
process. This means considering reproduc- 
tive mechanisms, wind patterns, and the rel- 
ative abundance of species selected for reveg- 
etation. For example, it makes sense to 
collect the seeds of common wind-pollinated 
conifers from sites with similar elevation in 
the same river valley as the reveg site. Equal- 
ly, seeds of plants pollinated by insects with 
limited flight distances should be collected 
from very close to the reveg site. We feel that 
setting an arbitrary maximum distance away 
from revegetation sites for collection of prop- 
agating materials makes no sense. 

We realize this view is not shared by 
everyone and that it is time to engage in 
serious dialogue to resolve the issue. Howev- 
er, we do not believe this complex problem 
has a simple answer. The entire matter raises 
questions that need intensive, informed 

(1) Should we be attempting to restore 
sites to look like die surrounding vegetation, 
or should we restore early successional (but 
native) species and let nature take over from 

(2) Are non-native, sterile species (like 
sterile wheat) appropriate to help stabilize 
slopes prior to native species taking over? 

(3) Is it appropriate to restore the soil 
profile, and if so, how many soil amendments 
are appropriate (fertilizer, peat moss, steer 
manure, etc.)? 

(4) What should we use when fill material 
is required but only soil of different parent 
material and characteristics is available? 

Ultimately, we would like to see revegeta- 
tion develop in direction of restoration using 
the equivalent of silvicultural prescriptions. 
This could involve assessing expected mor- 
tality rates (by species) in advance. Thus, 
compensating measures such as planting at 
extra-high density could be taken. We feel 
that we and other parks have made significant 
progress, but we realize that much remains to 
be learned The questions listed here might 
serve as a useful beginning. 

Schreiner is a Plant Ecologist with the NBS; 
Scott is a Resource Management Specialist and 
runs the revegetation program at Olympic NP. 

Revegetation Monitoring continued from 

A Level HI monitoring procedure involves 
establishment of permanent microplot and 
shrub transects to collect data suitable for 
statistical analysis. This level has been uti- 
lized in deleted turnouts along the Lake 
where half of each turnout was seeded and 
half was not Data will be analyzed for (1) 
establishment and growth of seeded species, 
(2) relationships betweennative species seed- 
ing and exotic species cover, and (3) survival 
and growth of nursery stock (Potter, 1992). 

In some circumstances, a Level IV exper- 
iment may be appropriate to evaluate effec- 
tiveness of various combinations of revege- 
tation treatments. Two Dog Flats grassland 
in the St Mary valley was disturbed by road 
construction in 1992, and the most effective 
means for restoring native vegetation along 
the roadside , while discouraging exotic es- 
tablishment was not known. A study pres- 
ently is underway to evaluate the effects of 
(1) the slope-stabilizing nurse crop Re-green 
(a sterile wheat hybrid), (2) herbicide appli- 
cation, and (3) seeding of native species on 
the establishment of native and exotic vege- 

page 6 

This study is a collaborative effort be- 
tween Dr. Rob Tyser of U/WI-LaCrosse and 
the park's reveg staff. Level IV monitoring 
methods are not standardized, but in this case 
rely on canopy cover data from randomly 
located microplots. Another Level IV study, 
investigating various mulches, is anticipated. 

Management Implications 

Although the monitoring program in Gla- 
cier is still in its infancy, the results of the first 
full season's monitoring efforts are promis- 
ing. In the past target communities have not 
been described in detail for use by park reveg 
planners. Resource managers' ideas and 
notes about the success of reveg treatments in 
various sites have not been recorded system- 

This monitoring strategy compiles all data 
about the site, from both site analyses and 
post-reveg monitoring, into one computer 
database. Computer programs are being 
developed to facilitate rapid report genera- 
tion. Years of records will indicate how long 
it takes for a revegetated site to begin to 
resemble the target community, or will reveal 
that our goals are not realistic. Data review 

with respect to reveg practices (species selec- 
tion, mulch use, topsoil application, time of 
seeding) may prompt us to change our meth- 

Glacier NP is trying to get away from 
practices that merely "patch up" disturbed 
areas and make them green again. By adding 
this dimension to our revegetation program, 
we hope to learn to fine-tune our methods and 
thus come closer to approximating the orig- 
inal pre-disturbance community. 

Vanderbilt is a Biological Technician at 
Glacier NP. 


Jensen, M.E., W. Hann, and R.E. Keane. 1992. Ecosystem 
Inventory and Analysis Guide. USOA Forest Service, 
Northern Region, Missoula, MT. 

Potter, Rachel. 1992. Monitoring on the Lake McDonald 
Section of Going-to-the-Sun Road. Glacier NP. In-park 

Tyser, Robin. 1992. St Mary Valley Roadside Revegetation 
Study Design. Glacier NP. In-park report 

Tyser, Robin. 1993. St Mary Roadside Revegetation Exper- 
iment Progress Report Glacier NP. In-park report 

Spring 1994 

How to Prepare Vegetation Overlays as 
Accomplished at Harpers Ferry 

By Freda 

Harpers Ferry National Historic Park 
(HFNHP) is in the process of developing an 
extensive spatial database for its geographic 
information system (GIS). Aerial photogra- 
phy of the park and adjacent lands was ob- 
tained for the purpose of developing a vege- 
tation overlay. Personnel in the Department 
of Forestry at Virginia Tech (VT), stereo- 
scopically examined aerial photographs in 
order to identify and delineate vegetation 
types and prepare the vegetation overlays 
necessary for entry into the GIS. Thepurpose 
here is to describe the process we used to 
develop this vegetation information, and what 
we learned about this process for those who 
will perform similar tasks in the future. 
Creation of Vegetation Overlays 

The first step in any mapping project is to 
define a classification system. Seven classes 
were defined, covering forested and non- 
forested land. The Non-Forested classes in- 
cluded non-vegetated developed land, vege- 
tated developed land, agricultural land, and 
water. The Forested classes included hard- 
woods, conifers, and mixed hardwoods and 
conifers. A Five (5) acre minimum mapping 
unit was specified. The selected classes are 
shown in Table 1. 

The creation of the 37 vegetation overlays 
involved a number of steps. First, photo 
interpretation of the 1:24,000 scale normal 
color aerial photographs was performed. We 
had four sets of aerial photos available to 

Coins, Russell G. Combs, Junes L Smith, and William Hebb 

create the vegetation overlays: 1 : 24,000 scale 
normal color leaf-off, 1:3,000 scale normal 
color leaf-off, 1:12,000 scale CIR leaf-on, 
and 1:12,000 scale leaf-off. Only the 1:24,000 
scale normal color photos, however, provid- 
ed complete coverage of the entire region of 
interest Ofthe 17 normal color photos in the 
set, 6 were chosen mat covered the area of 
interest For each of6 photos, mylar overlays 
were photo interpreted using an Old Delft 
Scanning Stereoscope. Photo mylar over- 
lays are vegetative classifications traced on 
mylar over the photographs ofthe region of 
interest Color, texture, shadow pattern, size, 
and shape ofthe region of interest were used 
to assist in classification. 

Ground Survey 

Next a preliminary ground survey was 
conducted to evaluate the photo interpreta- 
tion. From this initial ground survey, there 
appeared to be some error in the original 
interpretation of the photos, particularly in 
the differences between P and MIX and 
between MDC and UPH. Very little of what 
was initially called MIX on the photo ap- 
peared to be MIX on the ground Most of 
what was called MIX was in fact UPH. 
Where available, additional CIR photo infor- 
mation was then used to re-examine these 
cover types. 

The initial ground survey and examination 
ofthe CIR photos showed the need for a more 
extensive ground survey. A second field check 

Table 1. Selected Classes 



Appearance on Normal Color Photo 


Developed with Vegetative 

Some roads interspersed among the 
green textured areas. Some buildings 
visible as white rectangles. 


Developed without Vegetative 

Interspersed with white lines and blocks 
representing roads and buildings. Little 


Agricultural Land 

Regular patches of green and light 
brown, smooth in texture. 


Water Areas 

Dark, smooth textured areas. Some- 
times bright or sparkled because of 
sunlight reflection. 


More than 70% upland 
hardwood Species 

Overstory brown or a light pale green. 
Coarse textured Most prevalent cate- 


More than 70% Conifer 

Dark green vegetative overstory. 
Coarse textured and irregular in shape. 


Less than 70% of Conifers 
or Deciduous 

Interspersed dark green, and brown 
overstory. Coarse textured and irreg- 
ular in shape. 

was performed to re-evaluate the photo inter- 
pretation after the changes made following 
the first field check. During the field check, 
we concentrated mainly on areas that were 
classified as either P or MIX to determine 
theiraccuracy. The second field checkresult- 
ed in changing a great deal of P and MTX 
areas on the photo mylar overlays to UPH. 
We determined that our errors in classifica- 
tion were due to a misinterpretation of hard- 
wood (deciduous) species that had already 
leafed-out as MTX and P. In addition, some 
ground cover that had leafed out in the hard- 
wood regions may have caused us to interpret 
some UPH regions as MTX. Changes in 
photo interpreted information were made 
according to the results of the second field 

The photo interpreted information was 
men transferred to base maps ofthe park A 
Bausch and Lomb Zoom Transfer Scope 
(ZTS) was used to assist in the transfer ofthe 
classified aerial photos onto the base maps. 
The ZTS was used because the transfer from 
the normal color 1 :24,000 scale aerial photos 
involved both a change in scale and image 
geometry. The ZTS uses mirrors, back-lit 
screens, variable lighting, and optics to allow 
the user to superimpose and trace the vegeta- 
tion overlay onto the desired base map. The 
vegetation overlays contain the same infor- 
mation as the photo mylar overlays at the 
scale of the base maps. The "zoom" and 
"skew" controls on the ZTS were used to 
match to scale of the photo mylar overlay 
with the scale ofthe base map and to account 
for geometric distortion in the photographic 

Distortion Causes 

Geometric distortion is the combined re- 
sult of optical distortion from inferior lenses, 
tilt aircraft motion; and relief displacement 
Campbell (Campbell, James, B., "Introduc- 
tion to Remote Sensing," The Guildford Press, 
1987.) states that "the most important source 
of positional error [geometric distortion] in 
vertical photography is probably relief dis- 
placement" Relief displacement causes ob- 
jects to appear to lean away from the centerof 
the photograph as one moves towards the 
photo's edge. Uneven terrain, such as en- 
countered at HFNHP, significantly increases 
relief displacement making the matching of 
vegetation overlays and bases maps difficult 
at times. 

modified by raising the instrument approxi- 
mately 6" on stable wooden blocks to in- 
crease the areas that could be transferred at 

Park Science 

onetime. This modification did not appear to 
increase distortion Very little of the ZTS's 
"stretch" function was used in the transfer of 
the image as stretching did not appear to help 
in matching the two images. Manual align- 
ment of the base map and the aerial photo 
followed by slight adjustments with the ZTS ' s 
controls worked best Usually, one or two 
distinct man-made features such as a roads or 
buildings were used to align the two images. 
Where no man-made features were present 
on the base map, the matches and subsequent 
transfer were approximate at best. 
Lessons Learned 

The selected classification system must 
contain information relevant to the user and 
be achievable using the imagery at hand. 
These two goals were fulfilled through close 
cooperation and communication between 
those making the maps (Virginia Tech) and 
those using the maps (HFNHP). This step 
always requires some compromise. Having 
appropriate aerial photographs of the region 
of interest is important in the creation of 
vegetation overlays. For the Harpers Ferry 
Project, we had four sets of aerial photos 
available to create the vegetation overlays. 
Unfortunately, only the 1:24,000 scale nor- 
mal color photos covered the entire region of 
interest The additional photos in conjunc- 
tion with ground surveys were used to verify 
the photo interpretation. Normal color aerial 
photographs were not as effective as CIR 
photographs for vegetative classification. 
Conifers and deciduous trees both had simi- 
lar appearance on the normal color photos. In 
the CIR photos, the differences between co- 
nifers and deciduous trees was more pro- 
nounced. The second field check resulted in 
changing a great deal of conifers and mixed 
areas on the photo mylar overlays to hard- 
woods. Using CIR leaf-off photos from the 
onset would have reduced changes to the 
photo mylar overlays. Having CIR photos of 
the entire region of interest would improve 
the quality of vegetation overlays for use in 

Film type, scale, and season of acquisition 
greatly influenced the effectiveness of the 
photo interpretation. The normal color, 
1 :24,000 scale photos suffered most from an 
early Spring acquisition where hardwoods 
were just leafing out These hardwoods 
appeared similar to conifers in the photos and 
were a cause of error and confusion. Paine 
(Paine, DavidF.Jntroduction to Aerial Pho- 
Published by O.S.U. Book Stores, Corvallis, 
Oregon, 1977.) lists the advantages of CIR 
films as: 

1. Much better penetration of haze. 

2. Emphasizes water or moist areas. 

3. Good differentiation between hardwoods 
and conifers. 

4. Sick, dying or vegetation under stress is 

more easily detected. 

By studying aerial photographs of differ- 
ent scales, we concluded that scales between 
1:12,000 and 1:18,000 would be optimal for 
vegetation classification of this type. The 
1:3,000 scale photos were oftoo large a scale, 
had excessive relief distortion, and suffered 
from the same classification problems as the 
1:24,000 scale photos. The 1:24,000 scale 
photos used in the study did not show enough 
detail to distinguish some vegetation types. 

The leaf-on CIR photos were of acceptable 
scale, but in the leaf-on photos, most vegeta- 
tion appears red. It is possible to distinguish 
between conifers and hardwoods by the color 
variations, but it is difficult and unnecessary. 
The CIR leaf-off photos differentiate be- 
tween conifers and hardwoods distinctly. 
Hardwoods appear as dark brown while co- 
nifers appear as dark red. 

Our recommendation for future photo in- 
terpretations is to procure CIR photos for the 
entire region of interest at a scale between 
1:12,000 and 1:18,000 in Winter prior to 
vegetation leaf-out The Normal Color film 
used in this study suffered from being taken 
at a transitional time where some hardwoods 
were just leafing out Normal Color film 
maybe more effective if taken during a period 
of complete leaf off. The film types are 
summarized in Table 2. 

In the Harpers Ferry Project some vegeta- 
tion overlays were classified from three or 
more photos. These overlays suffered from 
utilization of information near the edge of the 
photo effective area where relief displace- 
ment is greatest The effects of this dis- 
placement was evident when edge- matching 
the 37 vegetation overlays. The large change 
in scale and relief distortion resulted in some 
lines being off by as much as .25" between 
two vegetation overlays. Wherepossible.the 

photo mylar overlays were consulted in an 
attempt to match the vegetation overlays. 
Forced edge-matching of the 37 vegetative 
overlays, while possible, would not reflect 
the data inaccuracies resultant from manual 
photo interpretation, scale changes and relief 
distortion. It is recommended that the maxi- 
mum number of photos per vegetative over- 
lay be two, and that one is ideal In the 
Harpers Ferry Project the overlays requiring 
the greatest number of photos showed the 
greatest relief distortion. As photo scale is 
reduced, the number of photos per overlay 
increases with subsequent increases in relief 
distortion. A trade-off can therefore be seen 
between increased detail and increased relief 

Having aerial photographs of correct scale, 
film type, and date of the region of interest 
minimizes effort in the creation of vegetation 
overlays for use in GIS. In addition, ground 
surveys are critical to verify the photo inter- 
pretation. While the ZTS is an effective tool 
for the transfer of cover type information 
from photos to mylar overlays, where there 
are no identifiable man made features, the 
ZTSisnotveryhelpful. CIRphotos, leaf-off, 
were most effective for delineating among 
forest covertypes. Ideally, CIRphotos, leaf- 
off, of a scale between 1 : 1 2,000 and 1 : 1 8,000 
should be taken for the entire region of inter- 
est In choosing stereo pairs, care should be 
taken to limit the number of photos per 
overlay to two (2) where possible. 

Collins and Combs are graduate students and 
Jim Smith is their faculty advisor, Dept. of 
Forestry, V A Tech. Hebb is Resource Manage- 
ment Specialist at Harpers Ferry HNP. 

Table 2. Summarization of Film Types 

Film Type 



of Conifers 

of Hardwoods 


Normal Color 


Early Spring 

Dark Green 

Brown or 
Light Green 

Not enough detail. 
Timing poor, hard- 
woods just leafing out 
— look like conifers. 

Normal Color 





Difficult to classify 
vegetation types. 
Relief distortion exces- 




Light Pink 
to Red 

Darker Pink to 
Reddish color 

Difficult to distinguish 
between conifers and 




Pink to Red 


Best of vegetative 
classification, easy to 
distinguish between 
conifers and hard- 

Spring 1994 

Notes From Abroad 


During the last two 
weeks of July, I partici- 
pated in a 16 -member 
cave and karst manage- 
ment delegation to the 
People's Republic of Chi- 
na, The trip was orga- 
nized through auspices of 
People to People, Citizen 
Ambassador Program. 
My own money was used 
for this trip and I was 
granted annual leave from 
Fort Clatsop National Me- 
morial, where I am the 
Resource Management 
Specialist Prior to Fort 
Clatsop, I was Assistant 
Cave Resource Manage- 
ment Specialist at Carlsbad Caverns NP. 

The trip's purpose was to foster and devel- 
op exchanges with professional counterparts 
and to build a broader perspective toward 
worldwide cave and karst concerns. We ob- 
tained official permission for the U.S. to 
conduct a cave exploration in Spring 1995. 
Information on the structure, organization, 
etc., of the Institute of Karst Geology also 
proved valuable. 

The delegation leader was Cave Specialist 
Ronald C. Kerbo from the NPS Southwest 
Regional Office. Except for myself, the 
delegation members were from the National 
Speleological Society or the Cave Research 

Our delegation flew into Beijing, capital of 
the People's Republic of China, where we 
met with members of the China Association 
for Science and Technology, who hosted our 
visit From Beijing, we traveled south by air 
and bus to Southeast China, stopping to visit 
developed caves, wild caves, and non-cave 
areas along the way. The non-cave areas 
included the Hunan Geologic and Mineralogic 
Museum, the Great Wall, the Ming Tombs, a 
Tao temple, the Forbidden City, a cruise on 
the Li River, many mighty fine (real) Chinese 
restaurants, and portions of the incredibly 
beautiful tropical and sub-tropical country- 
side of southeastern tropical and sub-tropical 
countryside of southeastern to east-central 

Having the opportunity to see the country 
and visit with the people was a most reward- 
ing aspect of the trip. I learned a Utile about 
the culture and experienced first-hand the 
rice fields near Chenzhou, the high-pressure 

Villagers in southeastern China working in 
their fields, (photo btdaud ex) 

souvenir booths along the Great Wall, eating 
pig lung and ears, eel, rat and chicken feet 
and walking through the markets and back 
alleys of a city of 11 million. 

Due partly to the large population, long 
human history, and poor economy, the caves, 
karst and water resources of China have been 
highly impacted. Threats of particular con- 

Dr. Ron Delano approaches Songjadong Cave. 
The cave entrance is out of sight in the bottom of 
the sinkhole, (photo bydamdek) 

cem include nearby coal 
mining andother resource 
extraction activities as 
well as pollution and silt- 
ation from agricultural 
practices. Unlike the sit- 
uation in the U.S., mostof 
China's karst regions lie 
in the valleys between the 
lowland cities and the ag- 
ricultural areas on higher 
plateaus and hillsides. 
This condition allows all 
the chemicals, silt and 
other agricultural by- 
products to pollute the 
caves. Since caves serve 
as efficient conduits to the 
groundwater, in a relative- 
ly short distance large 
aquifers and countless people are affected. 
To begin to understand and deal with these 
many threats, China has created an Institute 
of Karst Geology research center in Guilin, 
China. The Institute has many knowledge- 
able and talented people associated with it 
however, funding is very poor. For instance, 
they are awaiting their first computer and 
FAX machine. 

While at the Institute of Karst Geology, 
our delegation presented five papers. Kerbo 
gave a paper on caves and cave management 
within the NPS. John French discussed a 
statistical model he developed for a karst area 
in Alabama that predicts cave entrance loca- 
tions. Bob Handley presented a paper on 
historic explorations of the Organ Cave Sys- 
tem in West Virginia. Ron Delano's paper 
dealt with recognizing and compensating for 
parallax diffraction while conducting cave 
surveys. My paper concerned biologic in- 
ventory and environmental preference inves- 
tigations of epigean fauna within Carlsbad 
Caverns NP. 

During one of our exchanges, we dis- 
cussed the worldwide importance of cave 
and karst resources. Karst comprises approx- 
imately 12 percent of the world's landforms. 
The People's Republic of China and the U.S. 
contain some of the world's most extensive 
karst As examples of their importance, 
China contains approximately 1 7 percent of 
the world's 20 million square kilometers of 
karst while 25 percent of U.S. fresh water 
resources is held in karstic landforms. 

China has for hundreds of years recog- 
nized the importance of caves and karst to 
water quality and the health and economy of 
the public. In China, unlike the U.S., the 


Park Science 

primary interest in caves is for scientific 
(principally hydro-logical) research. In the 
U.S., the leading interest in caves is recre- 
ational. MuchresearchistakingplaceinU.S. 
caves, but it does not come close to the 
scientific potential that caves hold. Many 
advanced research topics in hydrology, pale- 
ontology, biology, sedimentology, mineral- 
ogy, and global climate change are best an- 
swered in the unique environment of caves. 
Responsible research in caves at this level 
began only fairly recently. In spite of their 
wide distribution and scientific importance, 
caves have largely been ignored or misunder- 
stood by the U.S. scientific community, and 
even at times by the NPS. 

Caves are an important and unique biome 
within the National Park System. Sixty NPS 
units (17%) are known to contain cave re- 
sources. They occur throughout all Regions, 
particularly the Western, Rocky Mountain, 
Southwest, Southeast, and Pacific North- 
west The number of NPS positions created 
to deal specifically with these numerous and 
unique resources are: four to five at the park 
level, one at the regional level, and one with 
policy contact duties at the national level 

Impacts to caves are not unique to China. 
Coal mines in West Virginia and gas explo- 
ration in New Mexico are currently posing a 
tremendous threat to world class cave re- 
Tower Karsts just a few of the thousands 
located along the Li River in southeastern 
China, (photo bydavidek) 

sources. Siltation from logging activities in 
Washington and Alaska are impacting caves 
and compromising their value for research. 
Entire cities in Kentucky have highly con- 
taminated groundwater due to sewage and 
other contaminants being dumped into sink- 
holes. Significant archeological resources 
are being destroyed within caves in Arizona 
andHawaii. The list goes on and on. 

To deal effectively with these and other 
threats within the U.S., managers and re- 
searchers need to develop a more appropriate 
and responsible level of concern and atten- 
tion toward caves and karst More cave- 
related positions need to be established and a 
cave research facility and information repos- 
itory developed. Still far behind China, the 
NPS is in the process of developing a Cave 
Research Institute in this country. 

It was rewarding to visit Chinese caves, 
meet with fellow managers and researchers, 
and share information and ideas. Caves are a 
unique and much misunderstood resource. 
In light of the increasing threats to these 
resources in both countries, a more coordi- 
nated approach, at regional, national, and 
international levels, can be seen as necessary 
in order to deal with the complex issues 

Ek is Resource Management Specialist at Fort 
Clatsop National Memorial in Astoria, OR. 




The 36th annual wolf/moose winter 
monitoring program at Me Royale, still 
in progress as the deadline for tins issue 
of Park Science arrives, has produced 
s ur pr isin g results. 

When park staff left the Island last 
fall, only 11 wolves remained. Based on 
the last several years of intensive re- 
search and monitoring, the predicted 
future for the Isle Royale wolves was 
of eventual extirpation, primarily due to 
loss of genetic variability. In short, 
despite an apparent lack of disease 
problems and ample food supply, the 
wolf population was not rebounding 
from historic low levels. 

Imagine the surprise and excitement 
of the park staff and principal investiga- 
tor Rolf Peterson when 18 wolves were 
foundin January. Even more important- 
ly, for the first time since 1988, more 
than one pack successfulry raised pups 
to winter. Two of the three packs pro- 
four pups, white the East Pack also pro- 
duced four. The alpha male of the 
Middle Pack died in January, so the 
current count is 17, although there is a 
kmerstiU unaccounted for on the Island. 
The eight pups surviving to winter rep- 
resent the largest number of pups in 
several years. 

fcifcamation on die rrK»se population 
is less complete at this time, althoughthe 
population is expected to be at similar 
levels to 1993— that of about 1 ,900 an- 
imals (the highestpopulationin approx- 
imately 60 years). 

FrnaBy,arx)therrareevent — thefbrm- 
ingofan ice bridge from Isle Royate to 
the Norm Shore ofrvDrmesota and Can- 
ada(approxrmatery 1 5 rrmesacrossLake 

vere winter, offering at least the poten- 
tial for immigration of wolves to the 
bland. Theoriginalrnovementofwolves 
across the ice to the Island in the late 
1940s, the foundation for the existing 
wolf population, was an extremely rare 
event It would take another rare set of 
circumstances were it to happen again. 


Isle Royale Natural Resource Specialist 


Michigan Technological Untversay 

Spring 1994 


Regional Highlights 

Southeast Region 

The natural resource management pro- 
gram at Mammoth Cave NP received well- 
deserved recognition recently, when its staff 
swept all three of the Southeast Region Nat- 
ural Resource Awards, and Supt. Dave 
Mihalic was named the Director's Superin- 
tendent of the Year for Natural Resource 

Mammoth Cave Resource Mgt Chief Jeff 
Bradybaugh earned the Region's Natural 
Resource Management Award He has fos- 
tered a solid scientific approach to under- 
standing the resources of Mammoth Cave 
NP, and has designed a comprehensive re- 
search program involving partnerships with 
universities, agencies, organizations, and in- 
dividuals; he has professionalized the Divi- 
sion of Science and Resource Management 
and has coordinated an interagency effort to 
develop a program focused on protection of 
groundwater integral to cave resources. 

Joseph Meiman was the Region's winner 
in the research category. Joe has sought to 
protect the integrity of the subsurface ecosys- 
tem ofMammoth Cave NP and the surround- 
ing International Biosophere Reserve. Focus 
has been on the strategic acquisition of scien- 
tific information necessary to demonstrate 
impacts on groundwater quality and under- 
stand the mechanics of pollutant transfer. He 
has designed and completed numerous scien- 
tific studies since being hired in 1989. 

Mihalic has addressed park resource man- 
agement issues from a sustainable ecosystem 
perspective throughout his tenure at Mam- 
moth Cave. In addition to initiation of an 
International BR, he has worked to protect, 
manage, and resolve issues affecting the aquat- 
ic ecosystem and has participated in local 
programs to improve the general welfare, 
health, and economy of the rural Mammoth 
Cave area. Supt. Mihalic and the park have 
received national recognition for these ef- 
forts in the form of the 1993 "Innovation 
Award" from the National Association of 
Development Districts. 
* * * 

Virgin Islands NP reports that 1 7 perma- 
nently buoyed anchors have been placed to 
reduce anchor damage to marine benthic 
communities. The U.S. Navy is assisting the 
park in installing 17 to 23 additional moor- 
ings. The park also has closed two bays on 
the south shore to anchoring. The "mooring 
only" areas allow visitor use while protecting 
important research sites, seagrass beds, and 
the endangered green sea turtle that feeds on 

The park also has established a DOS based 
GIS system manipulated by EDRISI and Arc- 
Cad software. Several major themes are dig- 
itized and ready for use, including vegeta- 
tion, elevation, marine benthic communities, 
historic structures, archeological sites, en- 
dangered species, and transportation. Con- 
tacts for more information on the mooring 
program or the GIS system are Jennifer Bjork 
and Tom Kelley of Virgin Islands NP. 

* * * 

Recently published reports: 

Boulay, M.C. 1992. Mortality and Re- 
cruitment of White-Tailed Deer Fawns in 
the Wet Prairie/Tree Island Habitat of the 
Everglades. Master's thesis, U/FL, 

Miller, K.E. 1993. Habitat Use by White- 
TailedDeerin the Everglades: Tree Islands 
in a Seasonally Flooded Landscape. Mas- 
ter's thesis, U/FL, Gainesville. 

Sargent, RA. 1992. Movement Ecology 
of Adult Male White-Tailed Deer in Hunted 
and Non-Hunted Populations in the Wet 
Prairie of the Everglades. Master's thesis, 
U/FL, Gainesville. 

Zultowsky, J.M. 1992. Behavioral and 
Spatial Ecology of Female White-Tailed 
Deer in the Everglades Ecosystem. Master's 
thesis, U/FL, Gainesville. 

Western Region 

(Professor at the Laboratory of Tree-Ring 
Research and Director of the Institute for 
Study of Planet Earth at U/AZ), "A 1000- 
Year Record of Temperature and Precipita- 
tion in the Sierra Nevada" {Quaternary Re- 
search, 1993; 39:249-255) has attracted at- 
tention with its documentation of extensive 
drought periods during previous centuries. 
Summaries of her findings and their possible 
implications for both park ecosystems and 
State water supplies were covered by local 
newspapers and by the New York Times. Dr. 
Graumlich is a principal investigator on the 
Sierra Nevada global change research pro- 

* * * 

Research Scientist David Parsons has been 
asked to serve on an ad hoc committee on 
ecosystem management by the Ecological 
Society of America (ESA). NPS representa- 
tion in such activities is critical in building the 
credibility ofNPS science activities as well as 
in assuring the results of the committee are 
applicable to park issues. Dr. Parsons also 
has been asked to serve as a member of an 
independent science team appointed to as- 

sess the current status and management alter- 
natives for old growth and associated ecosys- 
tems of the Sierra Nevada. This study is 
mandated by Congressional legislation. 

Parsons continues to serve on the Board of 
Editors for the ESA journal, Ecological Ap- 
plications, which is interested in publishing 
more articles related to NP resource issues. 
Potential contributors can contact Parsons at 
Sequoia and Kings Canyon NPs. Parsons 
currently is working on a special series of 
papers on threats to wilderness and parks, to 
be published in a special issue co-edited by 
David Cole of the USFS Wilderness Re- 
search Institute in Missoula, MT. 

* * * 

Under the direction of Dr. Bill Halvorson, 
the U/AZ CPSU has published Proceedings 
of the Fourth California Islands Sympo- 
sium. The symposium was held March 23- 
25, 1993 in Santa Barbara, CA. Copies may 
be purchased from the Santa Barbara Natural 
History Museum, 2559 Puesta del Sol Road, 
Santa Barbara, CA 93106, (805) 682-471 1. 

The following articles by A/AZ CPSU 
staff have been accepted for publication: 

Christopherson, Gary L., D.Phillip Guertin, 
Michael R Kunzmann, Kenneth L. Kvamme, 
and Thomas Potter, (1993). "Comparison of 
interpolation algorithms for digital elevation 
model generation and subsequent viewshed 
analysis," IN Proceedings of the First Bien- 
nial Conference on Research in Colorado 
Plateau NPs, pp 226-233. Available through 
NAU-CPSU, ISSN 0270-8655. 

Kunzmann, Michael R, Peter S. Bennett, 
and R Roy Johnson. "Riparian Ecosystems: 
Values and Functions." IN Altered, Artifi- 
cial, and Managed Wetlands: Agriculture 
and Forestry, Proceedings of the Assn. of 
Wetland Managers, Berne NY. 

Kunzmann, Michael R, Lee A. Graham, 
and Dana M. Slaymaker. "Cost effective 
global positioning systems and geolink field 
data acquisition techniques and applications 
in Arizona NPs and Wildlife Refuges," IN 
Third International CPS/GIS Conference, 
Seattle, WA, June 23-25, 1993. Available 
through GeoResearch Inc., Billings, MT. 

Kunzmann, M.R. and P.S. Bennett, "Sup- 
pression of Saguaro cactus flower bud for- 
mation by roosting vultures in Arizona." 
Southwest Naturalist. 

* * * 

Dr. George Ball and Michael Kunzmann 
received a research grant from Southwest 
Parks and Monuments to continue work on 
the "Analysis of historic fire data using spa- 
tial modeling techniques for Chiricahua Na- 
tional Monument" 



Regional Highlights 

Development of a prototype social science 
research plan is one of the Western Region's 
exciting new starts. Project workers include 
Bill Halverson, Jim Holland, Donna 
Chickering, and Liudyte Novickis. Their 
project is scheduled for summer completion. 

* * * 

For one of the livelier accounts of on- 
going research and resource management 
anywhere in the Service, read Joan Ford's 
regular column in Bajada, published (and 
free) three times a year by the NBS CPSU at 
U/AZ. Ford is an administrative clerk for the 
CPSU and obviously in touch with every- 
thing going on around there. 

Mid Atlantic Region 

Tom Blount, Shenandoah NP I&M Pro- 
gram Manager, along with four cooperating 
researchers from U/VA, presented papers at 
the Mid Atlantic Highlands Environmental 
Monitoring and Assessment Conference in 
Hershey, PA Feb. 23-25. Session topics 
included an overview of progress on the 
park's Long-term Ecological Monitoring 
Program and trend information gained from 
analysis of aquatic resource datasets. 

* * * 

Research and Resource P lannin g Division 
of Delaware Water Gap NRA and the Dela- 
ware River Basin Commission (DRBC) met 
with representatives of NC/State/U's Com- 
puter Graphics Center to continue develop- 
ment of a water quality model for the entire 
upper Delaware basin — over 4,000 square 
miles. This model will allow analysis of the 
effect on water quality of proposed develop- 
ments within any of the more than 70 tribu- 
tary watersheds in the upper Delaware basin. 

The model will be linked to the Delaware 
WaterGapNRA'sGISatPeirce House. This 
linkage will allow examination of the effects 
of potential threats to the Delaware water 
quality anywhere in the upper basin, and will 
be a means by which water quality and re- 
source management specialists, under the 
auspices of the DRBC Special Protection 
Waters program, can conduct long-term 
areawide water quality management 

* * * 

A pre-settlement-origin chestnut oak for- 
est in French Creek State Park, adjacent to the 
Hopewell Furnace NHS boundary, was dis- 
covered in the course of a recent research 
project The study investigated the commu- 
nity ecology of an old growth chestnut oak 
forest on a dry talus slope. Chestnut oaks up 
to 367 years old dominate the canopy layer. 

Ironically, this community is situated near 
the center of a 19th Century charcoal iron 

settlement, where area forests repeatedly were 
clearcut on short rotations for fuel. 

This discovery permitted the construction 
of a 367-year living tree-ring chronology, 
which may be used in the future dating of 
historic structures at Hopewell Furnace NHS. 

Pacific Northwest 

On February 3, PNR representatives met 
with consevation organization leaders to dis- 
cuss "Nature Has No Borders," the March 
25-27 Conference on the Protection and 
Management of the Northern Cascades Eco- 
system, on the U/WA campus in Seattle. 

At that meeting, the Freeman Tilden 
Award was presented to Barb Maynes, Dis- 
trict Interpreter at01ympicNP,and the Tilden 
Sponsorship Award was given to Supt 
Maureen Finnerty for supporting interpreta- 
tion activities at Olympic. 

* * * 

Fort Clatsop National Memorial Supt. 
Cynthia Orlando was in Washington, DC the 
last week of January to brief the Oregon 
Congressional delegation on the draft Gener- 
al Management Plan/EIS for Fort Clatsop. 

* * * 

Assoc. Reg. Dir. Mike Tollefson attended 
a January meeting in Virginia, called by 
Destry Jarvis, to help the NPS develop a 
Public Land Corps program, part of the Na- 
tional Service Corps, slated to be in place by 
this summer. 

* * * 

The Region has been asked by the Student 
Conservation Assn. to help SCAputon"Earth 
Week Seattle" May 21, 1994. Regional 
Chief Ranger Reed Jarvis has been assigned 
as the Region's representative on the SCA 
steering committee. NPS will be a partner in 
providing logistical and staff support and 
will assist at some of the 1,000 proposed 
work sites in the City of Seattle. Focus of the 
event is to unify communities in urban envi- 
ronmental restoration and beautification 
projects while creating your-round support 
for SCA's education and work program. 

* * * 

Managers from Olympic NP, Olympic NF 
and the WA Dept of Natural Resources met 
Jan. 20-21 in Port Angeles, WA. The meet- 
ing, whose theme was "Reinventing Govern- 
ment on the Peninsula," afforded managers 
a chance to become better acquainted with 
one another's programs and to discuss eco- 
system management interagency coopera- 
tion, and providing better public service. 

Southwest Region 

The SWR's Division of Natural Resourc- 
es held a week-long Resource Management 
Workshop in January. Over 130 attendees 
heard presentations on topics such as compli- 
ance and consultation, resource stewardship, 
the interrelationships between natural and 
cultural resources, how to write good propos- 
als and project statements for park resource 
management plans, information on funding 
sources, and the role of Geographic Informa- 
tion Systems in resource management 

Maria Burks presented a session on re- 
source stewardship and the Vail Agenda; 
Deputy Regional Director Mary Bradford 
opened the workshop with a talk on her 
views of resource management as part of 
park management and the relationship be- 
tween the parks and the regional office; and 
David Simon, the keynoter, spoke on the 
purpose and role of the National Parks and 
Conservation Association and its administra- 
tive and legislative agendas. 
* * * 

On January 31, the New Mexico State 
Director for the BLM signed a Record of 
Decision for the Dark Canyon Environmen- 
tal Impact Statement This EIS was prepared 
by BLM to assist them in deciding how to 
manage oil and gas leases adjacent to Carlsbad 
Caverns NP near the known passageways of 
Lechuguilla Cave. NPS was a cooperating 
agency in preparation of the EIS. 

The decision made by BLM was endorsed 
by NPS; it sets a new standard for protection 
ofcave resources by BLM. A cave protection 
zone was established and drilling for oil and 
gas in this zone will not be permitted Outside 
this zone, special precautionary measures for 
oil and gas activities will be required. These 
measures also will be used by BLM in other 
karst areas to protect cave resources. 

Midwest Region 

In an effort to understand some of the more 
subtle, yet important anthropogenic impacts 
on parks, Walt Loope, Research Ecologist 
focused on one lake in Pictured Rocks Na- 
tional Lakeshore to determine how it had 
been altered by placement of a lowhead dam 
across the outlet. The dam was installed in 
the early 1900s to raise creek and lake levels 
in order to float logs to Lake Superior. 

He found that many of the lake's charac- 
teristics, previously attributed to natural phe- 
nomena, probably were caused by the dam. 
The report, titled "Evidence of Physical and 
Biological Change Within the Beaver Lake 
Continued on page 14 

Spring 1994 


Regional Highlights 

MAB Notes 

Watershed Attributable to aTum-of-the-Cen- 
tury Logging Dam," can be had by contract- 
ing Brian Kenner at Pictured Rocks, (906)387- 

* * * 

All monitoring efforts in 1993 indicated 
that zebra mussels did not become estab- 
lished in waters of the Saint Croix National 
Scenic Riverway. . .an unexpected but very 
welcome outcome of the 1993 zebra mussel 
response program. The 1994 program, sup- 
ported by a special appropriation from Con- 
gress, will include a critically needed assess- 
ment of the zebra mussel risk along the 405 - 
kilometer length of the St Croix. The limited 
information available in scientific literature 
indicates that at least the upper reaches of the 
river may not have high enough levels of 
calcium to allow for zebra mussel establish- 
ment. Water quality characteristics of the St 
Croix will be mimicked in lab tank studies to 
assess the risk of zebra mussel colonization in 
various reaches of the river. 

* * * 

Twenty-nine Region employees attended 
the Georgraphic Information Systems Octo- 
ber 1 993 workshop at the GIS Field Techni- 
cal Support Center (FTSC) at the U/WI- 
Madison. The workshop aimed to establish 
common ground for building a Regional GIS 
program. One goal of the FTSC is to involve 
knowledge and expertise at U/WI-Madison 
in park issues and projects, and toward this 
end workshop participants made presenta- 
tions open to the university community on 
the cultural, natural, andrecreational resources 
of their parks and the issues facing them. 

* * * 

Regional Chief Scientist Ron Hiebert met 
with the Natural Resource Advisory Board 
for Haskell Indian National University Nov. 
2-3 in Lawrence, KS, where the contribu- 
tions of two NPS cooperative education en- 
rollees and two interns from Haskell were 
recognized in an award ceremony. 

* * * 

Dr. Robert Brander retired from the NPS 
Nov. 12, 1993. At a farewell dinner in 
Washburn, WI, on Nov. 9, he was presented 
with the Dept of the Interior Meritorious 
Service Award for major contributions in 
ecosystem management and inter-agency/ 
international cooperation. He will continue 
to work, as a re-employed annuitant on spe- 
cial designations — a part of the Lake Superi- 
or Binational working group. 

The most significant recent event on the 
U.S. MAB front was the workshop held in 
December 1993atEstes Park, CO.todevelop 
a draft Action Plan for the U.S. Biosphere 
Reserve Program. Developed by 83 partic- 
ipants, including representatives from 33 bio- 
sphere reserves, the plan forms the basis for 
establishing an integrated U.S. BR program 
and constitutes a resource for ideas and ac- 
tions that managers can use in carrying out 
their own BR objectives. It is a blueprint for 
moving biosphere reserve reality ever closer 
to the BR concept The goals and some of the 
actions in the plan are the following: 

• Develop the organization and leader- 
ship to carry out the mission. Actions 
include: Establishing a national BR Director- 
ate with a budget convening an annual meet- 
ing of the U.S. MAB Program; supporting 
selected BRs to become models for imple- 
menting BR concepts. 

• Develop political support and funding 
for the biosphere reserve program. Ac- 
tions include: U.S. MAB communicating 
with White House offices to include BRs in 
their policy and planning activities; estab- 
lishing a challenge cost-sharing and/or com- 
petitive small grant program; convening a 
primarily private sector National Support 
Group; establishing a Non-governmental 
Biosphere Reserve Foundation. 

• Foster partnerships and community 
participation. Actions include: Developing 
new, formal and informal communication 
tools; promoting the "cluster concept" of 
partnerships among conservation, research, 
and multiple-use areas; using formal agree- 
ments to establish partnerships. 

• Conserve and manage biosphere re- 
serve resources. Actions include: Exploring 
the feasibility of adding areas to existing BRs 
to implement fully the BR model. 

• Improve understanding of relation- 
ships between natural and human systems 
in biosphere reserves. Actions include: 

Establishing standardized monitoring tech- 
niques; including demographic and socio- 
economic conditions and the values, atti- 
tudes, and perceptions of local people in BR 
inventory and monitoring programs; identi- 
fying and improving access to commonly 
used databases. 

• Promote public awareness and educa- 
tion on the value and benefits of biosphere 
reserves. Actions include: Developing and 
using public media to support the U.S. BR 
program; developing an aggressive market- 
ing strategy for BRs aimed at potential gov- 
ernmental and private sector sources of fund- 
ing and in-kind support establishing a BR 
communications system based on a world- 
wide electronic network. 

At its January 24 meeting, the U.S. MAB 
National Committee accepted the draft Ac- 
tion plan and directed the workshop drafting 
committee under Joann Roskoski and Bill 
Gregg to prepare a final draft for Executive 
Committee decision in March. The National 
Committee also committed to creating a Bio- 
sphere Reserve Directorate with representa- 
tives from BR managers, agencies with BRs, 
and stakeholders from the wider community. 
Internationally, a number of countries, in- 
cluding Australia, Canada, China, Germany, 
Mexico, and Spain, are reviewing their BR 
programs to see how improvement can be 

Bill Gregg, former MAB Coordinator with 
the NPS, continues his deep involvement 
with MAB as chief of the international divi- 
sion of the National Biological Survey. Each 
agency in the MAB program will continue to 
have a MAB representative. That responsi- 
bility in the NPS will reside in the Natural 
Resource Directorate or some part of the 
directorate's reconfiguration in the Wash- 
ington Office reorganization now underway. 

Napier Shelton 
NPS Washington Office 

Roger G. Kennedy, Director 

Eugene Hester, Associate Director for Natural Resources, 

National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior 

Editorial Board 

Gary E. Davis, Marine Research Scientist, Channel Islands NP 

John Dennis, Biologist, Washington Office 

James W. Larson, Editorial Board Chair and Chief Scientist, Pacific NW Region 

Elizabeth Johnson, Chief, Research and Resource Planning; Delaware Water Gap NRA, BushltilL PA 

Jon Jams, Superintendent, Craters of the Moon National Monuments; Arco, ID 

Jean Matthews, Editor, 4150-A SW Fairhaven Dr., CorvaUis, OR 97333 

(503)754-0263 or (503) 758-8503 

Park Service FAX (503) 737-2668, c o Forest Resources 



Park Science 

Potential Beaver Recolonization 
at Indiana Dunes Being Evaluated 
by Means off 

By Eddie L Chlkters 

The beaver (Castor canadensis) originally 
inhabited much of the North American con- 
tinent and was a valued resource for many 
settlers and native Americans. Northwest 
Indiana supported large beaver populations 
throughout the 1800s as noted by Kubik 
(1993). Beavers were extirpated thereafter, 
following loss ofhabitat due to wetland drain- 
age operations and exploitation by settlers, 
native Americans, trappers, and hunter. 

By the early 1 900s, beavers existed only in 
the most remote and isolated areas of North 
America, and the original presettlement pop- 
ulation of 60 million had been reduced to an 
estimated 1 00,000 animals. The beaver, that 
had become a symbol of a wilderness species, 
had been wiped out in areas inhabited by 

Since the 1900s, Indiana and many other 
states have restored the beaver to much of its 
original range where suitable habitat still 
exists (USFWS 1987). Beaver restoration 
efforts in the U.S. began in the early 1900s, 
with releases of live trapped animus in New 
York, California, and Missouri. More live- 
trapped beavers were released in West Vir- 
ginia, Michigan, and Wisconsin in the early 

Federal aid in the form of Wildlife Resto- 
ration Funds was made available through the 
Pittman-Robertson (P-R) Act The P-R Act 
taxed the purchase ofhunting equipment and 
provided the initial source of funding for 
beaver restoration throughout the U.S. P-R 
monies have provided over $2 billion toward 
wildlife restoration and recreational wildlife 
use. With the influx of P-R funding, live- 
trapped beavers continued to be released in 
unoccupied U.S. habitats, specifically Ar- 
kansas, Maine, Idaho, Wisconsin, Mississip- 
pi, Washington, Iowa, Pennsylvania, Massa- 
chusetts, Wyoming, Alabama, Louisiana, 
Colorado, and Indiana. 

Beaver populations had made dramatic 
recoveries by the mid-1950s, and by the 
1 970s populations were estimated at 1 5 mil- 
lion nationwide. Beavers now are present 
throughout the U.S. and their numbers and 
range continue to grow. Suitable habitat that 
includes preferred food and water resources 
appears to be the key limiting factor to beaver 

Beaver population growth and dispersal is 
influence by land use, hydrology, food avail- 
ability, and predation. Potential beaver 
recolonization within Indiana Dunes Nation- 

al Lakeshore (NL) will focus on areas that 
provide adequate food resources, cover, and 
surface water. For example, beavers recently 
have been observed along the Little Calumet 
River in the NL and have been known to 
travel into other areas of the NL as well. This 
article focuses on the probably effects of 
potential beaver recolonization in the East 
Unit oflndiana Dunes NL, using Geographic 
information Systems (GIS) with emphasis on 
beaver habitat suitability and potential carry- 
ing capacity. 

The GIS analysis used the 68 previously 
classifiedplant communities of the NL's East 
Unit and reclassified them into the food hab- 
itat category types, based on known beaver 
food preferences (Martin et aL 1961) that 
included: Poplar-Aspen-Willow; Birch-Ma- 
ple; Emergent Vegetation-Forested Fen- 
Wetland; Crops-Fields-Orchards-Grassland- 
Revegetation Communities; Dogwood-Ce- 
dar-Tamarack; Mesic Forest-Mesic Succes- 
sional-Floodplain Scrub; Upland Forest-Up- 
land Scrub-Sumac- Vines, and other habitat 
types (e.g. open water). 

The vegetation community reclassifica- 
tion and the total area for each of the beaver 
food habitat types were generated for the East 
Unit using r.reclass and (GRASS 
4.0, 1991), respectively. National Lakeshore 
surface water and beaver food habitat catego- 
ries also were analyzed to determine the 
100 meters of surface water within the NL>r(GRASS4.0, 1991). 

The GIS analysis investigated land use, 
surface water, and food availability to deter- 
mine optimum beaver density and habitat for 
theNL. Potential beaver density, or carrying 
capacity, is expressed as number of colonies 
perkm2. Beaver colonies usually are made 
up of 8 to 10 individuals. Beaver density 
values reported in the literature range from 
0.38 to 0.76 colonies per km 2 by Voight et aL 
(1976) working in Algonquin Park, Ontario, 
and by Aleksiuk (1968) working in the 
Mackenzie Delta, Northwest Territory. 

GIS Analysis 

Total beaver food habitat potential for the 
NL's East Unit is estimated at 42 km 2 (Table 
2). This amount of preferred food is capable 
of supporting more than 40 beaver colonies. 
If 100 meter wide buffer strips adjacent to NL 
surface water are considered exclusively in 
the analysis, total preferred habitat is approx- 
imately 14 km 2 . Buffer strips this size prob- 
ably correspond to primary beaver move- 
- ment perpendicular to watershed 

This amount of habitat should support 
more than 20 active beaver colonies assum- 
ing this area represents the East Unit beaver 
carrying capacity. However, since trapping 
is not permitted and the coyote is the only 
known significant predator to inhabit the NL, 
a much lower number of active beaver colo- 
nies probably would be amore realistic thresh- 
old level for optimum beaver density at Indi- 
ana Dunes NL. This conclusion reflects the 
knowledge that beaver has been known to be 
a nuisance species in many areas of the U.S. 

Recolonizing beaver in the NL's East Unit 
would provide many positive ecological ben- 
efits: Soil erosion control, ground water re- 
charge, restoration of the Great Marsh to 
original presettlement hydrology, and cre- 
ation of high grade waterfowl, furbearer, and 
aquatic species habitat 

Beaver populations also could expand to 
areas outside the park through emigration, 
thereby providing trapping opportunities to 
residents on private lands in northwestern 
Indiana. Resource Management staff will 
monitor beaver populations at the national 
lakeshore to determine if threshold levels are 
being exceeded, and will apply appropriate 
management actions as necessary. 

Childers is GIS specialist at Indiana Dunes NL, 
Porter, IN 46304. 

Literature Cited 

Aleksiuk, M. 1968. "Scent-mound communication, territor- 
iality, and population regulation in beaver (Castor 
canadensis Kuhl)." J. Mammal. 49:759-762. 

GRASS 4.0, Geographic Resources Analysis and Support 
Systm. July 1991. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Con- 
struction Research Lab. Champaign, IL 

Martin, AC, H.S. Zim, and AL Nelson. 1961 . Arm. Wildlife 
and Plants-A guide to Wildlife Food Habitats. Dover 
Publications. 500pp. 

U.S. Dept of the Interior, F&W Service. 1987. Restoring 
America 's Wildlife. U.S. Government Printing Office, Wash- 
ington DC. 394pp. 

Voigt D.R., G.B. Kotensky, and D.H. PimtotL 1976. "Chang- 
es in summer foods of wolves in central Ontario." J. WM. 
Manage. 40:663-668. 

Spring 1994 


Trail Conditions and Management 

By Jeffrey L Marlon 

The author and colleagues Joe 
Roggenbuck and Bob Manning re- 
cently conducted a survey ofNPS man- 
agers to describe visitor-related backcountry 
recreation management problems and prac- 
tices. The survey and resulting NPS Natural 
Resources Report (available from Donna 
O'Leary — see references) address the fol- 
lowing topics: (1) managers' perceptions of 
the types and severity of backcountry recre- 
ation management problems, (2) actions im- 
plemented to resolve problems, (3) manag- 
ers' perceptions of the success of implement- 
ed actions, (4) managers' knowledge and 
application of carrying capacity models, and 
(5) the type and extent of monitoring efforts 
employed to assess impacts caused by recre- 
ational use. 

Also available on request, is a computer 
diskette with dB ASE JJI Plus databases con- 
taining information characterizing each park 
unit and the specific actions implemented to 
address backcountry recreation management 
problems. These databases are intended to 
facilitate communication of alternative 
backcountry recreation management practic- 
es. Instructions permit users to identify and 
list parks comparable to their own that em- 
ploy specific backcountry recreation man- 
agement actions. Contacts and phone num- 
bers are included to facilitate dialog regard- 
ing implementation methods, administrative 
costs, supporting actions, effectiveness, and 
other factors which could not be character- 
ized by the study. 

This article presents selected results from 
the survey regarding manager's evaluations 
of trail resource conditions and the trail man- 
agement actions they employ. 

Management objectives for backcountry 
or natural zones call for the preservation of 
park resources and ecological processes in as 
natural a condition as possible. Visitor activ- 
ities in these remote park areas tend to con- 
centrate along trails, in scenic attraction ar- 
eas, and on campsites. In particular, trails and 
trail networks play a significant role in shap- 
ing visitor access and distribution patterns in 
parks. Trails must support substantial traffic 
from both day and overnight visitors. 

Trail impacts include a wide variety of 
problems, including loss of vegetation cover, 
incision and soil loss of the tread surface, 
widening of the tread, compaction of soil, 
proliferation of informal trails, and the results 
of various depreciative behaviors such as 
littering and cutting of trail switchbacks. 
Without proper trail maintenance programs 
these problems can alter natural patterns of 
water runoff, resulting in soil erosion and 

subsequent turbidity and deposition in streams 
and other water bodies. Trails concentrate 
visitation and provide an avenue for trans- 
portation. While some impact is unavoid- 
able, excessive trail impacts threaten both the 
safety of trail users and the quality of their 
recreational experiences. 

Study Methods 

A mail-back questionnaire was sent to all 
NPS units judged to have substantial 
backcountry resources and overnight visita- 
tion. The park list was compiled from those 
parks specifically offering backcountry camp- 
ing as described in TheNationalParks: Camp- 
ing Guide 1988-89, and parks with signifi- 
cant backcountry overnight visitation re- 
ported to the NPS Socio-Economic Studies 
Office for the years 1986-90. Surveys were 
sent to park superintendents in September 
1991 with a request that they be directed to 
park staffwith responsibility for backcountry 
recreation management The need for input 
from resource management staff was also 
noted. Compliance was high, with a return of 
93 completed surveys for a 92 percent re- 
sponse rate. Additionally, 7 of the 8 non- 
responding parks were among the lowest in 
backcountry visitation. Completed surveys 
were input into dB ASE HI Plus databases and 
transferred to the SPSS-PC+ statistical pack- 
age for analysis. 


NPS backcountry areas have a mean of 
125 miles of official trail and 59 miles of 
unofficial trail (Table 1). However, these 
means reflect substantial trail systems in a 

Table 1. Miles of official and unoffi- 
cial backcountry trails. 



Miles Number of Parks 

1-25 22 
26-50 13 
51 - 100 16 
101-250 10 
251 - 500 3 
Over 500 9 


Official Trails: Mean = 125, Median = 35 
Unofficial Trails: Mean = 59, Median = 5 

few areas; for example, 9 parks had over 500 
miles of official backcountry trails. The 
typical area (as reflected in median values) 
has 59 miles of official trails and 5 miles of 
unofficial trails. Interestingly, 17 percent of 
the backcountry areas in our survey had no 
officially recognized backcountry trails. 

Backcountry managers rated the perceived 
severity of 5 types of trail impacts using a 
problem severity scale based on the geo- 
graphical extent of problems. Data from the 
two highest categories, "a problem in many 
areas" and "a problem in most areas" were 
combined, as presented in Table 2. Nearly 
one-half of all park managers reported that 
soil erosion on trails was a problem in many 
or most areas of the backcountry. Problems 

Table 2. Managers' evaluation of die 
extent of backcountry trails impacts. 

Parks Where 
Impact is a 
Problem in 

Many or Most 

Number Percent 
Soil erosion 37 44 

Trail widening 26 31 

Braided or multiple treads 24 29 

Creation of undesired trails 24 29 

Excessive trail muddiness 21 25 

with trail widening was cited by 3 1 percent of 
parks, and 29 percent rated the formation of 
braided or multiple trails and the creation of 
undesired trails as serious problems. 

The recreational activities that occur in 
backcountry areas vary in their environmen- 
tal impacts to trail resources, backcountry 
managers were asked to indicate the extent to 
which they perceived day use, overnight use, 
recreation stock, off-road vehicles/all-terrain 
vehicles (ORVs/ATVs), and mountain bikes 
contributed to trail impacts. Three kinds of 
recreational use were predominant as causal 
agents for trail impacts: day use, horse use, 
andovernightuse(Table3). The percentages 
of parks citing these three uses as moderate or 
major causes were 47 percent, 43 percent, 
and 34 percent, respectively. Managers 
reported that day use is more common than 
ovemightusein70 percentofthe backcountry 
areas and accounts for about 2/3 of all use. 
Also, while only 3 backcountry areas have 
more than 25 percent of their use made up by 

Table 3. Managers' 

ratings of extent to 

which various recreation activities are a 

moderate or major 

cause of trail impacts. 


Trail Impacts 


Number Percent 

Day Use 

39 47 

Overnight Use 

28 34 

Horse Use 

30 43 


8 14 

Mountain Bike Use 

6 10 


Park Science 

;es in the National Park Service 

Table 4. Actions taken by park managers to reduce trail impacts 

Discourage off-trail travel 

Encourage off-trail travel 

Teach minimum-impact biking techniques 

Discourage use of unofficial trails 

parks taking the 





Discourage trail use during seasons when soils are saturated 
Relocate trails from fragile to durable soils or vegetation types 
Relocate trails to avoid steep grades 
Perform regular general trail maintenance 




Delineate trail edges to keep visitors on a defined tread 
Close or rehabilitate impacted trails 
Close or rehabilitate undesired trails 
Install trail bog bridges or corduroy 



Seed or transplant vegetation on trails 

Apply trail soil cement 

Gravel trails 

Other install hardening/boardwalks over sensitive areas 






rse users, 43 percent of the parks see horse 
; as a moderate or major cause of trail 

Managers have implemented a variety of 
ions to address backcountry trail manage- 
nt problems. A comprehensive list of 
tential actions was provided to managers, 
o were asked to indicate which actions 
re currently employed in all or some por- 
& of their park's backcountry. Managers 
o had the option of listing additional ac- 
as. Trail maintenance, visitor communi- 
ion/education, and trail closure were among 
predominant actions used to address trail 
»blems(Table4). Surprisingly, managers 
orted that only 1/2 of all backcountry 
as receive regular general trail mainte- 

Communication is used at nearly l/2ofthe 
ks to discourage visitors from travelling 
-trail or using unofficial trails. These 
ions concentrate visitor use and trampling 
pacts on formally designated and main- 
led trails. In contrast, managers at 10 
ks sought to minimize trail impacts through 
Education to promote minimum impact 
ing techniques was employed by manag- 
at 1/3 of the parks and 1/5 reported that 
y discourage trail use during seasons when 
Is are saturated. 

Iran* relocation is used by 41 percent of 
backcountry managers to shift trails from 
gile to more durable soils or vegetation 
es. Undesired or user-created trails are 
ively closed and rehabilitated at 44 per- 
rt of the parks, a practice used by 29 
cent of the parks for highly impacted 

As previously noted, horse users were 
perceived by managers to cause trail impacts 
out ofproportion to their numbers. Managers 
reported that of the 60 areas that were open to 
horses, 55, (or 92%) prohibit horses within 
certain areas or on certain trails in the 
backcountry. Furmennore,39percentprohib- 
ited, and an additional 10 percent discour- 
aged horse use from off-trail travel Manag- 
ers limit horse numbers at 1/2 of the areas 
open to horses; number of horses/group 
ranged from to 50 with a mean of 12 and a 
median of 10. 

Another survey section asked managers to 
list and rate the perceived effectiveness of 
specific actions implemented in response to 
common problems that had been effectively 
addressed. Most of the highly rated actions 
implemented to address trail impacts involved 
some form of trail work. Such actions includ- 
ed trail maintenance and rehabilitation, board- 
walk installation, and delineation of trail 
treads. Some moderately effective actions 
included temporarily closing and relocating 
badly eroded trails, designation of trails for 
different uses, and promoting dispersed hik- 
ing. Backcountry managers generally rated 
visitor communication and education actions, 
such as signing of informal trails and promo- 
tion of low impact trail use, as somewhat 

Finally, managers were asked to list and 
describe monitoring efforts used to assess the 
effects of visitor use on the condition of trail 
resources. Trail impact monitoring was con- 
ducted at only 8 parks. Monitoring ap- 
proaches included rapid assessment rating 
and measurement methods for documenting 
trail width and incision and research methods 
employing measurements of vegetation and 

soil loss. Trail inventory surveys designed 
primarily for assessing trail maintenance 
needs were conducted at 1 2 parks. These are 
typically conducted by maintenance division 
staff for the purpose of setting trail mainte- 
nance priorities and directing work- Informal 
evaluations of trail impacts and trail mainte- 
nance needs, typically conducted by field 
rangers during routine patrols, were used by 
18 parks. 

Summary and Implications 

Of 8 types of backcountry recreation im- 
pacts evaluated, park managers perceived 
trail impacts to be the most severely perva- 
sive problem. A surprising finding was that 
day users were perceived to be the most 
common type ofbackcountry visitor and that 
47 percent of park managers cited day use as 
a predominant cause of trail impacts. Cur- 
rently few parks attempt to measure day use 
and only 8 percent of the parks require per- 
mits for day users. Horse users, a relatively 
small percentage of the total use in most 
backcountry areas, also were perceived to be 
a predominant cause of trail impacts. Addi- 
tional management and research attention is 
needed for these types of uses. 

The most common and, according to man- 
agers, the most effective action employed to 
address trail impacts was trail maintenance. 
However, managers at only 1/2 of the parks 
indicated that routine trail maintenance was 
conducted in all or some portion of their 
backcountry. Additional resources and at- 
tention to professional and volunteer trail 
maintenance efforts are needed to address the 
serious and widespread nature of trail re- 
source problems. Finally, a primary limita- 
tion of this survey was its reliance on manag- 
er's perceptions of resource problems and the 
effectiveness of implemented actions. Little 
objective data exists for any of the backcountry 
recreation management problems identified 
in the survey. For example, trail impact 
monitoring is conducted in only 9 percent of 
the parks. Additional monitoring is neces- 
sary to provide more objective information 
about changing resource conditions and the 
effectiveness of alternative management ac- 

Marion is UnitLeaderfortheNPS/CPSUat VA 
Tech in Blacksburg. 

References Cited 

Marion, Jeffrey L, Joseph W. Roggenbuck, and Robert E 
Manning. 1993. Problem and practices in backcountry 
recreation management A survey of National Park Ser- 
vice Managers. USDI, National Park Service, Natural 
Resources Report NPS/NRVT/NRR-93/12. Report avail- 
able from: Publications Coordinator, National Park Ser- 
vice, Natural Resources Publications Office, P.O. Box 
25287, Denver, CO 80225-0287. 

ing 1994 


Information Crossfile 

For a mystery story as fascinating as any by 
Agatha Christie, read the News and Com- 
ment section of Science, Nov. 5, 1993, pp 
832-51. Extended coverage about the 
hantavirus outbreak in the southwestern U.S. 
includes several "side-bar" stories about deer 
mice and pinon nuts, "virology without a 
virus," a "rogues' gallery of hantaviruses," 
and how the whole lethal mystery was unrav- 
eled through a combination of luck, seren- 
dipity, alert scientists, and the polymerase 
chain reaction (PCR)— which amplifies viral 
genes from victims' tissue. 

Researchers are still furiously in pursuit of 
a successful culturing of the hantavirus that 
caused the death of at least 26 people in the 
U.S. in 1993. They have its genes, they know 
where it hides, and they are desperately work- 
ing to discover its modus operandi. One 
virologist and longtime hantavirus hunter in 
the National Institutes of Health lab is con- 
vinced that the hantaviruses are endemic in 
the U.S. and may have been causing disease 
for some time now. Even in the absence of a 
cultured virus, the PCR method has firmly 
established the identity of this virus, and deer 
mice appear to be the major carriers. 

* * * 

The biggest news may not be the creation 
of a stunning 560,000 acre provincial park in 
the Coast Range 150 miles north of 
Vancouver, B.C. Glorious as is Ts'yl-os 
Park, centered on 30-mile-long Chilko Lake, 
spawning area of an internationally valuable 
salmon run, the headline worthiness of this 
event may he in the task force that put togeth- 
er the park proposal. Its membership ranged 
from the International Woodworkers of 
America to the Federation of BC Naturalists. 
"It shows that as long as people are willing to 
sit down and give a little, you can reach 
agreement," said Bill Derbyshire of the wood- 
workers union. 

The provincial government is pledged also 
to work with the nearby Nemiah Valley Indi- 
an Band in managing the park, which is 
named for the mountain above the lake — a 
mountain said to hold spiritual significance 
for the Indians who five in this isolated, 
undeveloped area. 

Dr. Tom Perry, a provincial legislator who 
has explored the area, calls it "one of the most 
glorious in North America if not the world. 
Nothing I've seen in Nepal beats it, and it 
easily matches the finest scenery in the 

* * * 

"Grim" is the word that many headline 
writers in the nation's press used to describe 
the contents of the new edition of State of the 

World, published Jan. 15, 1994 by 
Worldwatch Institute. The projection that 
justified the adjective was the serious slow- 
down in the growth of food production, on 
land and in the seas, at the same time the 
global population is growing "by leaps and 
bounds." Compared to the average incre- 
ment of 70 million persons a year between 
1 950 and 1 990, the next 40 years are project- 
ed to see an average annual increase of 90 
million. Growth in the oceans' fish catch 
came to a halt in 1 989. When you add the loss 
of momentum in grainland growth in the U.S. 
and Europe and the even more pronounced 
slowdown in the rise of Asia's rice yields, the 
balance between food and people "now de- 
pends more on family planners than on farm- 
ers," according to the report 

* * * 

Areas of Africa rich in different species of 
plants and animals are described by Derek 
Pomeroy ofMakerere University in Kampala, 
Uganda in the December 1 993 issue of Con- 
servation Biology. "In the case of plants, the 
countries with the highest relative species 
richness are, in order, South Africa, Tanza- 
nia, Cameroon, Gabon, and Swaziland," he 
writes. In the case of mammals, it's Uganda, 
Togo, Kenya, Cameroon, and Zaire. Zaire 
heads the list for butterflies. Nonaquatic bird 
species tend to concentrate in the vicinity of 
ML Cameroon, the East African Highlands, 
and parts of Angola. Waterbirds flock to 
much of eastern Africa. Pomeroy reports that 
South Africa has probably the highest con- 
centration of species of flowering plants in 
the world but only a handful of endemic 

* * * 

St Lucie Press has produced a new refer- 
ence, The Everglades Handbook, by Tho- 
mas E. Lodge, that contains a wealth of 
information on the entire ecosystem — up- 
stream and down. Starting with a Marjorie 
Stoneman Douglas introduction, the book 
describes the region's geology and geogra- 
phy, plant communities and animal groups 
and their interrelationships and functional 
roles within the system, the impact of hurri- 
canes, and the effect of humans on the Ever- 
glades environment The 200 page, illustrat- 
ed, 6x9 softcover (ISBN 1-884015-05-0) 
volume is available for $29.95 from St Lucie 
Press, 1 00 E. Linton Blvd., Ste. 403B, Delray 
Beach, FL 33483. 

* * * 

"Isolation of Remaining Populations of 
the Native Frog, Rana muscosa, by Intro- 
duced Fishes in Sequoia and Kings Canyon 
NPs," co-authored by David M. Graber, ap- 

peared in the December 1993 issue of Con- 
servation Biology (Vol. 7, No. 4, pp. 882- 
888). Rana muscosa, (the mountain yellow- 
legged frog), was eliminated by introduced 
fishes early in this century in many of the 
lakes and streams in Sequoia and Kings Can- 
yon NPs. In waters not inhabited by fish, it 
muscosa also has disappeared at many sites in 
the past 30 years and it appears to have gone 
extinct m some drainage. The authors con- 
clude that fragmentation of populations may 
have caused or contributed to these recent 
extinctions, because R muscosa populations 
are significantly more isolated from one an- 
other by fish at present than in prestocking 

Graber is a research scientist at Sequoia/ 
Kings Canyon NPs. 

* * * 

The President's Council on Sustainable 
Development (PCSD), established by Presi- 
dent Clinton in June 1 993, held its first meet- 
ing outside of Washington, D.C. on Jaa 13- 
14, 1994 in Seattle, WA The goal of the 
PCSD is to explore and develop policies that 
encourage economic development, job cre- 
ation, and protection of natural resources. 
The Council is comprised of 25 high-ranking 
officials from industry, government envi- 
ronmental groups, labor, and civil rights or- 
ganizations, and is co-chaired by Jonathan 
Lash, President of the World Resources Insti- 
tute, and David Buzzelli, Vice President of 
Dow Chemical Company. 

The Council meets quarterly during the 
initial 2-year period and can be renewed by 
President Clinton for 2 more years. Its mem- 
bers serve on 6 task forces: (1) Defining 
principles of sustainable development; (2) 
Setting public dialogue and education activ- 
ities in motion; (3) Redefining national ener- 
gy policies; (4) Identifying models of sus- 
tainable manufacturing, pollution prevention, 
and other eco-efficient strategies; (5) Estab- 
lishing guidelines to expand natural resource 
protection and management; and (6) Identi- 
fying examples and elements of sustainable 

Molly Olson is Executive Director of the 
Office of Sustainable Development, at 
Mailstop 7456, 1849 C St, N.W., Washing- 
ton, DC 20240; (202)208-7411. 

* * * 

The Feb. 1, 1994 briefing paper from NPS 
Director Kennedy on Strengthening and 
Streamlining the National Park Service con- 
tains news of special interest to the field: 
". . .the NPS will be delegating considerably 
more responsibility and authority tothe parks 
and field-level programs, reducing layers of 


Park Science 

anagement and review, and consolidating 
e remaining support functions in a smaller 
nnber of central offices. The goals of mis 
organization are to allocate people and 
oney toward park and project manage- 
ent, to the extent possible, in order to facil- 
ite decisive, timely action to protect the 
itural and cultural resources mat define our 
laracter as a nation and to make that heritage 
cessible to as many people as possible." 
Together with downsizing and upgrading 
forts, the Director described "an intensive 
fort to recruit, retrain, and retain a highly 
ofessional and diverse cadre of people ca- 
ble of understanding the complexities of 
anaging America's heritage resources as 
irtsofwhole systems and skilled in working 
ith others, both inside and outside gov- 
oment" The intention, he stated, "is to 
lengthen the Service andprotect the Parks." 

* * * 

Gary Sullivan of the NPS Midwest Region 
rites to call Park Science readers' attention 
an article in Science, December 1993, pp. 
14-15, suggesting that the disappearance 
songbirds is a result of loss of woodland 
:sting habitats and tropical wintering 
ounds as well as cowbird depredation, and 
at such depredation should be looked at 
refully before action against cowbirds is 
sen. The account downgrades the cowbird 
oblem from a continental scourge to a 
gional problem, with California and the 
per Midwest as areas of greatest concern. 

In the next issue... 

)* ' 'Neotropical Migratory Bird Workshop 
and Research" by Ralph Grundel and 
Theodore R Simons. 

**• "Long-term Monitoring on a Shoestring 
at Apostle Islands" by Julie Van Stappen. 

** A review of James K. Agee's Fire Ecol- 
ogy of Pacific Northwest Forests by Dave 
Perry, Oregon State University professor of 
ecosystem studies. 

J*' "Animal Disease Issues in the National 
Park System" by Alonso Aguirre and Ed 

»* "The Other Side of Gap Analysis" by 

►*- A report on the Interagency Wolf Man- 
agement Steering Committee's nationwide 
recovery plan (if those plans have jelled by 

press time). 

I* "Social Science Studies at Great Basin 
NP: What Do They TeU Us?" by Perry 
Brown and Marty Lee. 

>* "Reconstructing Climate Data in Paral- 
lel Watersheds" by Robyn Myers. 

Working with Williams in WASO 

By Sarah Allen 

In July 1993, 1 began working in the 
Western Regional Office with two prima- 
ry duties: coordinating both the biological 
inventory and monitoring program and 
the threatened and endangered species 
program. I am not only new to the West- 
ern Region, but also to the Park Service. I 
have studied in and around parks for the 
past 1 8 years, but this hardly prepared me 
for the labyrinth of places, people, forms 
and procedures. 

The trip to WASO was by invitation 
from Dr. Gary Williams, Manager for the 
Inventory & Monitoring (I&M) Program. 
Gary had a check list, at least up to my 
elbow, of various tasks from which I 
could select I chose defining and fleshing 
out the duties of the I&M regional coordi- 
nator. My primary reason for being in 
WASO, though, was to meet the staff with 
whom I have, and will have, working 

I arrived at Dulles airport with many 
preconceptions. The first was that tem- 
peratures are arctic in mid-November on 
the east coast When I departed from 
home near San Francisco early Sunday 
morning, I had had to scrape ice off the car 
window, but when I arrived in Dulles that 
evening, temperatures were warm and 
due to be still warmer the next day. A 
second fallacy was that Washington was a 
swollen and sluggish bureaucracy. In- 
stead I was greeted by a devoted, bustling 
staff with little time for small talk. I have 
seen this motivation throughout the Park 
Service — the ability to do a lot with very 
little. People work long hours with short 
breaks and come in on weekends. One 
down side, though, is that I found little 
opportunity to socialize with staff; I would 
have delighted in relaxed conversations 
outside of the office where we could es- 
cape interruptions from phones and peo- 
ple. Rather than leave the overtures to 
WASO staff, I would encourage any new 
visitor to take the initiative and corner a 
hapless victim for lunch or a walk to the 

The Washington Office actually is two 
offices; the main offices of Interior are on 
CStreet; the Vegetation and Wildlife group 
is a few miles away near the Capital 
building. A shuttle service cycles be- 
tween the two offices several times each 
day. This convenience was particularly 
appreciated because I had been warned 
that walking around the Capital can be a 
dangerous exercise. Everyone, from ho- 

tel clerks to taxis drivers, exhorted me not 
to venture out after dark. One evening, 
though, I found a bevy of labor union 
protesters marching to a rally on the HilL 
so I joined mem for protection and a bit of 

I had never before been in Washington, 
so I spent some time orienting to the city 
and locating offices and personnel. This 
pastime proved very rewarding. All whom 
I approached were more than willing to 
interrupt their tasks to help orient a new- 
comer. This was particularly true at the 
NPS VegetationandWildlifeoffice, where 
I spoke with all who were not out of town. 

I also made an effort to get out for lunch 
and stroll around the Capital to visit mon- 
uments such as the Lincoln and Vietnam 
War Memorials. The grounds around the 
monuments were very clean, with little 
trash or graffiti, and I reflected with some 
pride that NPS personnel were responsi- 
ble for the pristine appearance of the 
grounds — a condition that added signifi- 
cantly to the overall visual and aesthetic 

Several points may be helpful to the 
new arrival to WASO. Foremost find out 
in advance what sort of office accommo- 
dations will be available to you including 
space, phone and computer access. Gary 
Williams provided a small neat desk from 
which to work, and I was fortunate when 
a staff member who was going to be 
absent for a week kindly offered use ofher 
office. Being fairly picky about computer 
programs, I brought my own lap-top ma- 
chine. An additional benefit was few 
phone interruptions since I was away from 
home duties. Having all the tools of my 
home office and privacy too increased my 
productivity and signficantly shortened 
the "settling in" process. Rose, the secre- 
tary, was especially attentive. She made 
sure I was comfortable, knew where to 
find things (such as the FAX) and had all 
needed supplies. 

Finally, a week is the minimum time for 
a Washington stint and a longer stay is 
better. I was just becoming comfortable 
with the ways of WASO when my visit 
was over. 

Gary Williams has just issued a call to 
all Regions offering an opportunity to 
visit WASO on detail to work in the I&M 
Program. He proffers several tasks to 
attract participants. Now is your chance! 

Sarah Allen is a Natural Resource Special- 
ist in NPS Western Region 



Ash Yellows and Defoliating Insects 

Related to Decline of Velvet Ash 

in Zion National Park 

By Wayne A. Sinclair, Helen M. Griffiths, 
Michael Treshow, and Robert E Davis 

Zion National Park, on the sout& western 
flank of the Markagunt Plateau in southwest- 
em Utah (Fig. 1), encompasses habitats rang- 
ing from arid to wet (Hamilton 1 984). Velvet 
ash (Fraxinus velutina) colonizes moist sites 
in canyons there. In the late 1980s, a syn- 
drome of slow growth and branch dieback 
was noticed affecting many velvet ash in 
Zion Canyon. The symptoms resembled those 
of a disease, ash yellows, that affects ash 
species in eastern and midwestern states 
(Matteoni and Sinclair 1 985). Ash yellows is 
caused by noncultivable mycoplasmalike 
organisms, or MLOs. 

MLOs are prokaryotic obligate parasites 
of plants and of the insects that serve as their 
vectors. MLOs belong to the class Mollicutes 
and cause several hundred plant diseases 
(Lee and Davis 1992). Within plants, MLOs 
colonize plants systemicaUy by way of phlo- 
em sieve tubes and are confined to this cell 
type. Because MLOs can not yet be isolated 
and cultured apart from plant or insect hosts, 
they have not been named or classified at 
generic and species levels. The term 
mycoplasmalike organism connotes resem- 
blance to mycoplasmas, a number of which 
are significant pathogens of birds and mam- 
mals (Maniloff et al 1992). 

In northeastern states, ash yellows causes 
rootlet necrosis, growth loss, and dieback of 
white ash (F. americana ) (Dyer and Sinclair 
1991; Matteoni and Sinclair 1985; Sinclair et 
al 1990, 1993b;Smallidgeetal 1991). Growth 
suppression also occurs in MLO-infected 
green ash (F. pennsylvanica) (Sinclair et al 
1993b), but dieback in this species is not 
closely linked to yellows disease (Luley et al 
1992). Witches'-brooms (Fig. 2a) are diag- 
nostic for ash yellows, but only a minority of 
trees with the disease produce them. 

MLOs were detected in velvet ash in Zion 
NPinl988(Sinclairetal 1990). Slow growth, 
dieback, and occasional witches'-brooms 
were noted. It seemed likely that velvet ash 
was displaying an MLO-induced syndrome 
similar to that described for white ash. The 
research summarized here (Sinclair et al 
1993a, 1993b; 1994) began in 1990 to learn 
the distribution and incidence of declining 
velvet ash andofashyellowswithinZionNP, 
to evaluate the relationship between MLO 
infection and health of this species, and to 
learn whether or not singleleaf ash (F. 
anomala ) in Zion NP is also affected by 

Figure 1. Location of Zion National Park 
and its principal canyons. 



•/■ 9 tf*°i 

< Methods 

Velvet ash in the three largest canyons of 
the park (Fig. 1) were surveyed for health 
status and incidence of MLO infection. In 
Zion Canyon, ash on 1 7 plots were scored for 
degree of vigor and severity of dieback The 
trees were also examined for evidence of 
injury by insects and for symptoms associat- 
ed with ash yellows: witches'-brooms,sprouts 
on the butt or bole, simple leaves on sprouts, 
deliquescent branching, and chlorosis 
(Matteoni and Sinclair 1985). The condition 
of tree species associated with velvet ash was 
noted. Soil and other site conditions were 
recorded. Root samples for diagnostic testing 
by means of the DAPI (4',6-diamidino-2- 
phenylindole.2HCl) fluorescence method 
(Sinclair et al 1989) were taken from 382 
velvet ash trees and saplings and from 53 
singleleaf ash. This method permits detec- 
tion of microorganisms in phloem sieve tubes 
based on fluorescence of their DNA when 
sections treated with DAPI are examined 
microscopically with UV illumination. 

Relationships between vigor scores and 
diagnostic data were evaluated by means of 
contingency analyses that tested whether 
frequencies of symptoms observed in MLO- 
infected trees could differ from the corre- 
sponding frequencies in noninfected trees 
due to chance. These tests were performed 

Figure. 2. A. Witches '-broom on an MLO-infected stump of a velvet ash felled by a beaver. 
B. Velvet ash shoot from a cluster growing at the base of a dying, MLO-infected tree, 
showing simple leaves and precocious axillary shoots. These symptoms were seen only on 
MLO-infected trees. 


Park Science 

parately for trees 6 cm dbh and for saplings 
6 cm dbh. Growth of velvet ash as related 
MIX) infection was assessed by measuring 
idths of growth rings on increment cores 
d comparing average annual growth rates 
MLO-infected and noninfected trees. The 
sceptibility of velvet ash to MLOs from 
lite ash, and of white ash to MLOs from 
lvet ash was assessed by grafting potted 
es of each species with bark patches or 
oots from diseased trees of the other spe- 
s. Grafted trees were then tested for infec- 
Jh and observed for symptoms. 
MLOs in velvet ash in Zion Canyon were 
sntified as ash yellows MLOs by three 
xedures: DNA hybridization tests utiliz- 
l cloned ash-yellows-specific probes de- 
ed from a New York strain of ash yellows 
LO (Davis et al 1992), amplification of 
LO DNA by a polymerase chain reaction 
CR) utilizing ash-yellows-specific prim- 
; derived from one of the DNA probes, and 
munofluorescence microscopy utilizing an 
l-yellows-specific monoclonal antibody 

Results and Discussion 

Slow growth, branch dieback, and deli- 
escent branching were the most prominent 
uptoms of distress in velvet ash. Trees of 
sizes greater than approximately 6 cm dbh 
;re affected, and they occurred on diverse 
». Foliar color was generally normal. Ex- 
it for an occasional irrigated specimen, 
;orous trees were confined to the sapling 
egory. Water shortage associated with 
anged site conditions but not with precip- 
tion deficiency apparently contributed to 
:line of some trees, because declining or 
id specimens were found in a number of 
r locations that were formerly irrigated or 
;ame isolated from the river. Records from 
: Zion NP meteorological station revealed 
unusual precipitation deficiency during 
: 1980s, when much of the dieback appar- 
Jy developed. 

Symptoms diagnostic for ash yellows were 
x>mmon. These symptoms included witch- 
-brooms near or at ground level (Fig. 2a) 
i shoots with simple leaves and precocious 
londary shoots in leaf axils (Fig. 2b) within 
>oms or growing from the root collar. 
Damage by defoliating insects was prom- 
nt on velvet ash, box elder (Acernegundo) 
verity of defoliation ranged from none to 
nplete, even among individuals in the 
ne stand. The insects responsible were 
identified loopers (Lepidoptera: 
ometridae). Slow twig growth and die- 
;k of twigs and branches occurred on ash 
1 box elder on which severe defoliation 
s previously observed. Many velvet ash 
d sustained severe foliar injury by ash 

plant bugs {Tropidosteptes pacificus) or lace 
bugs (Leptophya sp.). The former insect 
caused stunting and sometimes death of de- 
veloping leaves and shoots and stippling on 
expanded leaves. The latter insect caused 
stippling and general yellowing of mature 
foliage in summer. 

MLO infection was detected in velvet ash 
all three canyons surveyed. In Zion Canyon, 
SO percent of 243 trees 6 cm dbh and 35 
percent of 1 39 saplings tested were found to 
be infected. In North Creek and Parunuweap 
canyons, MLOs were detected in only 5 
percent and 7 percent, respectively, of the 70 
and 79 velvet ash tested. The high incidence 
of MLO infection in velvet ash in Zion Can- 
yon was thought to reflect a more suitable 
habitat for vector insects (presumed to be 
leafhoppers) than occurs in the other two 
canyons. MLO infection was not detected in 
singleleaf ash. DNA hybridization and im- 
munofluorescence tests both indicated close 
relatedness ofMLOs in velvet ash in Zion NP 
to those in other ash species in eastern states 
(Griffiths etal 1994). 

Velvet ash saplings infected with MLOs 
were found in all three canyons, indicating 
that young plants are at risk of infection, that 
overland spread of the MLOs by airborne 
vectors has probably occurred, and that 
incidence of infection may have been in- 
creasing in Zion NP in recent years. Possibly 
ash yellows is widespread in the Southwest, 
because MLO-infected Modesto ash, a vari- 
ety of velvet ash, have been found in Las 
Vegas, NV (Sinclair et al 1990) and Tempe, 
AZ (Bricker and Stutz 1992). 

The frequency of MLO infection varied 
among vigor categories of trees larger than 
saplings in Zion Canyon (Fig. 3). Dieback 
was observed in 74 percent of trees in which 

Figure. 3. Distribution of vigor classes 
among MLO-infected and noninfected 
velvet ash 6 cm dbh in Zion Canyon. 
Classes: 1 = normal in appearance and 
vigor, 2 = growing slowly and/or having a 
thin canopy, 3 = growing slowly and 
having a thin canopy and dieback of twigs 
and/or scattered branches, 4 = dieback of 
many branches or large limbs, 5 = dead to 
near ground level 



U 40 

•5 ° 30 
E .2 


V *: 

10 - 


f^ Noninfected 

2 3 4 

Vigor class 

MLOs were detected, versus 56 percent of 
trees tallied as not infected. This difference 
was greater than could be accounted for on 
the basis of chance. Moreover, the frequen- 
cies of various vigor scores ofMLO-inf ected 
ash did not fit the ratio that would be predict- 
ed from the distribution of vigor scores of 
noninfected trees. These results were in ac- 
cord with the interpretation that MLOs play 
a role in the decline of velvet ash in Zion 
Canyon. In velvet ash saplings, however, no 
significant association ofMLO infection with 
dieback was detected. 

Annual radial growth of velvet ash in Zion 
Canyon was found to have declined steadily 
during the 1980s, but trees in which MLOs 
were detected in 1990-1992 displayed the 
same growth trend and grew at nearly the 
same average rate as those in which MLOs 
werenotdetected(Fig. 4). In the northern half 
of the canyon, where defoliation was most 

Figure 4. Annual mean radial growth of 
MLO-infected and noninfected velvet ash 
in 1970-1989. Data represent measure- 
ments on two increment cores from each 
of 38 infected and 19 noninfected trees in 
Zion Canyon. 

•>« 2.9 L \ 




*> »^ Noninfected 

MLO-infected ^L 

I i i i i 



i i i i 

1970 1974 1978 1982 1986 1990 

conspicuous in each year of the study, radial 
growth averaged less than 1 mm per year 
throughout the 1980s (Sinclair et al 1993b). 
Previous episodes of defoliation may have 
caused the observed slow growth and die- 
back. No differences in growth or form were 
detected between MLO-infected and 
noninfected saplings that were observed for 3 

A New York strain of ash yellows MLO 
was transmitted by grafts from white ash into 
velvet ash and white ash seedlings. The latter 
species provided susceptible standards for 
comparison with velvet ash. MLO-infected 
velvet ash continued vigorous growth, while 
MLO-infected white ash developed rootlet 
necrosis and grew feebly. MLOs were trans- 
mitted from velvet ash growing in Zion Can- 
yon to only one white ash seedling out of 25 
grafted. This seedling developed rootlet ne- 
crosis and died. 

Continued on page 22 

ing 1994 


Ash Yellows continued from page 21 
The findings of only a weak association of 
dieback with MLO infection, no difference 
in growth rate of MLO-infected and 
noninfected trees in Zion Canyon, and vigor- 
ous growth of young velvet ash inoculated 
with an eastern strain of ash yellows MLOs 
all indicated that velvet ash is tolerant of 
infection by these organisms. Perhaps MLOs 
affect the health of velvet ash only to the 
extent that infected trees may be more sensi- 
tive to, or may recover from, other stresses 
(e.g., defoliation, water shortage) less fully or 
rapidly than noninfected trees, as Han et al 
(1991) suggested for white ash. Or perhaps 
Ash Y MLOs are widespread and innocuous 
in healthy-appearing as well as debilitated 
velvet ash but have been detected only where 
declining trees were studied. 

The role of MLOs in decline of velvet ash 
in Zion Canyon is apparently small. On the 
other hand, the decline of mature individuals 
of this species is conspicuous. This decline 
may have been caused primarily by defolia- 
tion by insects, with water shortage playing a 
role for some trees. The question for resource 
managers is whether measures to arrest or 
reverse the decline of velvet ash in Zion 
Canyon should be attempted Feasible op- 
tions for remedial action are limited by the 
policy of allowing natural processes to pro- 

Sinclair and Griffiths are Professor and Re- 
search Associate, respectively, Department of 
Plant Pathology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY; 
Treshow is Professor Emeritus, University of 
Utah, Salt Lake City; Davis is Research Leader, 
Molecular Plant Biology Laboratory, Plant Sci- 
ences Institute, USDA-ARS, Beltsville, MD. 


This research was supported in part by NPS 
through contract CA- 1463-5-0001. We thank 
Larry Hays, Darla Sidles, and Victor Vieira o f the 
Resource Management Unit, Zion NP, for facili- 
tating the work. 

Literature Cited 

Brlcker, J. S., and Stutz, J. C. 1 992. "EtJotogy of Arizona ash 
decine." (Abstr.) Phytopathology 82:1 170. 

Davis, R. E. Sinclair, W. A., Lee. I.-M., and Daly, E L 1992. 
"Cloned DNA probes specific for detection of a 
mycoplasmal^ organism associated with ash yeflows." 
Mot. Plant-Microbe Interact 5:163-169. 

Dyer, A. T., and Sinclair, W. A 1991. "Root necrosis and 
histological changes in surviving roots of white ash infect- 
ed with mvooptasmafta organisms." Plant Dis. 75:814- 

Griffiths, H. M.. Sinclair, W. A Davis, R. E, Lee, l.-M., Dally. 
E L, Guo, Y.-H., Chen, T. A, and rfcben, C. R. 1994. 
"Characterization of mycopiasmafte organisms from 
Fraxinu$,Syringa, and associated plants from geograph- 
ically cfverse sites." Phytopathology 84: (in press) 

Hamilton, W. L 1984. The Sculpturing of Hon. Zton Natural 
History Association, Springdale, UT. 132 pp. 

Han. Y., Castelto, J. D., and Leopold. D. J. 1991. "Ash 
yeflows, drought and decine in racial growth of white 
ash." Plant Dis. 75:18-23. 

Lee, l.-M., and Davis, R. E 1 992. "Mycoplasmas which infect 
plants and insects." Pages 379-390 in: Mycoplasmas: 
Molecular Biology and Pathogenesis. J. Manfloff, R. N. 
McElhaney, L R. Finch, and J. 6. Baseman, ecte. ASM 
Press. Herndon, VA. 

Luley , C. J., Mieke, M. E, Castello, J. D., Cummings Carlson, 
J., Appleby, J., and Hatcher, R. 1992. "Ash crown condi- 
tion and the incidenceof ash yellows and other insects and 
cfseases in Illinois, Iowa, Missouri, and Wisconsin." Plant 
Dis. 76:1209-1 112. 

Manfloff, J., McElhaney, R. N., Finch, L R., and Baseman, J. 
B.,eds. 1992. Mycoplasmas. Molecular Bhiogy and Patho- 
genesis. ASM Press. Herndon, VA. 

Matteoni, J. A, and Sinclair, W. A. 1985. "Role of the 
mycoplasmal dsease, ash yellows, in decline of white ash 
in New York State." Phytopathology 75355-360. 

Sinclair, W. A Griffiths, H. M., Davis, R. E and Treshow, M. 
1993a. Ash yekm in Hon National Park impact, identity 
of pathogen, mode of spread, and prospects for manage- 
ment Pinal Pep., Res. Contract CA- 1 463-5-000 1 , Univ. 
Wyoming Natl. Park Serv. Res. Center, Laramie, WY. 49 

Sinclair, W. A Griffiths, H. M.. and Treshow, M. 1993b. 
"Impact of ash yeflows mycoplasmaike organisms on 
racial growth of naturally infected green, white, and velvet 
ash." Can. J. For. Res. 23: (in press) 

Sinclair, W. A Griffiths, H. M., and Treshow, M. 1994. "Ash 
yellows in velvet ash in Zton NP, Utah: high incidence but 
tow impact" Plant Dis. 78: (in press) 

Sinclair, W. A hi. R. J., Dyer, A T., and Larsen, A. 0. 1 989. 
"Samping and histological procedures for diagnosis of 
ash yeflows." Plant Dis. 73:432-435. 

Sinclair, W. A. lui.R. J., Dyer, A T., Marshall, P.T., Matteoni, 
J. A Hbben, C. R., Stanosz, G. R., and Burns, B. S. 1 990. 
"Ash yeflows: geographic range and association with 
decfine of white ash." Plant Dis. 74S04-607. 

Smaffidge, P. J., Leopold, D. J., and CasteBo, J. D. 1991. 
"Structure and rornposition of forest stands affected and 
unaffected by ash yellows." Plant Dis. 75:13-18. 

NBS and the 

Research Exhibit Available 

NPS science, resource management, and 
interpretive staff should be aware that an 
exhibit inviting scientists to do research in 
national parks is available for use at confer- 
ences and elsewhere. The exhibit states rea- 
sons for choosing parks as research sites, 
shows examples of research done in parks, 
describes needed types of research, and has 
an attached holder with information sheets 
listing regional office contacts. 

The exhibit is 88" high and 80"wide, with 
3 roll-up panels that attach to a collapsible 
network frame. The exhibit packs into a 
large-golfoag-sized carrying case with wheels 
and weighs 68 pounds loaded. The existing 
exhibit is available for loan. Any office desir- 
ing to own the exhibit can obtain one for 
about $4,500. Call Anne Frondorf, Wildlife 
and Vegetation Division, NPS Washington 
Office (202)343-8129 for further informa- 

The National Biological Survey and the 
States have similar missions when it comes to i 
distributing biological information. 

On Nov. 11, 1993, the NBS was estab- 1 
lished to gather, analyze, and disseminate the I 
biological information necessary for the sound I 
stewardship of the Nation's natural resourc- i 
es, and to foster understanding of biological 
systems and the benefits they provide to 

State governments are major collectors 
and managers of biological information and 
are maj or natural resource decision makers in 
their own right Consequently, the NBS is 
constantly developing working arrangements 
for biological data sharing. NBS is encourag- 
ing positive scientific relationships with each 
state, to allow for increased access and inte- 
gration of biological information. NBS will 
be a facilitator, and will work with states to 
form partnerships for research projects and 
data sharing. 

To date, NBS staffhave begun discussions 
with several states to determine their interest 
in initiating such efforts. A nationwide 
analysis is being prepared that evaluates 
state capabilities and identifies existing NBS 
operations that would form a strong initial 
basis for cooperation with NBS. 

Discussions regarding state interest, capa- 
bilities, and sensitivities also are ongoing 
with the International Association of Fish 
and Wildlife Agencies, the National Associ- 
ation of State Foresters, and the Wildlife 
Management Institute. 

The goal of these efforts is to develop the 
capability, at the state level, for increased 
access and integration ofbiological informa- 
tion. Meeting this objective will require 
increased cooperation in the identification 
and deli very of information held by federal 
agencies and others. A key component of 
early NBS activity in these state partnerships 
is working with state and federal agencies to 
identify available information, and to ensure 
that users of this information are aware of and 
have access to the information. 

The NBS mission includes r>erforming 
research in support of biological resource 
management; inventorying, monitoring, and 
reporting on the status and trends of the 
Nation's biotic resources; and developing the 
ability and resources to transfer the informa- 
tion gained to resource managers and others 
concerned with the care, use, and conserva- 
tion of the Nation's natural resources. 

Bn Eugene Hester 
Deputy Director, National Biological Survey 


Park Science 

Study Documents Mountain Goat Impacts 
at Olympic National Park 

App roxi mately 12 mountain goats were 
s in the 1920s; the animals subsequently 
adthroughouttheOlympic Range. Olym- 
National Park was created in 1938. Al- 
ugh mountain goats are native to the 
thy Cascade Mountain Range, historical, 
ideological, and anthropological evidence 
icates they were absent historically from 
Olympic Peninsula. The estimated Pen- 
lla-wide mountain goat population was 
i to 800 in 1980, 1,175 phis or minus 171 
ndard error) in 1983, and 389 plus or 
ius 106 (SE) in 1990. Several hundred 
rials were removed from Olympic NP 
ween 1981 and 1989. 
lie mountain goat is a generalist herbi- 
e, strongly associated with cliffs and rock 
n-ops (Chadwick 1983). Its food habits 
/ considrably among populations because 
this association. Diets apparently are 
ated more by whatever plant species are 
sent than by a preference for any particu- 
species or growth form. 

Seasonal Distribution 

a the Olympics, mountain goats are sea- 
ally migratory and are distributed in 
des" or subpopulations. Subalpine and 
ne areas above 5,000 feet generally are 
sidered to be summer range, but even on 
summer days animals sometimes are 
ad as low as 2,000 feet Goats generally 
ter on steep south and southeast facing 
sops and cliffs below 5,000 feet, and may 
found down to 1,000 feet Our studies 
e conducted in mountain goat summer 
;e, which we defined as the region above 

•revious studies of the interactions be- 
en mountain goats and their summer range 
Dlympic NP clearly demonstrated that 
ts changed native ecosystems. Plant com- 
lity effects included reduced moss and 
en cover, increased exposure of mineral 
from wallowing and trampling, and rear- 
gement of plant species dominance rela- 
iships in favor of ruderal species (plants 
ad mainly in disturbed areas, so-called 
urbance-oriented species). In addition, 
* Olympic Peninsula and one Olympic 
insula/Vancouver Island endemic plant 
i were consumed by goats (these are "nar- 
"endemics — they are found on the Orym- 
Peninsula or the Olympic Peninsula and 
icouver Island, but nowhere else in the 

sven though die aforementioned studies 
lonstrated that goats substantially altered 
ve plant communities, additional investi- 

By E aetata* and A. Woodward 

gations were required to extend die evalua- 
tion in space and time. Previous studies were 
conducted chiefly in one area of the park over 
a four-year period. Consequently, a series of 
investigations was begun in 1981 to expand 
our understanding of mountain goat/vegeta- 
tion and sod interactions. Objectives were to 
describe plant communities and large herbi- 
vore sign in mountain goat summer range 
(5,000 ft) and to test the following two gen- 
eral null hypotheses: 

(1) Reducing mountain goat densities will 
not result in changes to the relative abun- 
dance of plant species (i.e. plant community 

(2) Mountain goats pose no threat to the 
long-term persistence of rare plants. 

Methodology Employed 
We employed a variety of independent 
study methods from 1981-1992 to achieve 
these objectives: 

(1) Extensive surveys of vegetation and 
herbivore use were conducted in high, medi- 
um, and low goat density areas within the 
1 07,490 acres ofland free of glacial ice above 
5,000 feet; 

(2) Permanent plots were established in 
three areas to quantify plant community re- 
sponses to intentional reductions in goat den- 
sity. (This is a unique aspect of our study — 
goat density was reduced intentionally 
through live capture concurrently with our 
permanent plot studies in areas with vastly 
different climates; thus we did not have to 
rely on exclosures as a means of evaluating 
the effects of herbivores); 

(3) Potential effects of goats on die long- 
term persistence of rare plants were assessed 
using data on rare plant geography and abun- 

(4) The demography and autecology of a 
particularly rare endemic taxon (Olympic 
Mm. milkvetch — we estimate the total pop- 
ulation as about 4,500 plants) was investigat- 
ed; and 

(5) A series of historical photographs was 
used to examine qualitatively the vegetation 
changes over a 70-year period, specifically 
addressing the relationships among climate, 
human use, natural disturbance, and moun- 
tain goats. 

In common with all other studies of ungu- 
late grazing systems, our work demonstrated 
that introduced mountain goats have indirect 
and direct effects on the vegetation of die 
Olympic Mountains. We have no reason to 
believe that the overall biotic effects of goats 
on Olympics vegetation differs appreciably 

from mountain goat grazing systems where 
the animals are native. Nonetheless, changes 
in the park's vegetation due to goat activity 
have been substantial, and the status of rare 
plant populations in goat habitat is of con- 

Plant Community Changes 

Mountain goats modified the structure of 
subalpine plant communities of the Olym- 
pics. Following the reduction in goat density, 
ruderal species such as yarrow decreased 
while selected goat forage species such as 
Idaho fescue increased at Klahhane Ridge 
(estimated annual precipitation, 40-60"). 
Yarrow cover exceeded that of fescue when 
goat density was high; it was less than fescue 
by the end of the study. 

We believe mountain goats changed the 
nature of the competitive relationship be- 
tween these two species, particularly since a 
laboratory study demonstrated that Idaho 
fescue was the stronger competitor except 
when clipped (del Moral 1985). Similar 
changes in plant cover of these two species 
were observed in comparative photographs 
in exclosure studies (Pfitsch and Bliss 1985). 

Modifications of plant communities also 
occurred in another area of the park. Mount 
Dana (estimated annual precipitation 200+ 
inches) plots exhibited statistically signifi- 
cant changes in die plant cover of selected 
andnon-selectedplant species, butnochange 
in dominance. Percent cover of dominant 
strongly competitive species such as showy 
sedge appeared not to respond to lower goat 
density. This does not necessarily mean that 
the sedge was unaffected by goats. This 
highly productive species is consumed by 
goats and may compensate for loss of grazed 
plant tissues. Grarninoid species are well- 
known for compensatory response to graz- 

Mountain goats also influenced the Olym- 
pic ecosystems by wallowing and trampling. 
Wallows disturb soils and create mineral 
substrates for colonization by plants. Studies 
of Klahhane Ridge goat wallows (and bison 
wallows elsewhere) have shown that distur- 
bance-oriented plant species dominate wal- 
low edges and that this community differs 
from surrounding vegetation. 

Presence of Wallows 

We did not examine vegetation surround- 
ing goat wallows, but did document the pres- 
ence of wallows. There are fewer in areas of 
low goat density, but at least one wallow was 
found in each ofthe 22 areas examined across 
Continued on page 24 



Goat Impacts continued from page 23 
the park. We suspect that the disturbance- 
liking species have invaded these wallow 
edges as they have on Klahhane Ridge. Such 
a result would not be unexpected because 
Olympic subalpine and alpine plant commu- 
nities are particularly sensitive to soil distur- 
bance. Moreover, some scientists believe 
that physical disturbances associated with 
herbivory may be even more important than 
grazing as an ecosystem shaping process. 

Incidentally consumed forage species may 
suffer intensive grazing at either high or low 
herbivore densities (Futayama and 
Wasserman 1980 and Houston 1982). These 
forage species may be eliminated because 
they exert no feedback control on herbivore 
population size. In a hypothetical one-herbi- 
vore/one-plant species system, the eminent 
biologist Graeme Caughley noted that the 
herbivore and plant must reach a dynamic 
equilibrium or the herbivore goes extinct 
(Caughley 1982). 

Further, in a one-herbivore/two-plant sys- 
tem (assuming the two plant populations 
have different growth rates), "The extinction 
of one of the two plants is a direct conse- 
quence ofits sharing the area with the other. . .It 
goes extinct when sharing the area because 

(photo btj. harter, October 20. mi) 

the herbivore numbers and hence the grazing 
pressure is maintained at a higher level man 
would be possible if the slower growing plant 
were the only food available." (Caughley 

Thus, rare plants may be at risk from 
mountain goats for at least two reasons: (1) 
Mountain goat population densities likely 
are not controlled by plant abundance on 
summer ranges (Houston and Stevens 1988), 
let alone rare plant abundance, and (2) goats 
are generalist herbivores with the capacity to 
consume most plant species, including rare 

Long-term Concerns 

We remain concerned about the long-term 
persistence of rare plants in mountain goat 
habitat Direct effects were observed as 
mortality and injuries to individuals of the 
endemic Olympic Mountain milkvetcL One 
other endemic, Olympic aster, was a plant 
"selected" by goats. We also found that rare 
plant distributions (33 taxa), including 7 of 8 
endemic taxa, overlap goat summer range. 
We note that the effects of goats on individual 
plant taxa may be severe or potentially se- 
vere, especially for taxa with very restricted 
distributions (i.e. those that occur in fewer 

than 5 subpopulations). Rare endemic plants ( 
have been driven to extinction or near extinc- 
tion elsewhere by introduced herbivores (e.g. . 
goats in Hawaii, Galapagos Islands). 

Plant/herbivore grazing systems have been 
the subject of intense study by ecologists 
during the last two decades. Herbivores have 1 
been shown to affect numerous attributes of; 
vegetation including plant morphology, spe- 1 
cies composition, abundance, net primary 
productivity, and the genetic makeup of plant 
populations. The scale of plant/herbivore: 
interactions ranges from effects on individu- 1 
al plants to whole ecosystems. Effects of I 
herbivores have been documented in long- 
established natural ecosystems such as Olym- 1 
pic NP (elk), Wind Caves NP (bison and 
prairie dogs), and the Serengeti plants of 
Africa (wildebeest and others). Also chron- 
icled are the consequences of recently intro- 
duced wild ungulates (Himalayan thar in 
New Zealand and red deer in the Falkland 

Characteristically, ungulates and vegeta- 
tion are linked by strong feedback loops 
between the dynamics of the plants and the 
dynamics of the animals. Where ungulate 
populations are limited by available food 


Peak Science 

rces, as their populations increase, avail- 
er capita resources (i.e. palatable plants) 
ase. Natural mortality increases, and 
ty decreases because ofinsufficient food 
ilants ' 'feedback" to cause a new, lower 
of die animal population. Plants and 
late populations oscillate with decreas- 
nplitude over time as dynamic equilib- 
is achieved. Profound vegetation chang- 
oally occur. 

i believe our studies describe only a 
part of die total picture of mountain 
vegetation relationships in Olympic 
Recent studies demonstrate that ungu- 
al ter nitrogen cycles and soil formation 
sses. Moreover, vegetative changes 
ght by one herbivore may influence the 
ig behavior of other herbivores (such as 

! 7-year interval between 1981 and 1988, 
lahhane Ridge goat population was re- 
1 by more than 80%. The entire wallow 
5 outwash have more plant cover, pri- 
y Idaho fescue (estuca idahoensis) and 
w {Achillea millefolium), by 1988. The 
right wallow margin has grown-in 
lerably, but the steep undercut edges of 
>per wallow have continued to erode 
jr back despite establishment of Idaho 

the link between bison and prairie dogs). 
Given the relationship between she produc- 
tivity and die degree of interspecific plant 
competition in Olympic subalpine vegeta- 
tion, mountain goats are likely to have a far 
greater influence on individual plants, com- 
munities, and ecosystem processes than we 
have demonstrated here. 

Status Report 

Olympic staff are completing the Draft 
Environmental Impact Statement on moun- 
tain goat management (scheduled for release 
in early 1994). Once the EIS is released, a 
period of public comment will take place and 
a course of action will be selected. This may 
prove a significant test of NPS natural areas 
exotic species management policies. 

Schreiner is a Research Biologist at Olympic 
NP Field Station: Woodward is with the U/WA 
CPSU, National Biological Survey. 

Suggested Reading 

Caughley, G 1970. "Eruption of ungulate populations, with 

emphasis on Himalayan thar in New Zealand." Ecology 

. 1982. "Vegetation complexity and the dynamics of 

modelled grazing systems." Oecohgia 54309-312. 
. 1983. 7he Deer Wars. Heinemann Pubishers, 

Auckland, New Zealand. 187 pp. 

ChaMck, D.H. 1983. A Beast fte Color of Winter. Starra 

Club Books, San Francisco, CA. 206 pp. 

Day, TA and J.ICDetln. 1990. "Grassland patch dynamics 
and herbivore gr az ing pre fe rence blowing urine deposl- 
ton." Ecology 71:180-188. 

Frar*. DA and SJ. McNaughton. 1992. The ecology of 
plants, large mammalan herbivores and drought in 
Yellowstone NP." Ecology 732043-2058. 

Futuyama, DJ. and S.S. Wasserman. 1980. "Resource 
concentration and herbhiory In oak forests." Soence 

Harper, J 1. 1977. The Population Biology of Plants. Aca- 
demic Press. New York. 892 pp. 

Houston, D.B. 1982. The Northern YeBowstone Etc Ecology 
andUanagement MacmBan, New York. 474 pp. 

and potential vegetation Imitations to a mountain goat 
population, Olympic NP." American Uktand Naturalist 

McNaughton, SJ. 1979. "Grazing as an optimization pro- 
cess:grass-ungulate relationships in the Serengefl." Amer- 
ican Natural* 113:691-703. 

. 1983. "Compensatory plant growth as a response to 

herbivory." Okos 40329-336. 

Scheffer, VB. 1994. "The Olympic goat controversy: a per- 
spective." Conservation Biology (in press). 

Schreiner, EA Woodward, and M. Gracz. 1993. Vegetation 
In relation to In trod u ced mountain goats in OtympicNP: A 
technical report Unpubished. Olympic NP, Port Angeles, 

Schultz, S. 1993. A review of the historical evidence relating 
to mountain goals in the Olympic Mountains prior to 1925. 



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Sequoia and Kings Canyon NPs have 
long been recognized as national lead 
ere in fire management and fire related 
research. Yet as these programs have ma- 
tured, new questions and challenges have 
arisen. Ifthese parks are to remain among the 
leaders in fire management, everything from 
program objectives to our understanding of 
fire effects and how such information influ- 
ences programmatic decisions must be peri- 
odically reevaluated Specifically, we must 
improve our understanding of the long-term, 
cumulative effects of varying fire regimes 
and management activities on park ecosys- 
tems. As our understanding of ecosystem 
processes and interactions improves, pro- 
gram objectives must be revised as appropri- 

In an effort to facilitate such a review, a 
prescribed fire workshop was held in the 
parks in January 1993. Thirty individuals 
representing park and regional office staff, 
the CPSU at U/CA Davis, Yosemite NP 
scientists and managers, the Boise Interagency 
Fire Center, the USFS, and university re- 
searchers participated in this 3-day review. 

Workshop objectives were to assess the 
current status of the prescribed fire manage- 
ment and fire effects research programs; re- 
view the existing information base, and de- 
termine if (and how) this information and 
subsequent recommendations have been ap- 
plied by management; identify management 
and research concerns and needs, and devel- 
op strategies for acquiring and applying new 

Basically, we asked where we are with the 
program, how we got where we are, where 
we want to go, and how to get there. Empha- 
sis was given to identifying data needs and 
applications and overcoming perceived con- 
straints. The format made for informal, open 
discussion around general agenda items. The 
timing was particularly appropriate in that 
the political and advocacy group pressures 
that often have driven the program have been 
relatively quiet in recent years. A growing 
number of questions from park staff regard- 
ing program objectives and accomplishments 
assured a receptive audience and active par- 

Examples of the issues included: (1) the 
tendency to emphasize fire behavior rather 
than ecological objectives as the basis for 
setting prescriptions and evaluating "suc- 
cess"; (2) the need to articulate more clearly 
the program goals (what do we really mean 
when we say "reduce fuels" and "restore fire 
as a natural process"?); (3) identification of 
the constraints (funding, air quality, state and 
regional preparedness planning) that keep 
more acreage from being burned; (4) whether 
the current rate of burning is sufficient to 
make a difference, and (5) ways to improve 
our understanding of historic fire regimes 


Prescribed Fire: 

Current Status and 
Future Directions 

By David J. Parsons 

R^sea'ci Saertisi 

S-cujia and Krcs Caryon NPs 

and consequent fire effects and to improve 
feedback of such information to manage- 

Major conclusions reached included the 

• In an effort to define more clearly an 
overall goal for the prescribed fire program it 
was agreed that the traditional emphasis on 
restoring fire as a "process" should be ex- 
panded to include recognition of the impor- 
tance of the effects of that fire on forest 
structure. The goal of the overall program 
thus was reworded to read "To restore and 
perpetuate the fire regime and the vegeta- 
tion structure (or range of structural vari- 
ability) that would have existed today had 
Europeans not come on the scene." Im- 
proved understanding of the relationships 
between fire regime and vegetation structure 
will be required before specific structural 
objectives can be articulated 

• Burning rates in the mixed conifer forest 
zone need to be accelerated if anything even 
approaching natural fire regimes are to be 
restored Yet, since it was felt that more 
damage is generally done by not burning than 
by burning without fully understanding all of 
the possible effects, lack ofinformation should 
not be used as an excuse not to burn. 

• If constraints to burning more acreage 
cannot be overcome, serious consideration 
must be given to identifying areas where 
natural fire frequencies can be maintained 
while managing others under either a fire 
suppression scenario or through application 
of other hands-on manipulations. 

• Increased emphasis needs to be given to 
second and third bums in the mixed conifer 
forest zone. Under current conditions initial 
bums often create more fuels than existed 
prior to the fire. Similarly, emphasis needs to 
be given to getting away from the traditional 
burning of defined blocks under relatively 
uniform conditions. Use of larger, variable 
intensity fires set from point ignitions (rather 
than strip headfires) needs to be encouraged. 

• Preparation time spent clearing fuels from 
around the base of trees in non-frontcountry 
sequoia groves presents a major time con- 
straint and gready limits the acreage that can 
be burned. It was agreed that additional effort 
should be given to studying the effects of past 
fuel manipulation practices in the sequoia 
groves. In addition, if increased sequoia 
regeneration and recruitment is desired, con- 
sideration must be given to finding ways to 
encourage occasional "hot spots" that punch 
holes in the canopy during prescribed burns. 

• The current fire effects monitoring pro- 
gram does not provide sufficient levels of 
understanding on cause and effect relation- 
ships to permit statistically valid analysis of 
program effects (such as what frequencies 
and intensities of fire result in what types of 
forest structures?). The monitoring program 
must be supplemented with research studies 
to understand fully the relationships between 
fire behavior and effects. 

• Smoke and related air quality issues have 
the potential to seriously restrict future burn- 
ing activities (and have done so already in 
Yosemite). Increased emphasis needs to be 
given to monitoring smoke during different 
burning conditions and to understanding 
the effects of smoke on ecosystem properties 
and h uman health. Improved communica- 
tion with local air quality districts also is 

• The lack of a base funded long-term 
research program on fire effects continues to 
plague program advancement Critical ques- 
tions regarding the historical range of fire 
frequency, intensity, season, and size for 
different vegetation types, and the effects of 
varying fire characteristics on vegetation 
structure, mortality, seedling recruitment and 
survival, etc., must be answered before we 
can make sure that program objectives are 
both reasonable and attainable. Research 
will be critical to defining the range of forest 
characteristics that we are trying to achieve as 
well as establishing criteria for evaluating 
success. Long-term studies of the effects of 
different burning patterns will require a base 
funded commitment to support rotational 
plots burned under different frequencies and 
intensities. Support also is needed to fully 
develop, validate, and implement fire spread 
and forest dynamics models that will permit 
managers to test the consequences of various 
management decisions. 

In retrospect, this workshop provided a 
critical opportunity to reflect on past accom- 
plishments and discuss future directions and 
needs for die parks' fire management and 
research programs. Many of the policies and 
practices that have been ingrained in our 
system were found to be lacking in the face of 
modem realities. Improved understanding of 
the interdependence of fire, climate, and veg- 
etation, together with appreciation for die 
importance of the spatial and temporal vari- 
ability of fire characteristics and ecosystem 
response, has forced recognition of the im- 
portance of trying new ideas and techniques. 
The lessons we leamedfrom the 1963 Leopold 
report while still of value, must be updated to 
reflect a new understanding of ecosystem 
dynamics. The need for improved under- 
standing of disturbance processes and their 
effect on ecosystem properties could not be 

Park Science 

Book Review 

'the spate of new books and articles be- 
spawned by the budding "sciences of 
plexity " is any indication, a whole new 
Id paradigm is a-borning. The National 
: System, and the Service which exercis- 
>llective stewardship over it, eventually 
be caught up in any new paradigm that 
rges, hence the following "review of 
;ws." The take-off point for each of the 
cs is "complexity," and together they 
i much of the human condition — from 
ogy (with strong overtones of philoso- 
and religion) to "management" (our at- 
)ts to cope with the powers our tools have 

new paradigm is one that affects our 
le internal picture of reality. It involves 
rral principles whose understanding and 
ptance affect the ways we see and deal 

our world and ourselves. At the same 
, this particular paradigm — the sciences 
omplexity — has given rise to writings 
question the heretofore largely unques- 
:d applicability of general principles in 
istances — across the board, 
ttree books, all of which can be read as 
els to the book reviewed in the Summer 

I issue of Park Science, (Complexity: 
at the Edge of Chaos by Roger Lewin), 

eginning Again: People and Nature in 
Sew Millennium, by David Ehrenfeld, 
>rd University Press, NY, 1993. 194 pp. 
00 (ISBN 0-19-507812-8 cloth); 
t J. Wheatley, Berrett-Koehler Publish- 
inc, San Francisco 1993. $22.95 (ISBN 

rigins of Order: Self Organization and 
ction in Evolution, by Stuart A. 
ffinan, In Press, Oxford University. 

II three are available in forms more ac- 
ible to the general public in the following 

^ginning Again as a review by Bryan G. 
on, School of Public Policy, Georgia 
tute of Technology, Atlanta 30332, ap- 
ing in the January 1994 issue of 
'cience (pp. 37-9); 

ladership and the New Science as a re- 
' by Susan Mokelke in Timeline, (pp.4- 
ublished bi-monthly by the Foundation 
jlobal Community, 222 High St Palo 
, CA 94301-1097; and 
rigins of Order as an article by the author 
«lf, appearing first w.ISJournal#12, the 
sriy publication of International Syner- 
astitute, a global network of vanguard 
\s, scientists and activists, and appearing 
in Annals of Earth, Vol XI No. 3, 1993, 


To begin with the toughest, but still acces- 
sible to the layperson, Kaufiman's article 
describes the evidence for the complexity 
scientists' claim that complex adaptive sys- 
tems "achieve in a law-like way, the edge of 
chaos." This "edge of chaos" is described by 
Kauffman as "the phase transition zone" 
between two broad regimes that are "chaotic 
and ordered." It is in the narrow third com- 
plex regime — poised at the boundary of 
chaos — that Kauffman detects "order for 

Kauffman leads the reader painstakingly 
through the complex pathway of how spon- 
taneously ordered features of computer sim- 
ulations parallel a host of ordered features 
seen in the ontogeny of mouse, human, brack- 
en, fern, fly, bird. A "cell type," he explains, 
becomes a stable recurrent pattern of gene 
expression, or to use mathematical jargon, an 
"attractor" — like a whirlpool — a system to- 
ward which all the possible patterns of gene 
activities tend to flow and remain. Eventual- 
ly he arrives at the following paragraph: 

"Bacteria, yeast, ferns, and humans, mem- 
bers of different phyla, have no common 
ancestor for the past 600 million years or 
more. Has selection struggled for 600 mil- 
lion years to achieve a square root relation 
between genomic complexity and number of 
cell types? Or is this order for free so deeply 
bound into the roots of biological organiza- 
tion that selection cannot avoid this order? 
But if the latter, then selection is not the sole 
source of order in biology. Then Darwinism 
must be extended to embrace self-organiza- 
tion and selection." 

Kaufiman's articles (about his book) ex- 
trapolate complexity theory to such societal 
phenomena as economics. He posits the no- 
tion that complexity theory accounts for "why 
economics has bad a difficult time building a 
theory of the evolution of technolgical webs." 

Here, Kauffman may be illustrating what 
Ehrenfeld, in Beginning Again, warns 
against — the wholesale extrapolations of 
cherished "general principles." According to 
Norton, Ehrenfeld suggests that while phys- 
ics emphasizes general laws that facilitate 
predictions and centralized control, biology 
is inherently a science of the particular. In 
Ehrenfeld's Part 1, 'Taking Bearings," he 
explores aspects of the idea of place, the local 
and particular wisdom about, and commit- 
ment to, a home in the natural world. The 
word "chaos" again appears, often. "It is 
possible to steer through the chaos of modem 
life in a deteriorating environment, Ehrenfeld 
believes, if we follow the secret of all naviga- 
tion: "the secret ... is in paying attention to the 
fixed landmarks, both celestial and earthly" 
(p. viii from the book). 

The celestial landmarks are described by 
Norton as "the gems of religious wisdom, 
introduced on nearly every page." The earth- 
ly landmarks (which are of intense interest to 
National Park System managers) represent 
the particular knowledge of particular 
places — the understanding, gained by ecolo- 
gists and other sharp observers, of the partic- 
ularities of life in diverse systems and land- 
scapes. Ehrenfeld calls them ''the innumera- 
ble examples ofhow to live and endure in the 
kaleidoscopic environment of our earthly 
and only home." 

Thus, Ehrenfeld enjoins both ecology and 
religion as partners in the search for a new 

Norton terms Ehrenfeld's book an embod- 
iment of "religion in the best sense-an atti- 
tude of respect for cultural wisdom that em- 
erges over many generations — without 
dogma — simply a search for wisdom as op- 
posed to information, expertise, and tech- 

With direct application to the National 
Park Service, Ehrenfeld states: "Places can 
be destroyed, that is, they can have their 
nature and meaning irrevocably changed and 
their connection with the past severed." And 
then he states (on p. 33) what Norton calls 
"the central insight of this insightful book": 

"Conservation has to start at home, where 
we know, or ought to know, the problems, 
and where we are most likely to understand 
the opportunities and limitations of our solu- 

But managers do not escape with only 
guideposts. Ehrenfeld devotes much of his 
book (again according to Norton) to "the 
explosion of the managerial class, which he 
indicts as "the most destructive force of mod- 
em society." Norton quotes Ehrenfeld thus- 

"Overmanagement is a by-product of an 
exploitative age in which the massive extrac- 
tion and processing of natural resources have 
been accompanied by the release of huge 
amounts of surplus wealth." He uses univer- 
sities as an example of management run 
amok. He decries these large new "sources of 
unregulated cash" where a positive feedback 
loop emerges: the need to control funds, 
leading to more administrative tasks, even as 
more administrators choke the system and 
reduce the productivity of educators who are 
more and more frozen out of control of their 
own fates. 

For another view of management, 
Wheatley' s Leaders hip and the New Science 
offers hope that managers of the future will 
do their jobs within the new paradigm — one 

Continued on page 28 


Book Review 

The Visitor's Guide to the Birds of the 

Eastern National Parks: United States and 
Canada (1992; $15.95 U.S., $20.95 Cana- 
da) and The Visitor's Guide to the Birds of 
the Rocky Mountain National Parks: Unit- 
ed States and Canada (1993; $15.95 U.S., 
$19.95 Canada), by Roland RWauer. John 
Muir Publications, Santa Fe, NM. 

Those who know Ro Wauer will not be 
surprised to learn that he hasn't slowed down 
since retiring from the Park Service. Among 
other projects — such as serving on the Na- 
tional Academy of Sciences committee mat 
produced the report, Science in the National 
Parks — Ro is writing a series of four books 
on birds in the national parks. Two of these 
have been published and the third — on the 
parks of central North America — is in press. 
This year he is researching and visiting parks 
along the west coast up to Alaska. 

The series is the idea of Robert Cahn, 
noted conservation writer with a special in- 
terest in national parks. With his "trailer 

slave" (wife Betty), Ro has visited all the 
parks he writes about, adding this up-to-date 
acquaintance to knowledge gained and notes 
taken over his 32-year career with NPS. 
(Betty, not an avid birder, has enjoyed these 
trips more since taking up videography.) 

The books are introductions to bothbirding 
and national parks. For each park, they 
describe the most common andobvious birds, 
their behavior, and plant community associ- 
ations; park environments; and park facili- 
ties, services and publications. They also 
summerize the bird life as presented on the 
park checklist With this format, readers can 
compare parks easily. Ro apparently as- 
sumed that readers would turn to selected 
park accounts and therefore wrote each ac- 
count to stand alone. This results in descrip- 
tions of many species being repeated several 
times throughout the book. Ro's binding 
skills and close, precise observation habits 
are everywhere evident 

Because the books are written for begin- 
ning birders, advanced birders will be disap- 
pointed by the lack of discussion of the less 
common species. However, every reader 
will benefit from the advice on good binding 
areas and will find many bits of intriguing 
bird behavior. I was surprised to learn, for 
instance, that red-tailed hawks sometimes 
stalk their prey on the ground Conservation 
messages, especially onneotropical migrants, 
are sprinkled throughout The illustrations 
include maps of park locations and excellent 
bird drawings and color photos of park envi- 
ronments. A single summary checklist of all 
birds in the parks described, a list of plant 
names, and a bibliography end each book. 

The books will be sold in many parks and 
will be useful additions to park libraries, for 
both staff and visitors. The central North 
America book should be out in 1 994 and the 
west coast book in 1995. 

Napier Shelton 
NPS Washington Office 

Spate Of New Books continued from page 
that abandons the world of predicatabihty 
mat Newton and Descartes envisioned in 
favor of a world of potentials and probabili- 

Wheatley is a Harvard-educated organiza- 
tional consultant who, while trying to address 
the growing problem of organizational dys- 
function, became obsessed with the new sci- 
ences of complexity and chaos. Haunted by 
such questions as "Why does change, which 
we are supposed to be managing, keep drown- 
ing us?," she plunged into a journey of dis- 
covery and arrived at her premise: 

"I believe that we have only just begun the 
process of discovering and inventing the new 
organizational forms that will inhabit the 2 1st 
century. To be responsible inventors and 
discoverers, though, we need the courage to 
let go of uie old world, to relinquish most of 
what we have cherished, to abandon our 
interpretations about what does and doesn't 
work. As Einstein is often quoted as saying, 
'No problem can be solved from the same 
consciousness that created it' Wemustleam 
to see the world anew." 

It would seem that Wheatley has gone 
directly from a layperson's description of 
new sciences to the management implica- 
tions they present for dealing with self-orga- 
nizing systems. Change, stability, and re- 
newal are hallmarks of a self-organizing sys- 
tem, and Wheatley defines die key to such 
systems (self-reference) this way: 


"In response to environmental disturb- 
ances that signal the need for change, the 
system changes in such a way that it remains 
consistent with itself in that environment" 
She sees this as an optimistic lesson for 
despairing humans. Freedom and order are 
partners in the new paradigm... the more 
freedom in self-organization, the more order. 

And further good news is the new insight 
that "under certain conditions, when the sys- 
tem is far from equilibrium [at the edge of 
chaos], creative individuals can have an enor- 
mousimpact" As she notes, 'It is not the law 
of large numbers, of favorable averages, that 
creates change, but the presence of a lone 
fluctuation [the butterfly wing effect] that 
gets amplified by the system" (See Edi- 
torial, page 2 of this issue, for additional 
thoughts— Ed.) 

Information, Wheatley concludes, is the 
creative energy of the universe. Certainly this 
emerging paradigm suggests it It was back 
in the '20s and 30s that astronomer Sir James 
Jeans observed: "The universe begins to look 
more like a great thought than a great ma- 

Mokelke calls Leadership and the New 
Science an inspiring book, with much to offer 
any individual or organization walking the 
edge of chaos on the road to a higher order of 
being," and offers this quote from Wheadey 
as a concluding example: 

'To live in a quantum world, to weave here 
and there with ease and grace, we will need to 
change what we do. We will need to stop 
describing tasks and instead facilitate pro- 
cess. We will need to become savvy about 
how to nurture growing, evolving things. All 
of us will need better skills in listening, 
communicating, and facilitating groups, be- 
cause these are the talents that build strong 
relationships. It is well knwon that the era of 
the rugged individual has been replaced by 
the era of the team player. But this is only the 
beginning. The quantum world has demol- 
ished the concept of the unconnected individ- 
ual. More and more relationships are in store 
for us, out mere in the vast web of universal 

Jean Matthews 

Editor, Pari: Science 


Park Science 

Latest Research at El Malpais 
Reveals Dating Errors 

By A. William LaughJIn 

1 Malpais National Monument was creat- 
) preserve some of the youngest and most 
Macular volcanic rocks within the conti- 
al United States. These cinder cones and 
flows are part of the Zuni-Bandera vol- 
c field which in turn is just one of several 
anic fields that form a northeast trending 
anient that extends across Arizona and 
f Mexico. Geologists refer to this align- 
t as the Jemez lineament Although 
ogists have long known that the volca- 
i and lava flows of the Zuni-Bandera 
anic field are very young, it has only been 
in the past 20 years that serious attempts 
; been made to determine the age of this 
anic activity. In the mid 1970s, we 
ined potassium-argon dates on some of 
>lder lava flows from the Zuni-Bandera 
anic field. These dates suggested that the 
r flows are about 1 .4 millon years (Ma) 

i the late 1980s and early 90s, a group of 
archers from Los Alamos National Lab- 
>ry, the University of Arizona, and New 
ico Institute of Mining and Technology 
ined an additional dozen potassium-ar- 
and argon-argon dates from the volcanic 
L The results of our second study indicat- 
tat our prior dates of about 1 .4 Ma were 
ror (anomalously old). Our new results 
ighlin et al., 1993) indicated that there 
: three major pulses of volcanic activity 
in the Zuni-Bandera volcanic field The 

of these, which occurred about 700 
sand years ago (700 ka), produced basalt 
s south and west of the Monument A 
nd pulse, which produced flows in the 
em part of the Monument in the Chain 
raters area, took place between 150 and 
ka. The third and youngest pulse of 
anic activity produced the spectacular 
lera and McCartys flows as well as the 
s from the Lost Woman, Twin Craters, 
*axton Springs volcanoes. In this second 
/, we were unable to date these youngest 

late 1992, a third geochrono logical study 
le volcanic rocks of the Zuni-Bandera 
anic field and £1 Malpais National Mon- 
at was begun by researchers from Los 
aos National Laboratory, New Mexico 
tute of Mining and Technology, and the 

Mexico Bureau of Mines and Mineral 
rorces working with NPS staff. The 
>r goal of this third study was to date the 
lgest volcanic rocks of El Malpais NM 
inly to aid in understanding the volcanic 
«y of the area but also to provide a test 

area for calibrating newly developed dating 
techniques. To accomplish mis goal, four 
different dating methods have been applied 
to these lava flows and volcanoes: argon- 
argon, radiocarbon, helium-3 surface dating, 
and uranium-series dating. At least two 
different methods have been applied to three 
different flows: the Bhiewater flow (urani- 
um-series and helium-3), the Bandera flow 
(radiocarbon, helium-3, and argon-argon) and 
the McCartys flow (radiocarbon and helium- 
3). Results on each of these flows are dis- 
cussed below. 

The Bluewater flow, which is probably the 
oldest flow of the third pulse, is exposed in 
the valley west of the town of Grants and 
outside the Monument Prior to our most 
recent work, we had obtained two potassium- 
argon dates of 5.69 and 2.23 Ma on this flow. 
These dates were clearly anomalously old 
because of "excess" argon incorporated in 
the flow during crystallization. Two differ- 
ent samples of the surface of the Bluewater 
flow were collected for helium-3 dating. 
These samples yielded an average age of 57 
+/- 6 ka; a third sample of the flow was dated 
by the uranium-series method, yielding an 
age of 79+40/-30 ka. The ages obtained by 
the two different methods agree within ex- 
perimental error. 

The Bandera flows were erupted from 
Bandera Crater, which lies within El Malpais 
NM about 40 km southwest of Grants, New 
Mexico. With the assistance of the NPS, a 
backhoe was used to excavate trenches 
through scoria erupted from the volcano. 
Two samples of charcoal for radiocarbon 
dating were collected from the soil immedi- 
ately below the scoria. This charcoal proba- 
bly represents roots burned from the heat of 
the scoria eruption. These samples gave ages 
of 10,050-10,070and 10,990 calibratedyears 
before present (B J*.). We believe that the 
older age is more likely to be correct Three 
samples of the Bandera flow were dated 
using the helium-3 method giving ages of 
11,000+/- 1,100, 10,000+/- 1,800, 12,500+/ 
- 1,400 years. We consider the agreement 
between these methods to be exceptionally 
good. Work is now in progress on the argon- 
argon dating. 

The McCartys flow, the youngest flow 
within the Monument was also datedby both 
the radiocarbon and helium-3 methods. A 
site was found on the eastern edge ofMcCartys 
flow where stream erosion had cut beneath 
the flow. Two charcoal samples, represent- 
ing burnt plant roots, were collected for ra- 
diocarbon dating from beneath the flow. 

Continued on page 30 

The youngest pulse of volcanic activity at El Malpais National Monument about 3,000 years ago 
produced the McCarty flow, shown here overlying the approximately 80,000 year old Laguna flow. 



BMalpaiS continuad torn pap 29 
These two samples gave an average age of 
2^87+/- 92 calibrated years B.P. Two sam- 
ples of the surface of McCartys flow were 
dated by the helium-3 method These sam- 
ples gave ages of 2,5(XH/- 1,1 00 and 2,400+/ 
- 600 years. Again we consider the agree- 
ment between methods to be excellent 

The results of our third geochronological 
study were presented at a geochronology 
field conference held in Grants, New Mexico 
in April, 1993. This conference was hosted 
by Los Alamos National Laboratory, New 
Mexico Bureau of Mines and Mineral Re- 
sources, New Mexico Institute ofMining and 

Bandera Crater (left center, by the highway) 
can be seen here together with several other 
cinder cones that lie within El Malpais National 

Technology, and the NPS. In attendance 
were 55 geochronologists andgeomorpholo- 
gists from the U. S. and Canada. Consider- 
able interest was expressed by the partici- 
pants in developing El Malpais NM as a test 
area for new dating techniques. A large 
number of samples were collected during the 
conference for cosmogenic carbon, chlorine- 
36, and thermolumnescence dating and pale- 
omagnetic studies. Results of these studies 
will be reported to die NPS on an annual 

Laughlin is with the Earth and Environmental 
Sciences Division, Los Alamos National Labora- 
tory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545. 

CPSU Hosts 

2nd Biennial 

Conference on 

Colorado Plateau 


The Second Biennial Conference on Col- 
orado Plateau Research was hosted by the 
Cooperative Park Studies Unit at Northern 
Arizona University (NAU), Flagstaff; Oct 
25-28, 1993. Patsy B. Reed, Interim Presi- 
dent of NAU, introduced by Unit Leader 
Charles van Riper m, expressed pleasure at 
the university's opportunity to participate 
with the National Biological Survey (NBS) 
in garnering and disseminating biological 
research information. 

Scientist, presented the NPS Director's Nat- 
ural Resources Award to Henry O. Hooper, 
NAU's Vice-president for Academic Affairs, 
for his support of NPS resource protection 
issues and CPSU operations on the NAU 

Ray Stendell, Director of the National 
Ecology Research Laboratory (NERC) in 
Fort Collins, CO, shared information on die 
organizational structure and function of the 
new NBS and indicated that the CPSU, serv- 
ing as a Research Station under NERC super- 
vision, will continue to focus on research for 
the Colorado Plateau ecosystem. 

Formal sessions opened with a workshop 
on the Endangered Species Act, followed by 
a session discussing die prototype I&M pro- 
gram developed for Montezuma Castle Na- 
tional Monument The 167 registrants sam- 
pled 68 presentations in 8 paper sessions 
and two poster sessions. Papers covered top- 
ics in the fields of endangered and declining 
species, physical resources, animal and plant 
ecology, and cultural resources. A workshop 
on Global Positioning Systems (GPS) closed 
die conference. The conference program ab- 
stracts and author identification encouraged 
future information exchange amongresearch- 

Representatives from 7 agencies, 13 uni- 
versities and colleges, and half a dozen other 
organizations took part in this truly interac- 
tive conference. Proceedings of the first such 
conference had just been published and were 
available to attendees. A proceedings from 
the second conference is due from die printer 

Connie C Cole 

Publications Editor 

NAU Cooperative Park Studies Unit 


Park Science 

^operative Efforts Improve Forest Health at Coulee Dam 

By Karen Taylor-Goodrich 

ust what is "forest health"? 
Recognizing that forest types vary consid- 
>ly depending on which biogeographic 
/ince they're in, generally, a healthy for- 
is resilient to change, is biologically di- 
«, provides sustained habitat for fish and 
llife, and meets long-term resource man- 
nent objectives. 

i forest can become unhealthy when its 
iral dynamics are interrupted, challenged, 
therwise subjected to natural and/or hu- 
i-caused agents mat affect "normal" for- 
: volution. Agents such as fire (or lack of 
nsects, diseases, site degradation, weath- 
xtremes, "catastrophic" events, air and 
n pollution, and improper forest man- 
nent practices, all can contribute to mak- 
a forest unhealthy. 

Unhealthy forests tend to be even-aged 
overstocked stands with little resistance 
ssilience to pests. 

ithough forest pest infestations are con- 
red natural processes, forests in devel- 
1 areas also must be managed with visitor 
in mind. At Coulee Dam National Rec- 
ion Area (CODA) the forests in our 26 
sloped visitor use areas pose unique man- 
nent challenges. Decades of fire sup- 
sion, multiple years of drought, threats 
1 poor forest management practices near- 
and other human caused activities have 
riorated the quality of the ponderosa pine 
us ponder os a) forests in the area, 
iven the linear nature of the recreation 
(Lake Roosevelt is 150 miles long with 
0-mile shoreline), and its proximity to 
r federal state, tribal, and privately man- 
l forests, we recognize the importance of 
aging forest vegetation in our developed 
in a way mat enhances surrounding 

: Dean Gettinger performing height 


tt: Ponderosa pines (Pinus ponderosa) in 
loped area (campground); infested and 
g. Bark removed by woodpecker activity. 

resources as well The sustainability of for- 
ests in these areas of high recreational value 
is in question, and we realize that we may face 
major forest losses in our campgrounds if we 
do not act soon. 

NPS staff are addressing forest health is- 
sues on Lake Roosevelt in cooperation with 
omerresource agencies. We have utilized the 
expertise of Forest Service entomologists 
and pathologists in identifying the types and 
causes ofinsects and diseases taking over our 
forests. (This may sound melodramatic; for- 
est pests are common and natural in forest 
ecosystems, however it's the degree of infes- 
tation mat is of concern here.) 

The Forest Service also has provided silvi- 
culturists to train NPS resource management 
and maintenance staff in the evaluation of 
local forest conditions. We are in our third 
year of funding for forest insect and disease 
management projects through the USFS spon- 
sored Forest Pest Management Program. In 
addition to Forest Service staff, we have 
contacted resource professionals from other 
NPS areas, outside agencies, and universities 
to discuss the latest developments on manag- 
ing forest insects and diseases in developed 

The first step was to recognize and docu- 
ment the extent of our forest health problems. 
We knew we had lost hundreds of trees to a 
major outbreak of western pine beetle in one 
of our popular campgrounds, but we didn't 
have enough information to determine the 
condition of all our developed sites. We 
decided to address the problem systematical- 
ly, and we have taken measures to determine 
the extent of active infestations, the potential 
for continued insect and disease problems, 
and what management options for treatment 
are available to us. 

NPS resource management staff conduct- 
ed an extensive Forest Insect and Disease 
Risk Assessment Survey of the 26 develop- 
ed campgrounds at CODA in 1992. Based on 
basal area measurements (tree spacing), di- 
ameter at breast height (DBH), and other tree 
health indicators, preliminary survey results 

indicate the forests along Lake Roosevelt are 
extremely overstocked, stressed, even-age 
stands, with minimal regeneration occurring. 
This weakened condition has resulted in de- 
clining resistance and resilience to pest dam- 

The survey has provided us with sufficient 
data to prioritize areas by level of health, 
allowing us to make more informed manage- 
ment decisions mat may involve suppression 
and/or prevention activities. In order to keep 
infestations from spreading, and to address 
public safety concerns, active infestations 
receive the highest priority for treatment 
Prescribed fire, and the removal of over- 
stocked trees to an optimum level for growth 
will be used as secondary measures to im- 
prove overall forest vigor and resistance to 

Along with NPS efforts to improve forest 
health at CODA, most resource managers in 
the region are working to address the deteri- 
orating condition of forests in the Inland 
Northwest, including Canada. Major forest 
insect and disease outbreaks are occurring 
throughout the area, and managers are work- 
ing together to educate the public and then- 
agencies on forest health issues. NPS staff at 
CODA are participating actively in regional 
forest health education efforts, and serving 
on task forces and committees to address 
these issues. Cooperative efforts to develop 
public information and educational materials 
involve press releases, posters, a brochure 
(completed), and a videotape (in the planning 

What we have learned will serve as a 
foundation for the long-term protection and 
preservation of significant ecological and 
recreational forest resources. Likewise, rec- 
ognizing the importance of cooperative ef- 
forts to address both park and regionwide 
concerns can help us meet resource manage- 
ment objectives while developing mutually 
beneficial partnerships. 

Taylor-Goodrich is the Resource Management 
Specialist at Coulee Dam NRA. 

1 1994 





19.3/4: 14/3 

I NOV 5 1998 


A Resource Management Bulletin 

ume 14— Number 3 National Park Service U.S. Department ot the Interior Summer 1994 

Neotropical Migratory Bird Workshop and Research 

By Ralph Grundel and Theodore R.Simons 

National Workshop on the Status and 
agementofNeotropical Migratory Birds 
held in September 1992 at Estes Park, 

le Proceedings, recently published and 

able from the USFS Rocky Mountain 

st and Range Experiment Station, (Gen. 

i Report RM-229) covers issues that are 

al to Neotropical migratory bird conser- 


hich avian species currently are in de- 

in North America? 

e there commonalities in biogeography 

ihavior mat link, in a unique manner, 

es that are in decline? 

e declines most closely related to prob- 

originating during the breeding season, 

ligratory passage, or on the wintering 


hich monitoring protocols provide the 

useful data on the status of avian popu- 


hat solutions can researchers and re- 

e managers devise for preventing popu- 

1 declines or for augmenting threatened 


e workshop was organized under aus- 

of Partners in Flight, a cooperative 
ment between governmental and non- 
mmental (NGO) organizations intended 
alitate the study and management of 
ropical migratory birdpopulations. The 
is one of 1 4 federal agencies represented 
e Neotropical Migratory Bird Conser- 
a Committee, the federal government's 
onent of the Partners in Flight pro- 
Populations Status: 
;nds and Monitoring Methodology 
e methodology for evaluating the status 
;eding birds is evolving to improve the 
tical validity of population estimates. 

studies of breeding bird population 
nics are striving to gather information 
id simple abundance of birds. These 
dural changes should improve signifi- 
{ the usefulness of such data for conser- 

Since 1966, the primary source of infor- 
mation on trends in breeding bird popula- 
tions in the U.S. and Canada has been the 
North AmericanBreedingBirdSurvey (BBS). 
The BBS now is coordinated by the National 

Biological Survey (NBS) in the U.S. The/ 
BBS relies on roadside counts of breeding 
birds, conducted throughout the country. 

Inadequacies of this methodology were noted 
Continued on Page 3 

Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) data indicate that Ovenbird (below) populations in- 
creased nationwide from 1966-1977, but significantly declined therafter. These changes are 
regional — Ovenbird populations in the Northeast increased during the 1980s perhaps 
due to forest maturation. This illustrates the complexity of population trends and the importance 
of multiple types of census stations. Many warbler species, such as the female Black-throated 
Green Warbler (above), have experienced especially large population declines according to the 
BBS, over the past decade. (Photos: NPS, Indiana Dunes NF) 



SUMMER 1994 I 

A report to park managers of recent and on-going 
research in parks with emphasis on its implications \ 
for planning and management. 



• Neotropical Migratory Bird Workshop 

andResearch 1 „ 

It mustbe true that what you do, you come to 

• Minor Violations, Major Damage: love. The wisdom of the ages has it so, and so, 
A Survey of Noncompliant Visitor I see, it has become with me. 
Behavior and Managerial Practices 6 Since the early days of Jack Kennedy and 

__ ... . _ . ^ Stewart Udall, when I was a writer of speeches 

• Preventing Visitor-Caused Dmm& to md releases m fc Secretaiys g££ f 

National Park Resources.What Do We Mo ^^ I have been drawn ew more 

Know? What Should Be Done? 9 deepfyfoS National much so, that 

• Oregon Lecture Series Addresses after 6 years of writing the Departmental Con- 
Global Change 10 servation Yearbooks I was lured away frommy 

comfortable GS-15 position by NPS Director 

• Winter Mass Balance Measurements on George B. Hartzog, Jr., and have never once 
Teton Glacier Begin to Build Basis for looked back. 
Predicting Season Melt and RunofT ... 1 1 j^ ^^ attraction to the National Park 

• Animal Disease Issues in the National ^^^ led to active mvolvementandjyenrual- 
Park System Clarified by Nationwide * to . *»*• ^ an .?« «»«* concon tbat 
Survey 14 inevitably occurs with the full-blowing of that 

emotion I have watched the cyclic struggle to 

• Assateague Island Mares "Shot" with define and control the uses and care of that 
Contraceptives 15 unique set of resources — a natural, cultural, 

t rro ii i o j t xt ~i_ and spiritual assetwhose fate today is teetering 

• Jen Selleck Succeeds Jean Matthews ., r , ■ , r. „*_» „ i*_ _*. 
a n _i c ■ cj-. i^ on the brink between treasure and tragedy. 
As Park Science Editor 16 T , , . j _.- • . , • J c 

I have observed and participated m many of 

• Long-term Monitoring on a Shoestring the attempts to understand, interpret, and care 
At Apostle Islands 17 for this awesome System. These various at- 
tempts have both flourished and languished in 

• Public Education Pays Off at Great me short run, but over me lc*ig haul they have 
Smokies In Smooth Sailing for stubbornly persisted— even through extended 
Red Wolf Release 18 periodsofwhatcanomybeseeninretrospectas 

■ NPS Paleontologists Present Papers at massive ignorance and deliberate attraction. 

GSA Conference 20 0ne ofthe great joys of recentyears has been 

the sturdy growth of park-based research and 

• The National Biological Survey- science-based resource management. It was a 
A Perspective from the Past 21 de velopment woefully long in coming and des- 

Ti »_._^ nc * rw • r> ii i perately needed. The current well-intentioned 

• ReconsU^cting Chma te Data m Parallel g^ £ stren ^ ien adfl0ce4-sed ^^ 

Watersheds Provides Useful Data on , - ?,,.,,■,, , , 

M ' Wood "?■? makingacrossmebcaidatlntenorhaslaunched- 

-not for the first time (see page 2 1 for Gerry 

• Gap Analysis: Another Look 24 Wright's review) a consolidated science effort 

That effort, once again entitled National Bio- 
- Conservation Biologists Conduct Study logical Survey, has a chance this time of fulfffl- 
of Alien Species in Hawaiian 
Rainforests 29 

• Dinosaur Blood Warm or Cold? 31 REGIONAL EdtkXouotaim 


Denver, CO 80225 
8-327-2650 / (303) 969-2650 

ing its bright promise without undermining th 
NPS science program. 

But this re-formation of Interior's scieno 
program must not be allowed to focus rigidly a 
' 'pure' ' science as opposed to applied researcl 
that responds in a timely manner to the crymj 
needs of a System under incredible pressures 

The NPS scientific research program gres 
out of a desire to understand and document th 
National Park System's priceless resources an 
to apply the results of research to the needs c 
enlightened management. The Park Syster 
can profit from the added light that a consohdal 
ed cadre of scientists can throw on its makeup 
But the feedback into the System from th 
results of suchresearchmust continue as stronj 
support of System management 

No matter how lofty the aim or how high 
minded the instigators of theNBS, the Nations 
Park System-vulnerable and irreplaceable- 
must not be allowed to lose its science support 
its access to informed input into managemer 

As the only editor of this bulletin, which 
started 14 years ago, I have tried always t 
maintain a positive attitude, reporting on th 
hopeful signs and celebrating news of promis 
ing trends. But as I prepare to depart, I hav 
asked myself if I want to be remembered (if t 
all) as Polh/anna, or would I rather sound th 
warning note that more faithfully reflects anxi 
eties lying not far below surface bravado, 
came to the conclusion that I could not g 
without one word of caution. 

Looking back can be as important as lookin 
to the future. Regrettable events that hav 
happened in the past should be faced, recog 
mzed, and not allowed to overtake us agaii 
Once, we tost our way. It happens. But twice 
Please, not again! 


• Editorial 2 

• Meetings of Interest 25 

• Book Review 26 

• Regional Highlights 27 

• Information Crossfile 30 

Ander$on,WUllain H. 

11 00 Ohio Drive, SW 
Washington, DC 20242 

Kim ball, Suzette 

75 Spring. St SW 
Atlanta, GA 30303 

Foley, Mary 

15 State St 
Boston, MA 02109 
(617) 742-3094 
FAX (617) 367-8515 

1709 Jackson St 
Omaha, NE 68102 
8464-3438/(402) 221-3438 

Karisb. John F. 

Ferguson Bldg., Room 209-B 
Pennsylvania State University 
University Park, PA 16802 
8 (814) 865-7974 

Kilgore, Bruce 


600 Harrison St, Suite 600 

San Francisco, CA 94107-1372 

8-484-3955 / (41 5)744-3955 

KunkJe, Sam 

P.O. Box 728 
Santa Fe, NM 87501 
8-476-6870 / (505) 988-6870 

Jope, Kathy (acting) 
909 1st Ave. 

Seattle, WA 98104-1060 
(206) 220-4098 

Deicbew, Nancy (acting) 


2525 GambeD St, Room 107 

Anchorage, AK 99503-2892 

8-869-2568 / (907) 257-2568 

Park Scienc 

jotropical Migratory Bird Workshop and Research continued from page 1 

ie conference. For example, the BBS 
thasizes species readily seen or heard 
a roadsides and active during early morn- 
Also, BBS data provide limited clues to 
«s of documented declines. Still, BBS 
do inform us of changes in relative 
idance of many species over many years. 
BS data suggest that population trends 
1 1982-1991 for many species were dif- 
nt from the overall trends noted for the 
5-1991 span of currently analyzed BBS 
. A statistically significant proportion of 
tropical migratory species in the U.S. 
/ o), exhibited declines in breeding season 
ibersduringthe 1982-1991 period. Over 
jntire 1966-1991 period however, there 
not a statistically significant percentage 
>ecies exhibiting declines. Thus, asig- 
:antly increased rate of decline seems to 
5 occurred in the decade from 1982- 

ationwide BBS analyses showthatpopu- 
n trends for species often are regionally 
topographically specific, so that a spe- 
iec lining in one biogeographic province 
it not be declining elsewhere. Only 
agh a large network of monitoring sta- 
» is it possible to document this type of 
ibility and establish the true current 
5 of a particular species, 
reas that are experiencing relatively little 
an modification to the landscape are 
cially important stations within a moni- 
g network. This critical role is one the 
raal parks are uniquely suited to per- 
i. In addition, the national parks can 
m the public of within-park trends in 
ding bird numbers and how these trends 
e to global changes in bird populations, 
ne frequently raised point at the meeting 
the need for additional monitoring pro- 
is to collect data on avian breeding 
uctivity. David DeSante, of The Insti- 
brBirdPopulations inPoint Reyes, CA, 
an overview of the MAPS (Monitoring 
n Productivity and Survivorship) pro- 
l, which is attempting to obtain such 
Dgraphic data at stations throughout the 
try. Many of the MAPS stations are on 
:al lands. Programs that count the num- 
I breeding adult birds in an area but do 
iocument productivity, or how many 
birds are hatched and fledged, can 
■t a misleading assessment of the hab- 
ability to support breeding birds, 
ie quality of the breeding habitat should 
ad be assessed by asking whether the 
?er of young birds produced is sufficient 
mpensate for adult mortality through- 
le year, in other words does that habitat 

Continued on page 4 

The habitat fragmentation that negatively affects many breeding bird populations is strikingly 
illustrated here. A from 1954, and C, from 1966, point to the same location just outside the 
boundary of Indiana Dunes National Lakesbore; B & D are just inside the park's boundary. 
Intensive commercial development (c) of dune ecosystem, from 1954 to the time of the park's 
formation in 1966 increased insularity of the park Insularity often negatively affects animal and 
plant populations. Riparian corridor section of the park (E) is separated from body of the park by 
farm and residential land. 


Neotropical Migratory Bird Workshop and Research continued from page 3 

produce enough birds annually to sustain 
population levels? Monitoring nest success 
directly, by nest inspections or by mist net- 
ting birds to count the fledglings produced, 
improves our understanding ofhabitat breed- 
ing suitability. This is one goal of the MAPS 

It should be noted here that monitoring 
nest success is an intensive procedure — one 
that provides information on many fewer 
species than does a BBS census. The differ- 
ences between BBS and MAPS surveys illus- 
trate why it is mandatory that specific goals 
be delineated before a monitoring protocol is 
chosen. For a given amount of effort there 
always will be a tradeoffbetween the scope of 
the survey and the detail of the information 

BBS and MAPS type surveys are parts of 
a comprehensive program. For example, 
within a park it often will be most useful to 
proceed from more general to more specific 
monitoring programs and to be cognizant of 
the types of conclusions that can be drawn 
from each program's data. Most parks will 
want first to produce a checklist of birds so 
that researchers and resource managers are 
aware of what species are present Addi- 
tional information on relative population 
trends might be established by a BBS type 
survey, and those trends might be better 
understood by undertaking a MAPS type 
study of several species. 

Goals for Management 

Sam Droege urged those considering es- 
tablishment of a monitoring program to ask 
the specific purpose of the program. Can you 
define management goals that will use your 
monitoring data and management actions 
that will rectify disturbing trends shown by 
your data? For example, is a park's manage- 
ment goal to ensure that no species experi- 
ences more man a SO percent decline over 
time, or mat a minimum of 100 breeding 
pairs of a particular species is maintained? 
These two questions require different moni- 
toring approaches, although both require 
high intensity monitoring, probably on a 
yearlybasis. On the other hand, less accuracy 
might be required in evaluating more com- 
mon species, which might be monitored on a 
five year cycle. 

If no management options are available to 
influence a declining population, then you 
cannot expect good population news to fol- 
low bad monitoring news, and the usefulness 
of your monitoring program is undermined. 

Make sure your monitoring program fits 
within your long-term monitoring budget, 
Droege urged. Try to standardize your moni- 
toring protocols so your data will be compa- 
rable to data collected by other studies, and be 
sure to evaluate periodically the effectiveness 
of your protocols. 

Wintertime aerial photograph at the western border of Yellowstone NP. Park occupies left 
half of the picture, Targhee National Forest occupies right Half. Clearcut areas of the National 
Forest clearly contrast with the National Park, illustrating the insular character of even large 
parks. Insularity negatively affects many bird populations. Parks can serve as control areas for 
evaluating the impact landscape modification has on birds. (Photo: Tim Crawford, courtesy of 
the Greater Yellowstone Coalition.) 

A central event of the meeting was presen- 
tation of monitoring goals from bom govern- 
mental organizations and NGOs. Federal 
agencies outlining their monitoring and man- 
agement plans for Neotropical migrants were 
meeting was held before formation of the 
National Biological Survey, which today 
plays a key role in coordinating Neotropical 
migratory bird research and the BBS.) 
Management of Neotropical Migrants 

Given the inevitably limited resources 
available for study and management ofNeo- 
tropical migrants, many suggestions were 
made as to how to allocate these resources 
effectively. Several schemes were given for 
ranking which species deserve most immedi- 
ate management attention. William Hunter, 
David Pashley, and Michael Carter sug- 
gested that global abundance, threats on the 
wintering and summering grounds, size of 
winter and summer distribution, and popula- 
tion trends are the chief factors, to be consid- 
ered together, in determining a species' con- 
servation priority rating. 

Ways of improving habitat were suggested 
by Chandler Robbins, John Sauer, and Bruce 
Peterjohn: For forest birds, maximizing the 
interior portion of forests and minimizing 
isolation of forest fragments from one an- 
other, encouraging diversity of native plants 
and the age structure of forests, and control- 
ling exotic vegetation; for field birds, reduc- 
ing mowing during breeding season, in- 
creasing the amount of grasslands that lie 
more than 100 meters from other habitats, 

leaving some fields fallow for several yea 
and preventing overgrazing. 

While understanding die dynamics 
population numbers is central to establish! 
the status ofNeotropical migrants, consen 
tion and management actions require a the 
oughknowledgeofavianlife histories. Russ 
Greenberg noted the importance of deb 
mining what resources migratory birds c 
fend Such defended resources frequently j 
unexpected, or at least not apparent to t 
casual observer, yet they are key to survh 
of that species. For example, die consen 
tion of trees containing essential food-su 
as honey dew-secreting scale insects or a 
tain fruits-is a critical concern in the mz 
agement of wintering grounds for some d 

Such biological facts are known in onl; 
small percentage of cases, so basic natu 
history studies must not be considered 
esoteric addenda to practical research I 
rather as critical elements in conservati 

The workshop also addressed problei 
inherent in making land use decisions. Pa 
ners in Flight is a cooperative progra 
dealing with species that require seve 
geographically diverse habitats for yearlo 
survival. There is great potential here 1 
promoting cooperative management of ma 
habitats, benefitting all landbirds and oft 
biotic resources. 

Cooperative land management invoh 
great biological and management compk 
ity. The conference talk that was voted be 


d on the topic of integrating land man- 
men t practices for multiple animal spe- 
i was Ronald Escano's: "You cannot 
aage for every species on every acre." 
rcia Patton-Mallory urged review of fe- 
rn plans by resource managers early in 
research planning process. Such early 
ew increases likelihood that the informa- 
i gathered can be used to make land 
lagement decisions. Land management 
ons are essentially experiments-in- 
gress, she noted, but they rarely are docu- 
ited, and the information they yield is not 

he concluding workshop talks noted the 
mma land managers race in making land 
decisions based on scant data, and the 
eofls that arise in managing for single 
aes versus the multiple species that actu- 
inhabit any plot of land. The use of 
cator species, or a guild management 
roach, have not solved these problems. 
It geographic scale approaches to man- 
nent were stressed, recognizing for in- 
ce that a Neotropical migrant might be 
angered in lowland portions of its range 
not in upland portions, or recognizing 
one forest opening can provide feeding 
Drtunities for brown-headed cowbirds, 
:h can then parasitize passerine nests for 
■ around. 

he 1992 workshop represented the third 
e gathering in the past 15 years of re- 
chers in the field of Neotropical migrant 
iervatioa Since the late 1970s, our 
^standing of the importance of winter- 
grounds in maintaining populations has 
vn greatly. The pendulum has swung to 
fro in scientific circles as to the relative 
i of changes in wintering, migration, and 
ding grounds in avian declines. The 
icipants of this workshop mainly were 
onsible for researching and managing 
ies outside of wintering grounds, hence 
workshop emphasized breeding season 
:ts and effects during migration, 
onceptual advances are being made that 
rove the data gathered from monitoring, 
now recognize that monitoring avian 
tuctivity is essential to more effective 
lagement Methods for gathering these 
in a statistically valid way are improv- 
We recognize that more complete natu- 
ri stories of birds are essential conserva- 
tools. We know that early and continued 
munication between researchers and re- 
ce managers increases the likelihood 
research will contribute to more til- 
ted management decisions. Werecog- 
too that our ability to understand the 
l conflicting requirements of co-occur- 
species is extremely limited. Prioritiz- 
x>nservation and land management ef- 
| given that limitation, is one of the 
ing challenges racing the Partners in 
tit coalition. 

Table 1. On-going Neotropical migratory bird research and monitoring on NPS 
lands. This table presents results of an informal survey and of summaries from 
Investigators Annual Reports. If you know of other such projects being carried out in the 
national parks, please notify the authors, who are preparing a report on migrant bird 
research in the parks for the Partners in Flight newsletter. 




Breeding bird surveys 

Apostle Islands 

Migration monitoring 
Breeding bird surveys 


Piny on/juniper breeding bird research 

Bering Land Bridge 

Gyrfalcon research 

Big Bend 

Peregrine Falcon monitoring 
Black-capped Vireo monitoring 
Christmas bird counts 


Breeding bird surveys 

Channel Islands 

Terrestrial bird census 


Resident and migrant bird survey 

Craters of the Moon 

Breeding bird surveys 

Devil's Tower 

Breeding bird monitoring 


MAPS station (5) 


Breeding bird surveys 

Fire Island 

Pinelands bird community research 
Migration monitoring 


Migration monitoring 

Glen Canyon 

Willow Flycatcher survey 

Grand Canyon 

Willow Flycatcher survey 

Grand Teton 

MAPS station (1) 

Great Smoky Mountains 

Cove hardwood breeding bird community research 
Wood Thrush population dynamics research 
Breeding bird surveys 

Gulf Islands 

Trans-Gulf migrant stopover ecology research 
Trans-Gulf migrant habitat research 

Indiana Dunes 

Breeding bird survey, rail survey, nightjar survey, heron survey 

Isle Royale 

Raptor monitoring 

Kubuk Valley 

Breeding bird surveys 

Lava Beds 

Breeding bird surveys 

Mount Rainier 

Breeding bird surveys 

North Cascades 

Breeding bird surveys 

Ozark Riverways 

Swainson's warbler research 

Padre Island 

Breeding bird surveys 
Peregrine Falcon monitoring 

Point Reyes 

MAPS station (1) 

Rocky Mountain 

Peregrine Fabon monitoring 

Santa Monica Mountains 

Corridor bird survey 
Urban/wildland interface bird survey 

Sequoia/Kings Canyon 

MAPS station (2) 


MAPS station (6) 

Wrangell-St Elian 

Breeding bird surveys 


MAPS station (3) 
Peregrine Falcon monitoring 

Yukon Charley 

Peregrine Falcon monitoring 


Breeding bird monitoring 

The Role of National Parks 

A variety of activities taking place in 
National Parks is contributing to the Partners 
in Flight program (Table 1). These activities 
can be as simple as Christmas bird counts or 
as complex as long-term research and moni- 
toring programs. National Parks are ideal 
control sites for long-term population moni- 
toring. Monitoring trends on protected habi- 
tats in parks can help determine whether 
changes in Neotropical migrant populations 
result from changes in habitat conditions on 
the breeding grounds in North America or 
from changes to tropical wintering habitats. 

The newly formed NBS will be initiating 
regional scale research and monitoring pro- 
grams to contribute to the Partners in Flight 
program. Data from control sites on NPS 
lands will make a valuable contribution to 
those efforts. 

Grwdel and Simons are Research Ecolo- 
gists with the National Biological Survey. 
Grwdel is at 1 J 00 N.Mineral Springs Rd, 
Porter, IN 46304, (219) 926-8336; Simons is 
at North Carolina State U, 5112 Jordan 
Hall, Raleigh, NC 27695, (919) 515-2689. 

ner 1994 

Minor Violations, Major Damage: A Survey of , 

Noncompliant Visitor Behavior and Managerial Practices 

Darryll R. Johnson, June C. Rugh, Mark E 
Vande Kamp, Thomas C. Swearingen 

A hiker, hot and thirsty, pauses to catch 
his breath and drink from his canteen. Ashe 
looks across the lush subalpine meadow 
bordering the trail, his eye catches the faint 
traces of a path cutting through the meadow 
to the next switchback Throwing the can- 
teen back in his pack, he starts out across the 
meadow. "After all," he muses, "I'm not 
leaving any tracks." 

To the typical day hiker, the impact of a 
few minutes of off-trail hiking in a national 
park appears negligible, even in a highly 
sensitive area. Yet it is minor rule violations 
such as these which, according to a system- 
wide survey conducted by the University of 
Washington CPSU, cause over 80 million 
dollars of reparable damage to national park 
resources every year 1 - 2 . Minor rule viola- 
tions are also reported destroying 
nonreparable resources at about two-thirds 
of the reporting units, and annual clean-up 
costs are estimated to be approximately 1 8 
million dollars. In all, noncompliant visitor 
behavior (see Glossary of Terms) emerges 
as a costly, system-wide problem which 
resource managers cannot afford to ignore. 

The fact that the growth rate of national 
park use in the United States has exceeded 
the national population growth rate over the 
past two decades makes the magnitude of the 
problem even clearer. As host to 273 million 
recreational visitors in 1993, the National 
Park Service (NPS) encourages visitors to 
enjoy park resources. However, high visita- 
tion rates pose a challenge for resource 
managers, who must balance visitor enjoy- 
ment with the agency mandate of preserving 
park resources. In addition to documenting 
the magnitude and type of resource impacts 
due to noncompliance and specifying which 
of20 explicitly defined types of noncompliant 
behavior are responsible for the damage, this 
survey also explored current managerial 
practices for preventing such damage in 
national parks, including managers' per- 
ceptions of the effectiveness and appropri- 
ateness of specific noncompliance deter- 
rence techniques (see Glossary of Terms). 

In describing damage to natural and cul- 
tural resources caused by noncompliant be- 
havior, respondents answered in terms of 1 6 
types of sites (10 frontcountry and 6 
backcountry sites 3 ) and gave both cost esti- 
mates for repairs and annual costs for recur- 
ring problems such as litter. Eighty-nine 
percent of the units reported reparable dam- 
age at frontcountry sites, with developed 
visitor sites most frequently reported as dam- 
aged, followed by frontcountry historic sites 
and picnic areas. Repair cost estimates 
concerning damage to historic sites totaled 
32.3 million dollars; for all frontcountry sites 
reported, the repair cost estimate reached 
66.3 million dollars. Of the units having 
backcountry, 87% reported reparable dam- 
age at some type of site, with damage to 
hiking and stock trails totaling about 4.6 
million dollars and repairs for all backcountry 
sites reaching 13.7rnuliondoUarsforestimat- 
ed repair costs and recurring annual costs of 
clean-up in frontcountry and backcountry 
sites). Overall, historical sites were most 
often reported as the most damaged type of 
site, followed by developed visitor sites 4 , 
archaeological/paleontological sites, acces- 
sible natural attractions, and campgrounds 
and picnic areas. 

The high figures for repair and annual 
clean-up costs are sobering. However, due to 
the NPS mandate of resource preservation, 
the extent to which noncompliant visitor 
behavior impacts nonreparable or nonre- 
newable resources is an even more serious 
matter for park managers. Of all reporting 
units, 72% reported damage to nonreparable 
resources. Nonreparable damage was re- 
ported at frontcountry sites in 68% of report- 
ing units and 7 1 % of units with backcountry 
reported nonreparable damage in those ar- 
eas. Archeological, paleontological, and 
historical sites are most often reported as 
having nonreparable damage. Managers' 
comments from the survey offer illustrative 
examples of the consequences of such dam- 

If falcons do not successfully nest — this is 
irreparable for the year, and they may not 
return the followingyear — a potentially non- 
renewable resource. 

Totem poles are nonrenewable resource 1 
in the sense that they are cultural objects an 
areunique. While new or reproduction pole 
can be carved, these are not the same. 

Cryptobiotic crust and plants are renew 
able, but so slow-growing that if destroyed o 
continually disturbed they may not return— 
or it may take decades. 

Constant touching and rubbing ofhistori 
cannon wears away the carved/cast features 
particularly when multiplied by 600,000 
800,000 persons a year. Unlike, say, Civi 
War cannons, these 200+-year-old Spanisl 
cannons are extremely rare. 

Respondents were also asked to identif 
the noncompliant visitor behaviors they con 
sidered the most destructive at each type o 
site for which any degree of damage wa 
reported. For all sites, littering is the highesl 
ranked damaging behavior, followed by dam 
aging the built environment, damaging o 
defacing cultural or historical objects, col 
leering paleontological or cultural objects a 
souvenirs, and off-trail hiking. Fo 
backcountry sites, the highest-ranked darn 
aging behavior is collecting paleontologies 
or cultural objects, followed closely by litter 
ing and off-trail hiking. 

Regarding visitor management strategies 
the responding units reported the use of 
variety of methods for controllin; 
noncompliant behavior, ranging from brc 
enures and informal personal contact to bar 
riers and direct enforcement However, al 
though almost all units try to prevent non 
compliance, managers estimated that thes 
efforts deter only about 60% of such behavic 
in the frontcountry and 52% in th 
backcountry. Clearly, a substantial amour 
of damage caused by noncompliant visitc 
behavior — tobomreparableandnomeparabl 
resources — is undeterred by current contrc 
methods. If unchecked, this damage wi 
reach crisis proportions in some units durin 
the next century. 

Compounding this problem is the appai 
ent widespread disagreement among resourc 
managers concerning philosophically accepi 
able and practically effective means of deter 
rence. Survey results showed a strikin 
disparity among respondents when they wer 

1 The survey employed an extensive questionnaire addressed to all NPS administrative units. The superintendent of each NPS field unit was contacted by phone and asked to recommer 

a staff person from the unit most qualified to complete the questionnaire. The questionnaire was sent directly to this person, except in cases where the superintendent asked to examir 
the questionnaire first and then passed it on to the staff person. The questionnaires were mailed in March 1992 and garnered a response rate of 82%. the research was supported t 
the Office of the Associate Director of Natural Resource Management of the National Park Service with the Natural Resource Preservation Program (NRPP) Special Initiative funding. 

2 This survey has several limitations that should be kept in mind. Although we asked that the most knowledgeable person in the park complete the questionnaire, the extent to which responderr 

had accurate and complete knowledge of damage and the cost to repair or maintain resources is unknown. The costs reported here for repair and maintenance of NPS resources bain 
damaged by noncompliance were estimated by assuming that the rates of damage in nonresponding units occur at the same level as in responding units. Finally, the attitudes of responderr 
toward the effectiveness and appropriateness of various deterrent strategies represent the population of people chosen by the unit's superintendent to complete the questionnaire. TT 
extent to which these attitudes are congruent with other people in park management positions is unknown. 

5 Frontcountry: Areas not designated backcountry and wilderness, and areas of backcountry and wilderness easily accessible to day-hikers. 
Backcountry: Areas designated as backcountry or wilderness that are not easily accessible to day-hikers. 

6 Park Scienc 

xi to consider the appropriateness and 
ctiveness of a variety of deterrence teen- 
ies in a hypothetical frontcountry subal- 
i setting, "Magnificent Meadows." 
is hypothetical scenario was used to en- 
: that respondents answered questions 
seming the use of deterrence techniques 
er identical conditions and assumptions.) 
sn asked to rate informal personal con- 
in terms of effectiveness (see definition 
rlossaiy of Terms) as a control strategy, 
example, similar proportions of respon- 
s rated this technique as 80% effective 
hly effective) and 20% effective (mini- 
fy effective). 

/hen respondents were asked to consider 
ppropriateness(see Glossary ofTerms) 
pecific deterrence techniques, similar 
repancies surfaced. Given the context of 
!'s explicit mandate of management for 
or enjoyment, 43% of responding man- 
s believed that threats of citations or 
$ were inappropriate. Yet 17% of re- 
ldents chose threats of fines and citations 
le best deterrence technique for use in 
jiificent Meadows. 

his lack of consensus concerning both 
;tiveness and appropriateness of visitor 
agement strategies underscores the fact 
little scientific knowledge is available to 
e NPS resource managers in making 
sions about deterring the noncompli- 
. Coupled with the magnitude of the 
lem, this fact indicates that the first step 
ntly needed for a coordinated approach 
sitor control strategies is the establish- 
t of an institutionally distributed data- 
dealing directly with appropriate and 
rtive means of deterring such behavior. 
t, there must be an organizational agree- 
t on acceptable means and strategies, 
agreement will be reached only if ac- 
panied by research in the national parks 
:h examines the relationship between 
>us deterrent approaches and the quality 
sitor experiences. Finally, in order to 
3 concrete recommendations for holis- 
isitor management strategies through- 
he national park system, in-house re- 
:h and a technology transfer program 
Id be essential. 

Ithough it would be unrealistic to hope 
all damage-producing noncompliance 
ier National Park 5 and the accompany- 
iterature review suggest that a well- 
iinated program of research and infor- 
ya dissemination to park staff dealing 
noncompliant behavior, coupled with 

Hoped visitor sites are areas characterized by a 
centration erf visitor services such as restaurants, 
or centers, lodging facilities, etc. 
1st of pubQcatJons at the end of this article. 

the willingness of managers to act, would 
significantly reduce the incidence of resource 
damage. In fact, this problem represents an 
excellent opportunity for leadership on the 
part of both the NPS and the National Bio- 
logical Survey (NBS). Specifically, appro- 
priate divisions of these agencies could plan 
and fund a coordinated research program 
designed to provide system-wide guidelines 
for the deterrence of damaging noncompliant 
visitor behavior and, in turn, establish an 
information dissemination program to pro- 


Noncompliance [Noncompliant 
Visitor Behavior] —Minor rule-break- 

minimum impact regulations (e.g., off- 
trail hiking, souvenir collecting, feed- 
ing wild animals, littering). This defi- 
nition excludes majoracts of vandalism 
and acts motivatedby obvious criminal 

Deterrence: The act of preventing 
noncompliance. Managers who seek to 
deter noncompliance are trying to get 
visitors to followthe rules (and refrain 
from breaking the rules). 

Deterrence technique: Amefhodof 
deterring noncompliance (e.g., educa- 
tional programs, regulatory signs, 
threats of fines). 

Effectiveness: Defined here as the 
percentage of noncompliant behavior 
that would be deterred if the indicated 
means of control were adopted. 

Appropriateness: Defined here as 
the extent to which a means of control 
is acceptable, given the broad philo- 
sophical principles concerning park 
management and the specific NPS 
mandate of management for visitor en- 

mote the use of this information. Considering 
the magnitude of repair and clean-up costs 
necessitated by ongoing noncompliance, such 
a research program would offer a highly 
favorable cost-benefit return. And visitors to 
the national parks would be spared the unfor- 
tunate irony of destroying the resources they 
hope to enjoy. 

Johnson is the Prop-am Leader, Social Sci- 
ence, Rugh is a technical writer, and VandeKamp 
is a research consultant at the UfWA CPSU, 
Seattle. Swearingen is an Assistant Professor in 
the Department of Health, Physical Education 
and Leisure Studies at the University of South 
Alabama, Mobile, AL. 

The following publications are avail- 
able from the NBS CPSU, AR-10, U/WA, 
Seattle, WA 98195: 

Johnson, Darrytl R. and Thomas C. Swearingen. 1988. 
Minor rule violators: A profile of off-trail hfaets, Paradse 
Meadows, Mount Rainier National Park. NPS CPSU, 
College of Forest Resources, University of Washington, 

Johnson, Darryll R. and Thomas C. Swearingen. 1992. The 
effectiveness of selected trailside sign tests in deterring 
off-trail hiring, Paradse meadows, Mount Rainier Nation- 
al Park. In: C. Christensen and D. Johnson (eds.), 
Proceedings of the International Symposium on Vandal- 
Ism: April 20-22, 1988. USFS - PNW Forest and Range 
Experiment Station, Seattle. 

Johnson, Darrytl R., Mark E. Vande Kamp, and Thomas C. 
Swearingen. 1994. A survey of park managers' percep- 
tions of noncompliant visitor behavior causing resource 
damage in the national park system. USDI, National Park 
Service, Technical Report NPS/PNRUW/NRTR-92/07. 

Swearingen, Thomas C. and Darryll R. Johnson. 1988. An 
analysis of off-trail hiking in response to selected social 
control techniques at Paradise Meadows, Mount Rainier 
National Park. NPS CPSU, College of Forest Resources, 
University of Washington, Seattle. 

Vande Kamp, Mark E., Darryll R. Johnson, and Thomas C. 
Swearingen. 1994. Deterrina minor acts of noncompli- 
ance: A literature review. USDI, National Park Service, 
Technical Report NPS/PNRUW/NRTR-92/08. 

Yellowstone Fires 
Off 1988 Told 
In New Book 

A Bibliography and Directory of the 
YeUowstoneFiresofl988,byD. Despain, 
J. Greenlee, J. Parminter, and T. Sholly, is an 
important new tool available for assisting 
those engaged in fire research. The Interna- 
tional Assn. of Wildland Fire announces the 
second edition of this volume, complete with 
1 ,05 1 citations and 344 names and addresses 
of researchers. The index of this 169-page 
paperback document guides the user to arti- 
cles of interest, with names, addresses, phone 
and FAX and e-mail addresses of authors 

The directory may be had in paperback for 
$20.19 and in hardcase for $30.19 from the 
International Assn. of Wildland Fire, P.O. 
Box 328, Fairfield, WA 99012-0328. 

In the next issue. 

New Park Science Editor, Jeff 
Selleck, will share his vision for an 
expanded pool of writers from among 
NPS resource managers and his crite- 
ria, guidelines, and suggestions for 
new categories of articles. 

Note on page 16 of this issue 
Rolodex card with new instruc- 
tions for contacting the editor. 


Preventing Visitor-Caused Damage To National Pal 

Italic E Vandt Kamp, Darryll R. Johnson, 
Thomtt C. Swotringon 

NPS managers require new information if 
they are to prevent visitors from breaking 
park rules and damaging park resources. 
The preceding article described our survey of 
NPS managers mat showed both extensive 
damage to park resources due to minor acts 
of noncompliance and a lack of agreement 
among resource managers concerning the 
usefulness of various methods used to deter 
noncompliance. In conjunction with the 
survey we also reviewed social science litera- 
ture relevant to the question, "How can NPS 
managers get visitors to follow park rules?" 
(i.e., How can managers deter noncompli- 
ance?) This article summarizes twelve rec- 
ommendations to NPS managers suggested 
by the review, and also proposes a research 
program to develop a complete strategy for 
deterring noncompliance. (A full report of 
the review is available from the University of 
Washington (U/WA) CPSU - see refer- 

The literature we reviewed was gathered 
from several social sciences including sociol- 
ogy, leisure and recreation science, social 
psychology, and environmental psychology, 
and fell into many theoretical traditions rang- 
ing from applied behavior analysis to socio- 
logical deterrence theory. The research could 
not be integrated into any existing or new 
theoretical approach. Instead, we searched 
for general assertions about deterring non- 
compliance that were relevant to the NPS and 
were supported by research results. The 
assertions we found are presented below as 
twelve recommendations forNPS managers. 
Let's consider each of these recommenda- 
tions and their basis in the research. 
What We Know 

1) In evaluating a deterrence technique 
(i.e., a method of getting visitors to follow the 
rules), NPS managers must consider its de- 
terrent effect, its impact on visitor experi- 
ences, and the level of noncompliance that is 
acceptable in their units. If resource preser- 
vation were the only requirement of NPS 
managers, there would be no noncompliance 
problems. Managers could fence in visitors, 
institute prison sentences for noncompli- 
ance, or simply exclude visitors entirely. 
However, the dual mandate of the NPS spec- 
ifies that the national parks should be man- 
aged so as to both maximize visitor enjoy- 
ment and preserve park resources for future 
enjoyment The delicate balance between 
these mandated goals is inextricably linked 
with decisions concerning noncompliance. 
For example, in an NPS unit where moderate 
levels of noncompliance produce acceptable 
levels of resource damage, a deterrence tech- 
nique that achieved such moderate levels 
would be preferable to a more effective tech- 

nique that had greater negative impacts on 
visitor experiences. 

2) Multiple deterrence techniques should 
be used when attempting to deternoncompli- 
ance because no single technique is likely to 
deter all forms of noncompliance, or even to 
counteract the many motives for a single 
form of noncompliance. The diversity of the 
literature cited in our review suggests mat 
using a single label - noncompliance - to 
describe the huge set of behaviors mat are 
against some rule in a given environment 
conveys a false sense of simplicity. Noncom- 
pliance is even more complex because there 
can be many motives for any given 
noncompliant act A single NPS environ- 
ment may be affected by many noncompUant 
behaviors, each of which occurs for a number 
of reasons. Because of mis, no single deter- 
rence technique should be expected to deter 
a major portion of noncompliance, even in a 
single environment 

3) Decisions about deterrence techniques 
should not be based solely on the intuitive 
assessment of NPS managers using their 
own reactions to me intervention. In scien- 
tific terms, each NPS manager constitutes a 
sample of one person who is unlikely to 
represent most visitors to their unit In 
addition, research from social psychology 
suggests that managers, like the rest of us, 
seldom recognize all the factors that actually 
affect their behavior. Unfortunately, the 
current literature is usually insufficient to 
provide managers with scientific evidence 
on which to base their decisions about deter- 
ring noncompliance. In the absence of scien- 
tific evidence, manager decisions could be 
unproved if they were to imagine a variety of 
visitors reacting to deterrence techniques 
and then select the method appealing to the 
broadest range of visitors. 

4) NPS managers should consider station- 
ing uniformed employees within sight of 
areas damaged by visitor noncompliance 
because the presence of such employees is 
one of the most promising means of deterring 
noncompliance. Research suggests that the 
presence of a uniformed employee strength- 
ens visitor beliefs that noncompliance will 
lead to negative social or legal consequences, 
even when that employee is not engaging in 
enforcement activity. The uniformed em- 
ployee may also remind visitors of their own 
attitudes or personal norms that are inconsis- 
tent with noncompliance. Research con- 
ducted by the U/WA CPSU at Mount Rainier 
National Park showed that uniformed em- 
ployees were perceived as a neutral or posi- 
tive part of the park experience by the vast 
majority of visitors, while simultaneously 
reducing noncompliance (off-trail hiking) to 
very low levels (see references). 

5) NPS managers should ask, "Why are 
visitors breaking this rule?" as a first step in 

controlling noncompliance. If an incentivi 
can be readily removed, noncompliance ma} 
drop to acceptable levels. A large body o 
psychological theory (e.g., applied behavio: 
analysis and utility theory) specifies thai 
people generally act to gain rewards or avok 
punishments. Accordingly, removing th< 
reward or punishment that prompts noncom 
pliance may be easier than overcoming its 
presence. For example, a social trail that cut 
a switchback may see less use if thorny nativ< 
vegetation is planted at its entrance and exit 

6) To maximize effectiveness, message! 
designed to limit noncompliance should tx 
presented as close as possible to the place anc 
time in which noncompliance is likely tc 
occur. Substantial research (e.g., studies 
from applied behavior analysis, attitude 
theory, and investigations of social norms] 
suggests that messages designed to detei 
noncompliance are most effective when pre- 
sented as closely as possible to the place anc 
time in which noncompliance is likely tc 
occur. Signs are generally an effective mean; 
of communicating such messages. Astudyii 
Mount Rainier National Park conducted bj 
the U/WA CPSU found mat sign texts variec 
greatly in effectiveness, but that all signs 
placed near social trails deterred significant 
amounts of off-trail hiking. 

7) The current NPS focus on deterring 
noncompliance by instilling beliefs consis- 
tent with compliance should be altered tc 
focus primarily on activating such beliefs ii 
visitors who already have them rather that 
on converting the unconvinced. A broac 
range of research (e.g., research on attitude 
theory and personal norms) has shown that i 
is difficult to change visitor beliefs. How- 
ever, related research has also shown thai 
activating existing beliefs can alter behavior 
Accordingly, more noncompliance will prob 
ably be deterred by erecting several trail-side 
signs that say, "Help preserve the meadow 
Stay on the trail", than by adding a singk 
visitor-center display describing the unique 
nature of the meadow. 

8) Showing visitors that noncompliam 
behavior damages NPS resources will onl) 
deter noncompliance for visitors who hole 
strong values inconsistent with such dam- 
age. Basic behavioral principles suggest thai 
short-term rewards generally have more con- 
trol over behavior man long-term negative 
consequences. For example, many visitors 
will pick up small bits of rock or vegetation 
as souvenirs even if they are aware that in the 
long-term, such actions cause substantia] 
damage. Knowledge about long-term conse- 
quences will deter noncompliance only foi 
visitors who have strong values inconsistent 
with harming the environment Because 
visitors who do not hold such values may be 
responsible for most noncompliance at some 
NPS units, control of noncompliance at those 


sources: What Do We Know? What Should Be Done? 

ts will require deterrence techniques oth- 
han education. 

)) Noncompliance can be reduced by 
loving evidence of prior noncompliance, 
1 by providing evidence that most visitors 
low the rules. Research on social norms 
I related studies of noncompliance sug- 
t that decreasing direct and indirect obser- 
ion of noncompliance can decrease fur- 
r noncompliance by observers. Forex- 
ple, several studies have found that litter- 
increases in already-littered environ- 
nts, and decreases when the environment 
deaned. Also, research by the U/WA 
SU found that off-trail hiking was most 
>ly to occur when visitors were within 
oal distance of other off-trail hikers. Re- 
ich on speeding suggests that park non- 
npliance can also be reduced by providing 
ience that most visitors follow the rules, 
example, speeding was reduced by signs 
ing, "Percentage of cars not speeding 
terday: **%", where ** was near 90%. 

0) When noncompliance is deterred by 
$ats of punishment, the threats should be 
ompanied by messages emphasizing visi- 
benefits from compliance. The U/WA 
SU found that a sign stating, "Off-trail 
as will be fined", was the most effective 
everal signs used in their study at Mount 
nier National Park. Evidence from social 
chology suggests that such a threat of 
ishment would be most effective and 
e the least negative impact on visitor 
eriences when visitors believe that com- 
nce benefits both themselves and NPS 
lagers. Educational programs empha- 
ag the public benefits of preserving park 
>urces may deter little noncompliance on 
r own, but may increase the effectiveness 
acceptability of threatened punishments. 

1 ) NPS rules can produce a "boomerang 
ct" of deliberate noncompliance when 
tors feel their freedom is threatened. To 
ice the probability of such effects visitor 
ons should be emphasized. Reactance 
>ry suggests that when threats of punish- 
rt are communicated, messages should 
)hasize the visitor's freedom to choose 
's in which to comply. For example, a 
llatory sign might say, 'Tine of $100 for 
trail hiking", and then continue, "Be- 
se this is a high traffic area, visitors are not 
wed to walk off official trails. If you are 
rested in walking through an alpine 
idow you may take hike #12 to Golden 

2) When NPS communication is ad- 
ised to a group, the effectiveness of mes- 
5S intended to deter noncompliance will 
nhanced by special efforts to address the 
sage to group leaders or to address all 
viduals within the group. Social psy- 
logists have found mat persuasive mes- 
s are more effective when addressed to 

iter 1994 

individuals man when addressed to groups. 
A message directed at a group leader who is 
responsible for the group's behavior is likely 
to be more effective than a message directed 
at die whole group. Alternately, NPS agents 
should design messages so that all group 
members feel they are being individually 

What Should Be Done 

Although the above recommendations rep- 
resent an advance in the information avail- 
able to NPS managers concerning the control 
of visitor noncompliance, they are far from 
complete. Future research can and should 
focus on the development of a comprehen- 
sive strategy that provides managers at all 
NPS units with guidelines for deterring non- 
compliance. Highlighted below are the basic 
characteristics of a future research program 
that we propose as a means of developing 
such a complete strategy. 

Characteristics of a future research pro- 
gram aimed at developing effective pro- 
grams to deter noncompliance in the NPS. 

1) Program will test multi-pronged inter- 
ventions that incorporate multiple deterrence 
techniques and are designed to influence 
diverse visitors who break rules for diverse 

2) Both effectiveness of deterrence and 
impact on visitor experiences will be mea- 
sured and used in designing and evaluating 

3) Program's primary goal will be the 
development of two to four multi-pronged 
interventions that vary simultaneously in 
deterrence effectiveness andnegative impact 
on visitor experiences. NPS managers could 
select the intervention offering adequate re- 
source protection with minimal negative 
impact on visitor experience. 

4) Program's secondary goal will be the 
development of a set of guidelines for design- 
ing evaluation research that can accurately 
determine the effectiveness of an interven- 
tion in any specific application. 

5) Program will be designed and moni- 
tored by a multi-disciplinary panel of scien- 

6) Research will be conducted in a variety 
ofNPS settings representing a wide range of 
visitor populations and park environments. 

Characteristic 1. Because noncompliant 
behavior is very complex and because cur- 
rent theory and research concerning non- 
compliance are undeveloped, the research 
program would focus on testing interven- 
tions that incorporate multiple deterrence 
techniques. A range of techniques selected 
would be selected that appealed to a broad 
spectrum of motivations for compliance and 
noncompliance. Although some of the tech- 
niques incorporated in such multi-pronged 
interventions might have only a small deter- 
rent effect, the aggregate effect of the inter- 

vention would be more likely to reduce non- 
compliance to acceptable levels man would 
any single deterrence technique. 

Characteristic 2. Because of the NPS 
dual mandate it is critical that tests of pro- 
posed interventions consider both their de- 
terrent effects and their effects on visitor 
experiences. Unfortunately, our limited 
knowledge about the experiences expected 
by NPS visitors currently provides a poor 
basis for predicting visitor reactions to deter- 
rence techniques such as threatened punish- 
ments. Thus, investigation of visitor expec- 
tations and the ways in which deterrence 
techniques negatively impact visitor experi- 
ences would also be high research priorities. 

Characteristic 3. Even using multiple 
deterrence techniques, a single multi -pronged 
intervention is not expected to perform ad- 
equately in all NPS units. NPS units vary 
greatly in their sensitivity to damage caused 
by noncompliance, and thus require mat 
noncompliance be reduced to different lev- 
els. Where acceptable levels of noncompli- 
ance are low, interventions producing some 
negative impacts on visitor experiences may 
be justified, but where acceptable levels of 
noncompliance are relatively high, visitor 
experiences should be given a higher prior- 
ity. By developing several multi-pronged 
interventions that simultaneously vary in 
deterrence effectiveness and negative impact 
on visitor experiences, this research program 
would allow NPS managers to maximize the 
balance between resource preservation and 
provisions for visitor enjoyment 

Characteristic 4. The effectiveness of the 
interventions designed in mis research pro- 
gram will vary across applications, and some 
form of assessment will be necessary to 
determine if an intervention is performing 
adequately. However, NPS managers are 
unlikely to have the knowledge or motivation 
necessary to perform such assessment This 
problem would be minimized by developing 
simplified procedures for evaluating inter- 
vention effectiveness and communicating to 
NPS managers the importance of using the 
procedures to conduct evaluation when imple- 
menting interventions. 

Characteristic 5. A multi-disciplinary 
advisory panel would be assembled to over- 
see the research program thus far outlined. 
The panel would include members repre- 
senting diverse approaches to the study of 
noncompliance so that the multi-pronged 
interventions initially tested would represent 
a broad spectrum of theories concerning 
noncompliance and would combine deter- 
rence techniques so as to maximize their 
effectiveness. The panel would also include 
biologists and other natural scientists to pro- 
vide input concerning the limits of accept- 
able damage for various natural resources. 

Continued on page 10 

Oregon Lecture Series Addresses Global Change 

The Centerfor Analysis ofEnvironmental 
Change at Oregon State University is spon- 
soring a series of seminars focusing on cur- 
rentresearchonglobalbiogeochemical cycles. 
The Center is a cooperative partnership be- 
tween Oregon State University, the USDA 
Forest Service, the US Environmental Re- 
search Agency, and Battelle Pacific North- 
west Laboratories. Topics addressed in the 
spring series of 1 1 talks at OR/State/U were 
the global carbon cycle, methane emissions, 
chemistry of rain water, responses of vegeta- 
tion to global change, and biogeochemistry 
of Crater Lake. This series furthers the 
Center's objectives of creating new collabo- 
rative opportunities for its partners and pro- 
viding a focus for research and discussion on 
causes and consequences of environmental 

Peter Vitousek, Stanford professor ofbio- 
logical sciences, opened the series with a 
lecture on "Beyond Global Warming: Ecol- 
ogy and Global Change," constituting a pep 
rally for the scientific community. He argued 
that crucial decisions are being postponed by 
those who would argue that the scientific 
uncertainty is too great for effective decision- 
making . Undeniably a major amount of 
uncertainty exists about many facets of glo- 
bal change, but conversely, a sufficient core 
o fkno w ledge exists to define some aspects of 
change, predict some of the consequences, 
and take action in treating some problems. 

There are three major classes of change 
that are all global, well known and well- 

by Ruth Jacobs 

related to human activity - levels of atmo- 
spheric carbon dioxide are increasing, the 
global nitrogen cycle is changing, and monu- 
mental land-use changes are occurring. 
Causes of increasing levels of carbon dioxide 
are combustion of fossil fuels and changes in 
land use, both of which remove carbon from 
natural storage systems. Changes in climate, 
amounts of nutrients used by plants, compo- 
sition and dynamics ofbiological communi- 
ties, and even nutrient concentrations of 
some plants have been documented. These 
are profound changes, effective worldwide. 

In terms of the nitrogen cycle, human 
activity has recently and rapidly doubled 
nitrogen fixation worldwide. Because many 
systems are naturally limited by nitrogen, 
rapid increases in nitrogen can alter the 
number of species in an ecosystem, change 
the diversity of landscapes, and alter grazing 
and decomposing food chains. These chang- 
es are generally viewed as negative, not 
positive. Increasing nitrogen levels in some 
communities, for example, have been shown 
to decrease species diversity. 

The major global change in land use is the 
most important of the classes of change 
discussed by Dr. Vitousek These land-use 
changes, deforestation for example, are oc- 
curring subtly, acre by acre. Remote sensing 
is the ideal tool for documenting the change, 
but the time span of the records that we can 
view with this tool is brief. We are left with 
indirect measures of the effects of the land 
conversions, such as the fact that between 30 

and 50 percent of the net primary productioi 
of Earth is dominated, used, or foregom 
because ofhumans. That does not leave a lo 
for the millions of other species that exist oi 
the planet 

These three major changes are couplet 
with other changes propagated by humans 
such as over-harvesting of species, biologica 
invasions of exotic species, and introductioi 
of ozone-depleting chemicals. AUtogethe 
these and other changes are leading to tw< 
maj or events — global climate change, whicl 
we cannot clearly demonstrate yet and can 
not predict locally with much certainty, ant 
a loss ofbiological diversity, which is becom 
ing increasing evident and is truly an irre 
versibleloss. Leading all of this change is th< 
ever-growing human population. 

Simple reversals of the changes we fact 
are nonexistent We can limit the amount o 
change we cause, but the crucial first step t< 
setting some limits is for scientists to ge 
active in communicating what they knov 
rather than focussing on uncertainty. Di 
Vitousek insisted that we know a lot and thi 
knowledge can be used by society today to 
make decisions that will determine hov 
much global change occurs. His messagi 
was that we all should actively seek ou 
colleagues who have confidence in thei 
knowledge and ability to effect a change 
form partnerships with these people, ant 
work actively to make a difference in thi 
future of the world. 

Ruth Jacobs is a Research Assistant at Oregoi 
State University, CPSU 

Preventing Visitor Caused Damage 

Such information is critical for maximizing 
the balance between resource preservation 
and visitor experiences. 

Characteristic 6. In order to maximize 
the effectiveness of the intervention strategy 
developed by the research program, testing 
would be done in NPS units that represent the 
diversity of environments and visitor popula- 
tions regulated by the NPS. 

Several recommendations that are useful 
to NPS managers can be made based on the 
existing noncompliance research. However, 
increased knowledge about the control of 
noncompliance is critical for the preserva- 
tion of NPS resources. The creation of the 
National Biological Survey creates even 
greater opportunities to apply such knowl- 
edge toaresourcesonavarietyofotherpublic 
lands. Funding allowing, we at the U/WA 
CPSU hope to continue a leadership role in 


continued from page 9 
the investigation of visitor noncompliance 
and the techniques used to deter it 

Research concerning methods to control 
noncompliance should prove to be extremely 
cost-effective. Based on the survey results 
presented in the preceding article, research 
that developed means of deterring just 10% 
of current noncompliance in the NPS — a 
modestgoal — couldsaveover $5,000,000 in 
repairs. Distribution of such knowledge to 
other public land managers would entail 
minimal costs and dramatically increase sav- 
ings. Even more important any reduction in 
irreparable damage to natural and cultural 
resources yields benefits that are priceless. 

Vande Kamp is a research consultant and 
Johnson is the Program Leader, Social Science, 
at the U/WA CPSU, Seattle. Swearingen is an 
Assistant Professor in the Department of Health, 
Physical Education and Leisure Studies at the 
University of South Alabama, Mobile, AL. 

The following publications are avail 
able from the NBS CPSU, AR-10, U/WA 

Seattle, WA 98195: 

Vande Kamp, Mark E., Darryll R. Johnson, and Thomas C 
Swearingen. 1994. Deterring minor acts of noncompi 
ance: A literature review. USDI, National Park Servia 
Technical Report NPS/PNRUW/NRTR-92/08. 

Johnson, Darryll R., Mark E. Vande Kamp, and Thomas C 
Swearingen. 1994. A survey of park managers' percef. 
tions of noncompBant visitor behavior causing resourc 
damage in the national park system. USDI, National Par 
Service, Technical Report NPS/PNRUW/NRTR-92/08. 

Swearingen, Thomas C. and Darryll R. Johnson. 1988. A 
analysis of off-trail hiking in response to selected sock 
control techniques at Paradise Meadows, Mount Raink 
National Park. NPS CPSU, College of Forest Resource! 
University of Washington, Seattle. 

Johnson, Darryll R. and Thomas C. Swearingen. 1992. 77) 
effectiveness of selected trailskie sign tests 'm oeterrin 
off -trail hiking, Paradise meadows, Mount Rainier Aft 
tonal Park. In: C. Christensen and D. Johnson (eds.! 
Proceedings of tie International Symposium on Vanda 
ism: April 20-22, 1988. USFS • PNW Forest and Rang 
Experiment Station, Seattle. 

Swearingen, Thomas C. and Darryll R. Johnson. 1988. Da) 
hiker attitudes toward the presence of a uniformed pat 
employee in a front-country area of Mount Rainier Nabom 
Park. NPS CPSU, College of Forest Resources, Univei 
sity of Washington, Seattle. 


Winter Mass Balance Measurements on Teton Glacier 
Begin to Build Basis for Predicting Seasonal Melt and Runoff 

»Vater resources in the western United 
tes are gaining attention as both our per- 
tion and reality point toward 
jre shortages. Persons and or- 
dzations interested in agricul- 
u\ hydropower, municipal, and 
rational water use now are 
wing keen interest in every drop 
ving down western rivers. In 
ay cases the rivers are over- 
rated and demand exceeds the 

lie greater Yellowstone region 
ompasses headwater basins crit- 
to some of the most important 
er sources in our nation, in- 
iing the Columbia, Colorado, 
Missouri River basins. Grand 
on National Park (NP) con- 
s one reservoir dedicated to 
[Cultural water storage and the 
ply to this reservoir is primarily 
n snowmelt The reservoir, 
eh predates the park's estab- 
tnent, is the first in a long list of 
tainments on the Snake River. 
a order to manage water re- 
rces efficiently and realistical- 
ve need to improve our meth- 
of prediction for supply and 
)ff. Uncertainty about climate 
age makes our predictive capa- 
ies subject to considerable er- 
In mid-latitude alpine regions 
;h of the annual precipitation is stored as 
w during the winter. Slight changes in 
late may make large differences in the 
>unt of precipitation and storage in the 
a of snow. Glaciers offer a long-term 
>rd of climate by storing information lost 
le seasonal snowpack which melts annu- 
on nonglacier surfaces, 
lass balance, the gains and losses of ice 
s over time from a glacier, is the primary 
imeter with which we can couple glaciers 
limate changes (Meir, 1992). There is 
lence that the Earth's ice sheets are not 
reasing in volume (Bentley and 
vinetto, 1 992), and that the observed rise 
lobal sea level may be attributed partly to 
itive mass balance in mountain glacial 
ems (Meier, 1984; Jacobs and Hellmer, 
2). Small alpine glaciers such as Teton 
:ier in Grand Teton NP are more sensi- 
to climate change than larger glaciers 
ice sheets, providing relatively accessi- 
information about subtle changes in 
lem climate. However, detailed mass 
nee measurements rarely are made and 
surement data spanning more than a 
ide are scarcer still. 

By Kelly Elder, Sue Fullerton, and Kathy 

Figure 1. Teton Glacier surrounded by the Grand Teton on the left, 
Mount Owen in the center, and Mount Teewinot to the right. Teton 
Glacier occupies the shaded cirque in the center of the photograph below 
Gunsight Notch. The glacier's large terminal moraine extends from the 
East Ridge of the Grand Teton. This photo was taken from the east after 
the first significant snowfall in October 1993. 

The National Park Service has acknowl- 
edged the importance of glacier studies in 
Global Change research and, in particular, 
detection of climate change through mass 
balance changes (National Park Service, no 
date). Glaciers of Grand Teton NP offer 
unique opportunities for climate change stud- 
ies relating to the entire Greater Yellowstone 

When winter snow accumulation is mea- 
sured at, or close to, the date of its peak, an 
estimateof winter mass balance can be made. 
A similar survey at the date of minimum 
snow cover, at the end of the ablation season, 
gives a value of summer mass balance. A 
multi-year record of summer and winter 
mass balance provides clues to changes in 
overall glacier mass balance resulting from 
climate perturbations. Seasonal snowpack 
mass is measured in terms of snow water 
equivalence (SWE). SWE is simply the 
amount ofwater that would be produced if the 
snow were melted simultaneously at a point, 
or if the depth of snow were multiplied by the 
snow density where density is expressed as 
the percent of the density ofwater. 

Results reported are the first of a series of 
surveys designed to measure winter and 
summer mass balance ofTeton 
Glacier. These measurements 
will be a valuable baseline for 
future climate change studies 
carried out in tibe region This 
research project also demon- 
strates the value in using GIS 
techniques to extrapolate from 
point measurements to spatial 
estimates of snow water equiv- 

Study Site 

Teton Glacier is located in 
the Teton Range of Wyoming. 
The glacier lies within Grand 
Teton NP at about 43 44'30"N 
and 110 47'31"W (4,842,985 
N and 516,755 E UTM) and 
ranges between 3,095m and 
3,500m above sea level. Teton 
Glacier occupies a deep cirque 
surrounded by steep walls of 
the Grand Teton (4,196m) to 
the south and Mount Owen 
(3,937m) to the north (Fig. 1). 
To calculate SWE, system- 
atic field measurements of snow 
depth and density were gath- 
ered from May 17 through 20, 
1993, the time of peak snow 
accumulation for the year. 
To measure density, snow pits were dug at 
two sites, with dual snow density profiles. 
Snow temperature and stratigraphy also were 
observed and recorded From these values an 
estimate of density as a function of snow 
depth was derived. 

Aluminum probes were used to measure 
snow depths at intervals of approximately 1 
meters along 5 major transects (Figs. 2 through 
4). One vertical transect extended the length 
of the glacier from the terminal moraine to 
the head of the accumulation area, while four 
horizontal transects were positioned across 
the first Five additional point measurements 
were made at locations where probing was 
too difficult for an entire transect to be com- 
pleted. In all, 201 depth measurements were 
made. From these depth values, combined 
with density values from die snow pits, SWE 
(depth x density) at points along the transects 
were calculated. 

Further analysis required addressing a 
classic geographic question: How do we 
distribute point values over a surface? Many 
attempts have been made to do this in glacio- 

Continued on page 12 

ner 1994 


Winter Mass Balance Measurements on Teton Glacier continued from page 11 

logical contexts (e.g. Young, 1 974 and 1 975 ; 
Paterson, 1981; Elder etal., 1992; Elder and 
Yang, 1992). Four interpolation techniques 
formodeling such a distribution of SWE over 
the glacial surface were selected for compari- 
son. Each required elevation as an input for 
calculation. While elevation does not itself 
affect snow distribution, it works well in 
many cases as an index for physical processes 
that do (i.e. temperature, precipitation). 

Estimates of elevation for each probe site 
might be obtained by relating field collection 
locations to an established topographic sur- 
face, such as a USGS 1 :24,000 contour map. 
However, geographic information systems 
(GIS) can create anduse computerized equiva- 
lents of such maps. Comprised of cell grids 
covering the area of interest, these digital 
elevation models (DEM) have elevation val- 
ues assigned to each cell throughout the 
coverage. Thus, any mapped site is auto- 
matically assigned the elevation for the cell 
upon which it falls. 
Constructing a Digital Elevation Model 

The standard USGS 30m DEM did not 
offer sufficient resolution or accuracy to be 
used in the data analysis. As an alternative, 
maps were located from USGS field studies 
(Reed, 1964), which presented 1954 and 
1963 margins and contour lines for the gla- 
cier. When processed into a digital elevation 
model, these maps provided the necessary 
DEM. From the digitized version of this 
map, a DEM was generated at 5m resolution 
using GRASS (GIS) software. The choice of 
cell size ensured that field data, collected at 
1 m intervals, would occupy separate cells 
when referenced back to the map. 

Registering field locations to such a DEM 
was the next step to make the map functional. 
Probe sites originally were marked off in 
sequence along each transect from an estab- 
lished point in the field. Distances between 
successive sites were measured while travel- 
ing up the glacier surface from each previous 
point Sequential points measured along an 
ascending slope will, necessarily, he closer 
together when placed upon a flat map. Slope 
and azimuth determined at each field loca- 
tion were used to calculate the corresponding 
horizontal distance traveled. The resultant 
UTM coordinate pair represented the proper 
location on the Reed map for each field site. 
All field points now took their correct loca- 
tions within the digitized map margins and 
the elevations value for each on the DEM 
could be applied to its respective field posi- 
tion The 5m DEM and locations of the field 
measurements are shown in Figure 5. 

SWE at all points now could be estimated 
as a function of elevation Models pro- 
grammed across the entire surface resulted in 
estimates of SWE volume for the entire 
snowpack. In addition, the average SWE 

Figure 2. Field hand Martin Hagen with port- 
able depth probe in the ice fall portion of the 
glacier. Note the crevasses in the background 
common in this section. The photograph was 
taken during field work in September 1993. 

was calculated as the total volume divided by 
the area of the glacier. A second feature of 
DEMs is the capability of deriving distribut- 
ed slope and aspect cell values from then- 
corresponding elevations. Using these val- 
ues to locate areas of steep slope, an index of 
avalanche probability was defined upon the 
surface. These areas accounted for addition- 
al snow depth due to local redistribution of 
snow by avalanching. 

Modeling Snow Water Equivalence 

Four methods of interpolating the depth 
and density measurements were used. These 
included: (1 ) dividing the glacier into evenly 
spaced elevation zones and assigning the 
mean of all the measurements within each 
zone to that zone; (2) linear regression of 
measurements against elevation; (3) binary 
regression tree using elevation as the inde- 
pendent variable, and (4) binary regression 
tree using elevation and an index of ava- 
lanche activity as independent variables. 

The first two methods are conventional 
techniques often applied in glaciological and 
hydrological studies; the binary tree classi- 
fier was experimental in the glaciological 
context and was used here in an attempt to 
better refine the model and to introduce one 
element of snow redistribution 


The binary regression tree method using 
elevation and the avalanche index as inde- 
pendent variables provided the most accurate 

distributionofsnow based on statistical analy- 

ses of the field data. Figure 6 shows the 
results of the binary regression tree method 
using elevation and the avalanche index 
Based on the models, the best estimate of 
mean snow depth on the glacier was about 
6.85m. The best estimate of mean snow 
water equivalence was 3.22m with a total 
volume of about 970,000m 3 . The other 
modeling methods produced similar esti- 
mates of total snow storage on the glacier, but 
they differed significantly in the distribution 
of the snow over the glacier surface. 

The 1993 water year was just below nor- 
mal for snow accumulation based on long- 
term measurement stations in the region 
(Wyoming Basin Outlook Reports, 1993). 
"Normal" in this context is defined as the 
30-year mean, taken from 1961 to 1990. 
Martner (1986, p. 79) shows an isohyetal 
map of atrial precipitation that places the 
Teton Range within the 1 .5m (60") isohyet 
This estimate is based on a complex relation- 1 
ship between topographical information and 
long-term precipitation and snowpack mea- 1 
surements, both of which are sparse in moun- 
tain areas. Martner ( 1 986, p. 84) shows the 
Teton Range receiving less than 20 percent 
of annual accumulation during the months of 
June through August Subtracting out 20 
percent for summer precipitation, the winter 
accumulation based on the isohyetal map 
would be about 1.20m water equivalent 
Although the values in Maimer's map must 
be applied with caution, we can compare 

Figure 3. Rod Newcomb and Robbie Fuller 
take a depth measurement in an avalanche 
debris cone on the southeast margin of the 
glacier. Gunsight Notch is in the background 
between the flanks of the Grand Teton on the 
left and Mount Owen on the right 


Park Science 

are 4. Martin Hagen in the accumulation 
e above the ice fell. Snow depths in the 
i averaged greater than 1 Om. Mount 
winot is in the background. 

mto our modeled results for accumulation 
Teton Glacier. The expected aerial aver- 
i from Martner of 1 .20m compared to our 
deled accumulation of 3.22m shows 2.7 
es the expected value, 
t is believed that the high value of accu- 
lation is attributable to high rates of oro- 
phic precipitation, leeward deposition of 
pended snow load, and redistribution of 
al accumulation by avalanching on to the 
tier from surrounding slopes. Teton Gla- 
: occupies a deep cirque flanked by the two 
hest peaks in the range. These peaks, and 
arete between them, he to the west or 
ldward side of the glacier, effectively 
ating the largest eddy or potential lee-side 
tosition area in the range. This fact, 
nbined with avalanching and the souther- 
blockage of solar irradiance, gives the 
}ue a high accumulation potential. Note 
t most of the other east-facing cirques in 
Tetons do not contain glaciers. 
rhe accumulation gradient observed on 
glacier is remarkable. The gradient was 
:ulated for the cirque area covered by field 
asurements using linear regressionofS WE 
ed on elevation. Using only the field data, 
alue of 0.84m SWE per 100 m elevation 
q was found. The large gradient is appli- 
ile to this portion of the cirque only; it 
diets no snow cover below an elevation of 
>ut 2,900 m elevation which is contradic- 
f to the existence of substantial snow cover 
bevalleyfloorat2,080m. Other localized 
pies in the range with similar morphom- 
f may have such accumulation gradients. 


This study has produced two relevant 
conclusions. The first is that seasonal snow 
inputs to Teton Glacier may be a great deal 
larger than expected for the region. The 
second is that although a neophyte statistical 
modeling technique, the binary regression 
methods may prove to be a useful tool in mass 
balance estimation on glaciers with variable 
accumulation patterns (Chambers, 1992), 
complex topography (Kuhn et al., 1 985) and 
where a glacier exists over a variety of cli- 
mate conditions (e.g. accumulation area in 
the alpine with the toe at sea level). 

The conclusions and analytical methods 
applied in this study are valid for the 1993 
water year only. Accumulation in the region 
was close to normal, and it is believed that the 
distribution of snow on the glacier was typi- 
cal of normal years. More years of field work 

Figure 5. Digital map of 5m DEM construct- 
ed from contour map (see Fig. 3). Lighter 
shades represent higher elevations; darker 
shades, lower elevations. The line dissecting 
the area from top to bottom is the approximate 
terminus of the glacier. The line to the east of 
the present glacier area represents the terminal 
extent and moraine of the glacier at its maxi- 
mum during the "Little Ice Age." 






L ^ / 

Figure 6. Digital map of snow water equival- 
ence on the glacier surface. Snow was mapped 
using a binary regression tree with elevation 
and an avalanche index as independent vari- 
ables. Lighter shades represent areas of 
greater snow accumulations; darker shades, 
shallower snowpack areas. 

and analysis are needed on Teton Glacier 
before any of the results can be taken as 
normal. Additional years of field data collec- 
tion and analysis will allow us to establish 
"average" accumulation and melt patterns, 
so mat we can then attempt to predict chang- 
es in seasonal melt and runoff that may 
accompany changes in regional precipita- 
tion and temperature. 

Elder is a graduate student at U/CA Santa 
Barbara; Fullerton is a GIS Specialist with the 
Resource Management Division at Grand Teton 
NP; Tonnessen in Director of the Biological 
Effects Program of the National Biological Sur- 
vey Air Quality Division in Denver. This re- 
search was funded by the Grand Teton Natural 
History Assn.; support for the first author was 
provided by NASA 's EOS program. Comments 
and questions should be addressed to Kelly 
Elder, Box 52, Wilson. WY 83014, or Sue 
Fullerton, Resource Management, Grand Teton 
NP, Moose, WY 83012. 


Bentley, C. and M. Giovinetto (1992). "Mass balance of 
Antarctica and sea level change", Eos, Transactions of the 
American Geophysical Union. 73203. 

Chambers, F. (1992). "Mass balance and coWairponding, an 
analysis of Conness Glacier," Sierra Nevada, CA, Eos, 
Transactions of the American Geophysical Union. 73:180. 

Elder, K., R. Kattefmann, S. Ushnurtsev, D. Yang, and A. 
Chichagov (1992). "Differences in mass balance calcula- 
tions resulting from alternative measurement and estima- 
tion techniques on Glacier No. 1, Tien Shan, China," 
Annals of Giadobgy. 16:196-206, International Glactolog- 
teal Society and Lanzhou Institute of Glaaotogy and 
Geocryology, Lanzhou, China. 

Elder, K. and D. Yang (1 992). "Determination of glacier mass 
balance using digital elevation models and geographic 
information systems, Eos," Transactions of the American 
Geophysical Union. 73:180. 

Jacobs, S. and H. Hellmer (1992). "About the annual budget 
of the Antarctic ice sheet, Eos," Transactions of he 
American Geophysical Union. 73203. 

Kuhn M., G. Mark!, G. Kaser, U. Nickus, F. OWeitner, and H. 
Schneider (1985), "Fluctuations of climate and mass 
balance: different responses of two adjacent glaciers," 
ZehschriftfurGlelscherkunde undGlazialgeobgie. 21 :409- 

Martner, B. (1986). Wyoming CBmate Alias, University of 
Nebraska Press, Lincoln, NE, 432 pp. 

Meier, M. (1984). "Contribution of small glaciers to global sea 
level," Science 226:1418-1421. 

Meier, M. (1992). "Alpine glacier mass balances: toward a 
global synthesis, Eos," Transactions of the American 
Geophysical Union. 73203-204. 

National Park Service (no date). Global Change ■ Research 
in U.S. National Parks, Dept. of the Interior. NPS Global 
Change Research Program, Midwest Regional Office. 19 

Paterson, W.SJ3. (1981). The Physics of Glaciers, Second 
Edition, Pergamon Press, New York. 

Reed, Jr., J.C. (1964). "Recent retreat of the Teton Glacier, 
Grand Teton NP, WY," In Geological Survey Research 
1964, USGS Professional Paper 501 -C, pp C147-C151. 

Wyoming Basin Outlook Report (1993). January 1 through 
June 1 Reports, Soil Conservation Service, USD A Casper, 

Young, G. (1974). A stratified sampling design for snow 
surveys based on terrain shape, Proceedings of the West- 
em Snow Conference. 42:14-22. 

Young, G. (1975). "Accumulation and ablation patterns as 
functions of the surface geometry of a glacier," In Snow 
and Ice, IAHS-AIHS Publication 104, International Assn. 
of Hydrotogical Sciences, Wallingford, UK. pp. 134-138. 

mer 1994 


Animal Disease Issues In The National Park 
System Clarified By Nationwide Survey 

By Atonao Agulrra, Edward Starkey, and Donald Hansen 

Animal diseases are potentially signifi- 
cant management concerns in a number of 
units of the National Park System. Some of 
these diseases are a threat to human health; 
others are of primary concern because of 
potential impacts to domestic livestock on 
adjacent park lands; and still others may 
threaten native wildlife populations. 

Therefore, to identify key animal disease 
issues, we conducted a nationwide mail sur- 
vey of national parks, federal and state agen- 
cies, and universities. In addition to wildlife 
diseases in national parks, participants were 
questioned about the implementation of wild- 
life and domestic animal health programs 
including treatment, control, and manage- 
ment of wildlife diseases (e.g. vaccination, 
medication, herd management, quarantine, 
and habitat management). Information was 
also compiled on the use of pack animals and 
pets, livestock grazing in park ecosystems, 
and policies and regulations on domestic 
animal management within the park In all, 
503 questionnaires were mailed to 1 79 units 
of the NPS and 324 universities, state, and 
federal agencies. Overall we obtained a re- 
sponse rate of 70 percent 

Sixty-eight percent (94/138) of the na- 
tional parks surveyed indicated that at least 
one animal disease related issue had been of 
concern in the last 1 years. In general, other 
agencies' responses indicated that 29 percent 
(57/196) have reported wildlife disease is- 
sues in or adjacent to NPS units in their state. 
Fish & game agencies were most commonly 
involved in wildlife disease research and 
management (54%). State departments of 
health (42%) reported zoonotic diseases in- 
volving wild carnivores and rodents. Sixteen 
percent (9/55) of Animal & Plant Health 
Inspection Service (APHIS) respondents re- 
ported bovine brucellosis as the greatest con- 
cern regarding animal disease issues in the 
National Park System. 

Domestic Livestock Diseases 

Serologic studies (13%) demonstrating 
the presence and prevalence of domestic 
livestock diseases including bluetongue, bo- 
vine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine virus 
diarrhea, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, 
parainflueriza-3,andvesicular stomatitis were 
reported in wapiti, deer, bighorn sheep, 
moose, and caribou. Lungworm-pneumonia 
complex in bighorn sheep and epizootic 
hemorrhagic disease in white-tailed deer 
were the most important disease issues af- 
fecting wild ungulates in national parks. 


Several cases ofhemorrhagic disease in deer 
and bighorn sheep were reported based on 
clinical signs and lesions; however, no labo- 
ratory confirmation was made to differenti- 
ate these diseases. Parelaphostrongylosis in 
elk and deer, psoroptic scabies in bighorn 
sheep, leptospirosis in deer, and pseudorabies 
in feral pigs apparently represent an increas- 
ing threat to native ungulate populations. 

Rabies (22%), sylvatic plague (14%), ca- 
nine distemper (11%), Lyme disease (9%), 
and endoparasites (i.e. heartworm and rac- 
coon worm) (9%), were the most common 
diseases reported affecting carnivores and 
rodents in national parks. Diseases which 
may be increasing in zoonotic importance 
include trichinosis in wild carnivores; tulare- 
mia in rabbits and beavers, and leptospirosis, 
giardiasis, and Rocky Mountain spotted fe- 
ver in rodents. 

We requested information on animal health 
programs including treatment, control, and 
management of diseases (e.g. vaccination, 
medication, herd management, quarantine, 
and habitat management). The implementa- 
tion of wildlife health programs was reported 
by 19/138 (14%) national parks. Treatment 
and control of sylvatic plague in small ro- 
dents, by dusting burrows and closing visitor 
areas, were the most common practices imple- 
mented by park personnel. Treatments were 
also reported for lungworm-pneumonia com- 
plex and psoroptic scabies in bighorn sheep. 

We compiled information on the use of 
pack animals and pets, livestock grazing in 
park ecosystems, and policies and regula- 
tion on domestic aninial mariagementwithm 
the park Thirty-two percent of the parks 
surveyed did not allow or report the presence 
of pack animals inside their boundaries. 
Horses (38%), followed by mules/burros 
the most common species reported in parks 
allowing their use as pack animals. Grazing 
occurred adjacent (36%), inside (1 1%), and 
both in and near (13%) national parks. The 
species grazing inside or adjacent to NPS 
lands were cattle (60%), horses (2 1 %), sheep 
(14%), and other species (5%) including 
llamas, bison, and goats. 

Park Policies For Pets 

Dogs, cats, and birds were the most com- 
mon pet species allowed to be kept by park 
personnel and visitors inside national parks. 
Seventy-one percent of parks responding 
allowed pets on a leash with different degrees 
of restriction. For example, pets could enter 
the park if confined in a vehicle, kennel, or 

restricted to concession areas. Other nation- 
al parks allowed pets on a five to 6-foot leash 
within 100 feet of the road or shoreline; in 
developed areas, pavement, campgrounds oi 
overlooks; or within one-fourth of a mile oi 
developed roads, on trails but not in 
backcountry , and only during the day. Unre- 
strained pets were allowed in 3 percent oi 
parks (4/138). No pets were allowed to be 
kept by visitors or park personnel in 33/138 
(24%) NPS units. 

Although only 16/138 parks (12%) pro- 
vided a copy of guidelines, permit require- 
ments, and pet policies ; NPS Units generally 
apply the Title 36 Code of Federal Regula- 
tions and Management Policies. Eleven 
parks (8%) expressed their concerns about 
free-ranging feral dogs and cats, sled dogs, 
and unleashed pets. Contact between feral 
animals, pack animals, or pets and wildlife 
was reported as frequent, representing an 
increasing threat or health risk to native 
species. Carnivore species including wolves, 
coyotes, foxes, puma, lynx, and bobcat are 
vulnerable to infectious diseases such as 
canine distemper, parvovirus enteritis, and 
feline panleukopenia. 

Human health issues were reported by 61 
percent of parks surveyed (84/1 38). Several 
confirmed cases of Lyme disease in humans 
were reported in the following parks: Poinl 
Reyes NS, California from 1987-1990 (3/5 
cases); St Croix and Lower St Croix NSR, 
Minnesota (high prevalence among human 
and animal populations; 50 percent of park 
staff has been diagnosed and treated since 
1987); Cuyahoga Valley NRA, Ohio (three 
cases); Crater Lake NP (one case); Delaware 
Water Gap NRA (one case) and Valley Forge 
NHP, Pennsylvania (two cases); Big South 
Fork NRRA and Obed WSR, Tennessee 
(confirmed in several park employees and 
visitors); Colonial NHP (one case)and George 
Washington Memorial Pkwy, Virginia (one 
case). Giardiasis was reported only in Rocky 
Mountain National Park, Colorado, and 
North Cascades NP, Washington, but the 
disease is undoubtedly present in other parks. 
Human leptospirosis, possibly acquired from 
wild pigs, dogs, or cats, was reported in 
Hawaii Volcanoes NP(three cases). LaCrosse 
encephalitis was reported in St Croix and 
Lower St. Croix NSR, Minnesota and 
Cuyahoga NRA, Ohio (one case in 1981). 
Relapsing fever was reported in Grand Can- 
yon NP, Arizona (six cases since 1990). 
Rocky mountain spotted fever was confirmed 
in a human ratal case in Cape Cod NS, 
Massachusetts in 1990. 

Park Science 

Avoidance Techniques 

a nine percent of national parks surveyed, 
toruse and access was restricted to avoid 
lan contact with wildlife and reduce the 
of disease transmission. Management 
iniques included bearproof garbage cans, 
ure of visitor use areas (caves, trails, 
lie areas, and campgrounds), and restric- 
ofuse to developed trails. Interpretive or 
rational programs designed to inform 
ors about risks and/or prevention of wild- 
borne diseases were reported by 43 per- 
: of parks (59/138). These interpretive 
pains were focused primarily on the 
ration of sylvatic plague and rabies. 
iers received information and were asked 
sport contagious ecthyma in mountain 
s and Dall sheep in national parks in 
ska (contagious ecthyma can readily be 
ad to humans by direct contact). Inter- 
ive and educational programs commonly 
I included direct contact on an individual 
s, warning signs in visitor centers and use 
s, slide shows and lectures, posters, pain- 
ts, brochures, leaflets, and posted infor- 
ion in bulletin boards, 
hirty eight percent (53/138) of NPS 
ondents considered that the occurrence 
iseases and parasites in wildlife in park 
vstems is part of a naturally functioning 
ystem. The general consensus in the 
ey was that native diseases should be 
xted even if they are detrimental to 
life populations. Parasites and diseases 
dd be allowed to perform their natural 
tions in the ecosystem within the full 
;e of what might be considered natural 
ve diseases should only be managed to 
xt adjacent areas or to preserve ecosy s- 
; that have been altered or threatened in 
by human influences, for protection of 
ingered species and species of special 
era, for public health reasons, and for 
play" populations (those very impor- 
for visitor enjoyment), to the extent that 
ment does not detract from the appear- 
of naturalness (NPS 1988). 
I number of respondents listed several 
s to be considered in making decisions 
eraing control of diseases in national 
s. These include status of the infected 
lal population, classification of disease 
©tie or native, pathogenicity and infec- 
ness of the etiologic agent, and capacity 
feet other hosts (domestic animak and 
ans). Most parks surveyed concluded 
diseases introduced by humans and do- 
ic livestock or pet animals should be 
icated from national parks. 

Immediate Disease Issues 

ational parks, state, and federal agencies 

asked to identify the most immediate 

ise issues that should be addressed in the 

3nal Park System, if funding became 


available. Highest ranked priorities of NPS 
respondents were Lyme disease, sylvatic 
plague, BHS disease, rabies and giardia while 
brucellosis, fyme disease, BHS disease, ra- 
bies and tuberculosis reflected the relative 
priorities of other agencies. Differences in 
priorities between NPS and other agencies 
undoubtedly result from differing objectives 
and legal mandates of agencies reponding to 
the survey. For example, NPS respondents 
were most concerned with diseases related to 
public health, such as sylvatic plague and 
Lyme disease. On the other hand, APHIS 
considered brucellosis the most important 
issue facing national parks. Although 
brucellosis can infect humans (undulant fe- 
ver), pasteurization of milk has reduced its 
public health threat However, in some areas, 
it remains a serious disease in domestic 
livestock and APHIS is responsible for issues 
affecting the health of domestic animals. 

Because pack animals and domestic live- 
stock are common in and near national parks, 
disease monitoring programs should be es- 
tablished which could detect transmission of 
diseases among native wildlife and livestock 
Such a program would be of value to manag- 
ers of parks, as well as those managing 
adjacent grazing lands. 

Pet diseases represent a potentially serious 
threat to park wildlife populations. Although 
most parks allow pets only on a leash or in 
restricted areas, several respondents were 
concerned that leash requirements often are 
overlooked by visitors. Pets from different 
geographic regions represent a health risk to 
national park wildlife populations, and en- 
forcement of regulations is critical to reduce 
the likelihood of exotic diseases and parasites 
entering national parks. With increasing 
numbers of visitors and pets, and with in- 
creased mobility , the potential for introduc- 
tion of new diseases also is increasing. 

This work was supported by Special Initia- 
tive funding from the NPS Wildlife and 
Vegetation Division, Washington, D.C. We 
wish to thank Drs. John Dennis, and Sharon 
Taylor for advice, encouragment and review 
of thefinal report(Aguirre, AA.D.E. Hansen 
and E.E. Starkey. 1993. Special Initiative 
Project Animal Disease Issues in the Na- 
tional Park System USDL National Park 
Service,PacificNorthwestRegiori, Coopera- 
tive Park Studies Unit Technical Report 
NPS/PNROSU/NRTR-93/16. 126 pp.) 

Aguirrewas, and Hansen is currently with 
the College ofVeterinary Medicine; Starkey 
iswith the National Biological Survey, Coop. 
ParkStudies Unit, ORState Univ., Corvallis. 
Aguirre is presently with Wildlife Laborato- 
ries Inc. P.O. Box 1522, Fort Collins, CO 

Assateague Island 

Mares 'Shot' With 


In January 1994, Assateague Is- 
land NS staff met with Dr. Brian 
Underwood, NBS, to discuss the ap- 
plication of a draft population dynam- 
icscomputermodelfortheferal horses. 
Population projections are based on 
known historic genealogy, fecundity, 
mortality, and density-dependent 
birth and survival correlations. Pre- 
liminary model simulations which fac- 
tored in modest natural mortality in- 
dicated a continued rise in the popula- 
tion over the next decade. An environ- 
mental assessment was prepared to 
assess feral horse management alter- 
natives for 1994. 

The approved alternative was to 
treat all mares with a single dose of 
immuno-contraception for one year 
in orderto suppress population growth 
in 1995. Thanks to a combination of 
good luck and good shooting, the goal 
of 76 adult mares was achieved in 15 
actual field days of darting. For 28 of 
these mares which have been a part of 
the ongoing immuno-contraception re- 
search, tins shot should provide near 
100 percent effectiveness. Past re- 
search indicates that the initial dose 
could provide contraceptive effective- 
ness of up to 70 percent for the re- 
maining mares. Park staff expects 27 
births in 1994 and 10 births in 1995. 
According to the population model, 
the 1994 treatment appears to at least 
stabilize the present population. The 
treatment also conditions all repro- 
ductive age mares for the future useof 

The Delaware Water Gap NBA, 
Upper Delaware Scenic and Recre- 
ational River, and Delaware River 
Basin Commission recently sponsored 
an Upper Delaware Water Quality 
and Biological Monitoring Confer- 
ence that included participation by 51 
individuals from 23 agencies and cit- 
izen volunteer groups. A similar work- 
shop was held in 1987. Seventeen 
agencies and organizations are ac- 
tively involved in monitoring water 
quality in the region; a representative 
from each described their monitoring 
activities. Discussions focussed on 
macroinvertebrate monitoring meth- 
ods and experiences. As a first step 
towards interagency standardization 
of methods, technical representatives 
of the agencies agreed to meet later in 
a field session. 


Jeff Selleck 

as Park 

The Natural Resources Publication Office 
of the NPS Associate Director for Natural 
Resources has selected Big Bend NP Inter- 
pretive Supervisory Park Ranger Jeff Selleck 
to succeed Jean Matthews as editor of Park 
Science. Matthews, the publication's founder 
and editor throughout its 14 year history, 
plans to retire later this year in Washington 
state and will turn over editorial responsibil- 
ity to Selleck this summer when the fall issue 
goes into production in Denver. The specter 
of Matthews' departure, a matter of concern 
to all associated with the publication, led to 
Selleck's appointment to the post last De- 

Selleck is shifting careers in coming to 
Park Science. As an interpreter and supervi- 
sor at Yellowstone, Everglades, and Big 
Bend NPs during the past 10 years, Selleck 
specialized in guiding walks and giving 
evening programs that primarily interpreted 
birds, volcanic geology, and ecosystem 
threats. In 1 989, he won the Freeman Tilden 
Award for the Southwest Region in recogni- 
tion of his abilities as an outstanding inter- 
preter. In recent years, his skills and experi- 
ence expanded to include writing exhibits 
and site bulletins, and editing and laying out 
the award- winning Big BendPaisano news- 

He brings to Park Science communication 
skills, experience in layout and design, a link 
with the field, and a commitment to the 
mission of the National Park Service. "Ev- 
ery time I visit a national park, I become more 
interested and excited about the diversity of 
wonderful resources that we protect and 
present to the public," Selleck commented. 
"I also become concerned about the many 
complex resource management issues that 
face us. I love our parks and I want my 
association with this bulletin to help further 
science-based resource management pro- 
grams, decisions, and solutions." 

Park Science currently is undergoing a 
nine-month transition from Matthews to 
Selleck During this time, the publication 
will be moved from the Pacific Northwest 
Region to Denver, where Selleck has an 
office in the Denver Service Center building. 
The editor-in-training presently is working 
out details of the changeover, collecting ar- 
ticles and developing contacts at conferences 
and meetings; preparing for desktop publish- 
ing production of the quarterly; generating 
ideas for future articles; visiting with re- 
source managers and scientists in the field; 
tracking progress with natural resource pro- 
grams, such as R-MAP and NRPP; and 
redesigning the distribution list database. He 
will begin editing articles and doing the 


Jean Matthews 

layout for the fall issue, in which he will new 
procedures for submitting material to Park 

Selleck inherits a publication that has 
grown both in distribution and importance. 
When it began in 1 980, Pacific Park Science 
was circulated only within the Pacific North- 
west Region, but it soon included the entire 
National Park System. Acting on feedback 
from the field, Matthews refined the 
publication's niche in the overall NPS mis- 
sion effort into a way of communicating 

findings and science-based resource man- 
agement, with emphasis on their implica 
tions for park managers. The approach ha; 
appealed to an ever broader audience in the 
natural resource field — inside and outside o. 
government at all levels, and especially in the 
academic community, where it is widely usee 
as course material. 

Selleck plans to build on the establishec 
foundation of publishing good field science 
and resource management However, sweep- 
ing changes with the science program during 
the past year will require careful attentior 
from the new editor. "Park Science will 
certainly become an important link be tweer 
the evolving National Biological Survey anc 
the NPS as we begin to understand how tc 
make use of the new agency's services/ 
Selleck said recently. "While I hope to pub- 
lish park-relevant research from the NBS 
more importantly I hope to encourage anc 
develop additional authors within our owi 
ranks as we continue to professionalize the 
resource management field." 

Also of interest will be exploring the ides 
of ecosystem management for the Nationa 
Park System and looking beyond park bound 
aries for solutions to resource managemen 

Donna O'Learj 
NPS Publications Coordinatoi 

Cut out this card and place it in your Rolodex! 

Park Science 

Jeff Selleck, Editor 

National Park Service 

Natural Resources Publication Office 

Phone (303) 969-2147; Fax (303) 969-2822 

cc:Mail address-Selleck, Jeff;WASO-NRPO, Editor 

U.S. Postal Service-Mail 

P.O. Box 25287 
Denver, CO 80225-0287 

Federal Express— Packages 


12795 W. Alameda Parkway 

Lakewood,CO 80228 




Roger G. Kennedy, Director 

Eugene Hester, Associate Director for Natural Resources, 

National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior 

Editorial Board 

Gary E. Davis, Marine Research Scientist, Channel Islands NP 

John Dennis, Biologist, Washington Office 

Ron Hiebert, Editorial Board Chair and Chief Scientist, Midwest Region 

Elizabeth Johnson, Chief, Research and Resource P lannin g; Delaware Water Gap NRA, Bushlrill, PA 

Jon Jarvis, Superintendent, Craters of the Moon National Monuments; Arco, ID 

Jean Matthews, Editor 


Long-term Monitoring on a Shoestring at Apostle Islands 

By Julte Van Stappen 

At Apostle Islands National 
ikeshore (APIS), an effective, 
w-cost, long-term monitoring 
ogram has been developed over 
e past few years. This article 
scribes how resource managers 
small to medium sized parks can 
idertake long-term monitoring 
spite very limited resources. 
APIS is a 42,000 acre park with 
islands and a small mainland 
lit lying along the Lake Superior 
«st in Wisconsin. The islands 
age in size from 3 to 10,000 
res; the mainland unit is approx- 
lately 1 2 miles long and less than 
nile wide. The lakeshore is near Karin Kozie and Mark Mackey collect a bald eagle blood 
e northwestern edge of the hem- toxic analysis (Photo by J. Van Stappen) 
:k hardwood forest and the south- 

a hinge of the boreal forest The most 
iminant forest type is northern hardwood, 
ost of which is >50 year old second growth. 
le lakeshore also has aspen/birch, oak, 
land conifer, and pine forest Special 
bitats include a wide variety of dunal 
atures, bogs, sandstone cliffs, clay banks, 
i-gro wth forest, colonial bird nesting sites, 
igratory bird concentration areas, and bald 
gle nesting sites. 

When I transferred to the park in 1988, a 
rk goal was to establish a long-term mon- 
ring program. Some such projects already 
jre occurring in the park, but they were 
earheaded by University researchers and 
rsonnel from other agencies without NPS 
tiding so there was no guarantee they 
>uld continue. At me time, only part-time 
sistance from a seasonal biological techni- 
in was available. I started by looking at 
isting projects for their appropriateness 
d identified important gaps. 
Following the lead of Channel Islands 
itional Seashore, we wrote monitoring 
idelines for each existing or proposed 
oject The guidelines included an intro- 
etion describing what needed to be moni- 
xd and why, and a history of past research 
d monitoring; objectives; methods; equip- 
mt needed; areas to be monitored and 
squency of monitoring; number of person- 
1 required/hours or days/FTE; and refer- 
ees. Some of the first guidelines written 
:luded bald eagles, colonial birds, ruffed 
ouse, woodcock, merlins, piping plovers, 
adscapes (dunal features), bluff erosion, 
d campsites. 

The primary objective of most monitoring 
ojects is to determine the status and trends 
a resource and/or to monitor visitor im- 

pact Projects that monitor visitor impact are 
specifically designed to gather data for mak- 
ing management decisions; however, bom 
types of monitoring provide important infor- 
mation for management decision-making. 

The 1989 fieldseason was the firstyearfor 
the fledgling monitoring program. Many 
new and on-going projects were formalized. 
It was an important year to test methods and 
to determine the time needed per project the 
appropriate frequency ofmonitoring, and the 
general feasibility of each project Following 
the 1989 field season, all monitoring guide- 
lines were reviewed and revised to reflect 
lessons learned. 

Prior to the 1 990 field season, the biolog- 
ical technician position was extended to six 
months and its description re-written to in- 
clude, as a primary job element assistance 
with monitoring. Projects added in 1990 
included breeding birds, migratory birds, 
frogs and toads, and purple loosestrife. In 
1991, mollusc monitoring was added and 
repeat monitoring had begun. By the end of 
the 1992 field season, many of the projects 
had been repeated and data from previous 
years could be compared, beaver monitoring 
was started, and a fairly large loosestrife 
control program was begun Need for loos- 
estrife control was based on monitoring re- 
sults. Rare plant and forest vegetation mon- 
itoring are planned. 

Guidelines are an important tool; they 
force you to evaluate each monitoring project 
If you can't justify a given project it should 
be reconsidered. Guidelines provide impor- 
tant institutional memory. They should be 
written so that someone unfamiliar with the 
project can repeat it and obtain data compa- 

rable to past results. They also 
should contain information on time 
and personnel needs, facilitating 
scheduling. Having all the infor- 
mation in one place that is needed to 
conduct a monitoring project pro- 
vides critically needed organiza- 
tion during the hectic field season 
Quality control and assurance 
should be part of each monitoring 
project and data management is an 
important consideration. Ideally, 
data should be entered into a park 
database immediately following 
completion of each monitoring 
project but no later than the end of 
the field season Monitoring re- 
sample for P 01 ^ should be written annually. 
Some of our reports are simply 
memos stating the results of gener- 
al surveys, such as ruffed grouse or wood- 
cock. Other reports require considerable 
data analysis and are many pages longer. 
Finally, monitoring guidelines should be 
considered dynamic documents and be re- 
viewed and revised on a regular basis. 

Long-term monitoring programs need to 
be institutionalized. Staffcomeandgo,sothe 
success of such programs depends on their 
being set up in such a way as to continue over 
the long run. Steps we have taken to institu- 
tionalize APIS's program include monitor- 
ing guidelines, incorporation ofmonitoring 
projects into the park's Resource Manage- 
ment Plan, and incorporation ofmonitoring 
duties into position descriptions and perfor- 
mance elements. 

APIS's monitoring program covers a wide 
variety of projects that are skill rather than 
funding intensive. Without additional fund- 
ing, die program focus has been on high 
priority projects that can be done by well- 
trained biologists, and that do not require 
outside expertise or expensive equipment 
Although mere are high priority inventory 
and monitoring projects that do require addi- 
tional funding and personnel, much has been 
done using our own limited resources and 
assistance from highly qualified volunteers. 
If you are a Resource Manager in a small 
or medium sized park, don't wait for addi- 
tional funding or personnel. Start with what 
you have, check around with others as to how 
to put it to best use, and then build on it as you 

Van Stappen is Resource Management Spe- 
cialist at Apostle Islands National Lakeshore 

timer 1994 


Public Education Pays Off At Great Smokies 
In Smooth Sailing For Red Wolf Release 

By Napier Snetton, Robert Miller, Karen 
Ballentine and V.Gary Henry 

Public support can spell the difference 
between success and failure of a resource 
managementproject, especially one that could 
be controversial. It is instructive, therefore, 
to look at public education programs that 
engendered support One such success story 
has to do with the information effort preced- 
ing and accompanying the release of red 
wolves in Great Smoky Mountains National 

The goal of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife 
Service (USFWS) recovery plan for the en- 
dangered red wolf is 220 individuals estab- 
lished in the wild in three areas of the 
Southeast (and 330 in captivity). An earlier 
plan to restore red wolves at the Tennessee 
Valley Authority's (TVA) Land Between the 
Lakes in Kentucky and Tennessee was sus- 
pended because of public opposition, prima- 
rily from agricultural, hunting, and animal 
rights groups. Learning of this experience, 
the USFWS and conservation groups con- 
ducted an intensive public education pro- 
gram around the Alligator River National 
Wildlife Refuge in coastal north Carolina, 
and subsequently carried out successful red 
wolf restoration there. 

A similar approach was taken at GRSM. 
For nearly two years before the first red wolf 
release, in November 1991, the National 
Park Service (NPS) and the USFWS jointly 
carried out a broad public education effort to 
explain the reasons for and goals of the 
project, aimed at allaying any fears and 
gaining support 

The primary audience was park neigh- 
bors, most of whom li ve on small acreages, in 
small towns near the park, or in the cities of 
Knoxville,TNandAsheville,NC. Because 
of die rough foothill topography, most farms 
are small and most farm owners have jobs 
elsewhere. Tourism is a major and increas- 
ing component of the economy, and there is 
a growing population of retirees. Hunting 
remains an important part of life for many 
people here. 

Extensive planning went into the public 
information program. Representatives from 
USFWS, park management resource man- 
agement public affairs, and interpretation 
brainstormed to identify interest groups, sen- 
sitive points, appropriate media for convey- 
ing messages, and timing of efforts. Lists of 
groups to be contacted were developed, but 
the persons who were to contact specific 
groups were decided upon only as the effort 

Yi5 mfm 

Hi ^3»? 

r-««L '^ *l^^ 

^^HI^^^^^^B ~^^Pl ^^^^H£lL*' : - j&^^^^^M 

W i :,~^zjgm 

i T t • « f ,^m^^m 

Kim Delozier, Great Smoky Mountains National Park wildlife biologist holding up a 6 week old 
pup of the first litter to be born in Great Smoky Mountains National Park in 100 years. May 
1991 photo. 

The Communication Effort 
The public information program began 
with briefings of the Tennessee and North 
Carolina congressional representatives and 
governors' offices by the USFWS Red Wolf 
Coordinator and regional director. The su- 
perintendent UWFWS coordinator, andNPS 
resource management and science person- 
nel, in various combinations, also talked to 
NPS and USFWS officials in Washington, 
DC and the region, local officials, farm 
bureau heads, and heads of state and federal 
land management agencies. Contacts with 
these key officials were followed by presen- 
tations to civic, school, conservation, and 
other groups by NPS public affairs and inter- 
pretation personnel, with input and assis- 
tance from the superintendent USFWSproject 
personnel, and others. 

The park public affairs officer and re- 
source management/environmental educa- 
tion interpreter, with assistance in some 
cases from the Southern Appalachian Man 
and the Biosphere Cooperative (SAMAB) 
and NPS staff developed various tools for 
communicating information about the red 
wolf project Among these were a slide 
program, brochures, poster, periodic updates, 
video (in cooperation with station WBIR-TV 
in Knoxville, TN), traveling exhibit, a way- 
side exhibit and teacher's guide (including 
lesson plans) to the video and poster. 

was sent to 800 schools, libraries, nature 
centers, and other requesters. In addition, 
7,000 posters were distributed. The 30- 
minute video, "Front Runner," and an ear- 
lier short video piece presented the back- 
ground, plans, and early activities of the red 
wolf project, including the temporary release 
of a red wolf family, reasons for the project, 
and viewpoints of various people. These 
latter included local farmers who feared the 
presence of red wolves would result in live- 
stock depredation. An update of the video 
incorporating developments after permanent 
release of a second red wolf family later was 
produced. Because of the demand for die 
video/poster/teacher guide package, an addi- 
tional 1,000 videos and 3,000 posters have 
been produced. 

Program Progress Updates 

Media representatives have been kept in- 
formed through press releases, press confer- 
ences, a red wolf newsletter, and media 
briefing packages. Park visitors learn about 
the project through campfire programs and 
other personal services, park newspaper ar- 
ticles, the wayside exhibit the brochure that 
is available at visitor centers, and the travel- 
ing exhibit, which is on display at a visitor 
center when not traveling. 

Continuing communication with park 
neighbors occurs through newspaper articles 

Continued on page 19 


Park Science 

ed Wolves continued from pap 18 

television programs, through the schools 
civic club meetings, and at special events 
he community, where the traveling ex- 
it often is displayed and talks given. For 
mple, a boom exhibit is manned and talks 
sented throughout the annual 5-day Wil- 
aess Wildlife Week in Pigeon Forge, TN. 
also include wolf information at teacher 
■kshops, elderhostels, and other sessions 
be Great Smoky Mountains Institute at 
mont The red wolf newsletter now goes 
mailing list of some 350 individuals and 

a addition to all the talks and use of media 
Is, a communication committee meets 
odically. Representatives from the park, 
USFWS, conservation groups, the Ten- 
see and North Carolina wildlife agencies, 
adjacent USFS national forests and dis- 
5, the state and local Farm Bureaus, and 
us are invited to attend these meetings 
react to planned red wolf activities. 

Superintendent's Role Important 

l very important element in the commu- 
ition effort from the project's start was the 
►onal interest and involvement of the 
WM superintendent He made this a top 
dry, participated in early planning and 
■level meetings, chaired communication 
imittee meetings, and was active in major 
isions. Many other GRSM staff mem- 
;, besides the two principals mentioned 
ier, have contributed to the communica- 
effort The NPS regional office has been 
portivebutnot actively involved, leaving 
to the park and the USFWS. 
AMAB also has helped, primarily through 
ncial assistance by a member-tie TVA- 
ieveloping and disseminating the video/ 
ter/teacher's guide package. Station 
■IR-TV has been interested and support- 
throughout, producing and airing the 
x> and pre-project and ongoing news 
ates. The NBS affiliate in Asheville, NC 
> aired "Front Runner." The Great 
3ky Mountains Natural History Associa- 
(GSMNHA) contracted for production 
provided some of the funding forme first 
wolfbrochure, using money from the Pt 
ianceZooinTacoma,WA. Theassocia- 
also sells art prints and administers a 
stock indemnity fund. 
Ve estimate the time spent on the commu- 
ition effort between 1 990 and early 1 993 
the NPS was 1.25 work years divided 
»tly between two people at a total cost of 
,200. Considerable additional time was 
tributed by three USFWS employees, 
ofpocketpurchasesby theNPS, USFWS, 
TVA in the Great Smokies area are 
mated at $50,850. Additional contribu- 
■ include the $24,500 cost to WBIR-TV 

One of the red wolves released permanently 
into the Cades Cove area of Great Smoky 
Mountains NP in the Fall of 1992. 

to produce the Front Runner program; sales 
from a red wolf print by artist Steve Jackson, 
and a $25,000 indemnity fund consisting of 
contributions from the National Fish and 
Wildlife Foundation, the National Parks and 
Conservation Association, and the Jackson 
print sales. 

Results and Evaluation 

We have been pleased and somewhat sur- 
prised at die nearly unanimous public sup- 
portfortheredwolfproject Theonly groups 
voicing opposition have been local and state 
Farm Bureaus on the Tennessee side of the 
park, and their opposition has been low key. 
They follow the policy of the National Farm 
Bureau, which is to oppose any restoration of 
predators. The wolves have taken some 
domestic animals in the Cades Cove area at 
the park, but this has aroused little expressed 
concern, other than that of the owner of the 

livestock taken. The owner was compen- 
sated from the fund operated by the 

We attribute the success of the education 
effort to the following: 

• Thorough advance planning 

• Close targeting of audiences 

• Commitment of the park superintendent 

• A team approach 

• Cooperation and coordination among 
the participants 

• Objective, honest, consistent presenta- 
tion of scientific information 

• Initiation of the program well in advance 
of the first wolf releases 

• Numerous personal contacts with indi- 
viduals and groups 

• Use of a variety of effective media 

• Involvement of partners, such as the 
press, WBIR-TV, SAMAB, and the 
GRSM Natural History Association 

In addition, certain pre-existing condi- 
tions probably contributed to the program's 

(1) the biology of the red wolf, which is 
smaller than the gray wolf and usually takes 
smaller prey; (2) the absence of wolves from 
the southern Appalachians since the turn of 
the century; (3) the relatively small eco- 
nomic importance oflivestock in the area; (4) 
earlier press coverage of peregrine falcon 
and otter restoration in the park; and (5) 
generally good relations of the park with its 

The success of red wolf restoration in the 
Smokies now depends on die animals them- 
selves—whether they can live and reproduce 
in the park environments over die long term. 
Public interest and support seem assured. 

Shelton recently retired as a writer-editor 
with the Wildlife and Vegetation Division, 
Washington Office, NPS; Miller is Public 
Affairs Officer at Great Smoky Mountains 
NP; Ballentine is an interpreter who works 
as a liaison with the Resource Management 
Division, Great Smoky Mountains NP; Henry 
is the Red Wolf Coordinator, UWFWS, 
Asheville, NC. 

Bill Brown-Denali NP Make A Prize Package 

Denali, Symbol of the Alaskan Wild: An 
Illustrated History of the Denali-Mount 
McKinley Region, Alaska, by William E. 
Brown, took first prize in the 1994 NPS 
publications competition at the Conference 
of National Park Cooperating Assns. Con- 
ference in Williamsburg, VA. 

Brown's engaging prose captures the 
multi-threaded history of Denali NP, from 
the pioneering spirits that first imagined 

to the government agencies and scientists 
who prepared the park for the visitors to 
come. Judges comments included "a beau- 
tiful and inviting book," "wonderful histor- 
ic photos," "an impressive volume of infor- 
mation presented effectively," 

This handsome 224-page soft cover vol- 
ume is available from the Alaska Natural 
History Assn., P.O. Box 230, DenaliNP, AK 
99755 for $19.95, plus postage. The book 
also is available in hard cover for $29.95. 

iter 1994 


NPS Paleontologists Present Papers at GSA Conference 

By Jeff Sell** 

Paleontologists from the NPS and affiliat- 
ed universities recently shared 35 papers on 
paleontological research in the national paries 
as part of the 46th annual Rocky Mountain 
Section meeting of the Geological Society of 
America. The meeting was held on May 4 at 
the Tamarron Resort north of Durango, CO, 
where some 60 individuals listened in on 
diverse research presentations that spanned 
300 million years in 1 1 national park system 
areas. Twenty of the papers, not reviewed 
here, focused just on Florissant Fossil Beds 
NM and the surrounding area, and were 
presented the following day. 

Paleontologist and former Petrified Forest 
NP Chief of Resource Management Vince 
Santucci coordinated the NPS effort and 
introduced the sessions. Santucci is deeply 
proud of his association with the paleontolo- 
gy work going on in the national parks. He 
speaks enthusiastically of the vast fossil trea- 
sures we protect "The history of life on 
earth," he says, "is well represented within 
the units of the national park system. Around 
100 of the 370 plus park areas have signifi- 
cant paleontological resources that need our 
attention and care." Pre-cambrian stroma- 
tolites in Glacier NP, early sea organisms in 
Grand Canyon, dinosaurs in the Colorado 
Plateau parks, early mammals at John Day 
and Hagerman Fossil Beds NMs, among 
others, combine, he asserts, to tell a story of 
the evolution of life. 

Now on staff at the department of parks 
and recreation at Slippery Rock State Uni- 
versity, Pennsylvania, and a part-time pro- 
fessor of paleontology at the University of 
Pittsburgh, Santucci maintains a strong link 
with the NPS, currently as a resource man- 
agement advisor to Grand Canyon NP. 

Before introducing the speakers, Santucci 
recounted the contributions made by Ted 
Fremd of John Day Fossil Beds and Dan 
Chure of Dinosaur NM in the gradual evolu- 
tion of the NPS paleontology program. He 
explained that just 10 years ago there were 
few paleontologists within the Service, and 
archeologists often were the only staff with 
field excavation experience. When a fossil 
issue arose, archeologists were the natural 
choice to deal with it, even though their 
expertise was cultural sites. 

The association between archeologists and 
fossils in the NP system may have led to the 
incorrect categorization of fossils as cultural 
rather than natural resources— an error that 
Chure and Fremd managed to correct Also 
a problem then, managers often viewed the 
discovery goal of paleontology and the re- 
source protection goal of the parks as incon- 
gruent, and denied research projects. 

Since those troublesome early days, NPS 
paleontologists have organized their human 

resources, as demonstrated by this sympo- 
sium, and developed a respectable fledgling 
fossil research and protection program. Crit- 
ical to this transformation has been educat- 
ing park managers and staff, as they turn 
over, about the role and value of paleontolo- 
Paleontologists began to publish some of 
their findings in Park Science and in the 
technical report series of the Natural Re- 
source Publications Office. They held con- 
ferences on fossil resources in 1 9S6 at Dino- 
saur NM, in 1 988 at Petrified Forest NP, and 
two years ago at Fossil Butte NM, to work 

only a beginning. He went to Durango with 
colleagues from around the park system to 
continue building the program, to share re- 
search findings, and to generate further sup- 

Many fossil resource parks did not partic- 
ipate in the conference, but those that did 
demonstrated sophisticated and useful re- 
search. Presenters Ted Fremd and Carl 
Swisher from John Day Fossil Beds dis- 
cussed techniques for reconstructing the col- 
lection localities and subsequent dating of 
fossils gathered initially with poor locality 
information. By studying volcanic deposits 

The 30-foot long marine reptile know as mosasaurus, investigated by 
Gordon Bell, diversified during the Cretaceous period in Big Bend 
NP evolving into two groups of mosasauroids. 

through the growing pains and to build their 
trackrecord. In these open exchanges, super- 
intendents, researchers, resource managers, 
and interpreters, all contributed their percep- 
tions of the value of research and the need for 
fossil protection. 

The culmination of this endeavor and a 
triumph in Santucci 's mind was the adoption 
of NPS-77, the Natural Resource Manage- 
ment Guidelines, that includes a brief chap- 
ter defining how we manage paleontological 
resources and promoting paleontological re- 

Santucci also credits Fossil Butte Supt 
David McGinnis for helping legitimize pale- 
ontology in the parks by demonstrating the 
benefits that can be derived from an integrat- 
ed program of paleontological resource man- 
agement and research. While the NPS con- 
ducts some fossil research, most is done by 
outside cooperators in the academic world. 
These partners often fund their projects inde- 
pendently of the NPS and help us understand 
in their published works the significance of 
our resources. They and experienced volun- 
teers also can help us set up cyclic prospect- 
ing and inventorying and monitoring pro- 
grams that identify the variety of fossils in an 
area, determine the relative importance of 
the fossils, and list the threats they face. 
Resource managers can then plan excavation 
priorities. Increased presence in the field 
also helps us protect the resources, and the 
information shared aids in interpretation. 

Dr. Santucci is pleased with the progress 
toward building a foundation for paleontol- 
ogy and fossil resource protection in the 
parks in the past decade, but he sees this as 

and other chemical characteristics of the 
soils and correlating date findings with the 
distribution of fossil species, they hope to 
improve their understanding of the time 
period when some of the early mammals 
unique to the John Day area lived. 

Other studies centered on Petrified Forest 
NP. Spencer Lucas discussedhis bio-stratig- 
raphy work on one of the world's most 
significant upper Triassic Camian-Norian 
transition-preserving strata. He inventoried 
a wealth of fossils including vertebrates, 
molluscs, fossil pollens, ostracods, coproli- 
tes, tetrapods, logs, and other plants. Also 
interested in the upper Triassic, Tim Demko 
used a road cut to examine closely associated 
soil deposits and flora of the Chinle Forma- 
tion in order to reconstruct the paleogeogra- 
phy of the time. He found that different 
fossils, while deposited concurrently, may 
indicate differences in landscape features. 

William Davis concentrated on plants, 
anatomically detailing the preserved repro- 
ductive structures seen in plants from the 
Late Triassic. Finally, Adrian Hunt looked at 
early to late Triassic dinosaur tracks and 
fossils in both Petrified Forest NP and Dino- 
saur NM to learn of their beginnings and why 
they became so successful. He found that the 
dinosaurs appear to have evolved in the late 
Carnian; therapods in Dinosaur NM became 
more common with time, and the 
prosauropods began to diversify then. 

Reporting on other parks of the Rocky 
Mountains, Stephen Hasiotis discussed the 
earliest known fossil evidence of burrowing 
crayfish at Canyonlands NP, while Jeffrey 
Eaton described the complexities of verte- 

Park Science 

e paleontology of the Cretaceous rocks in 
ce Canyon NP. James Kirkland detailed 
ligh resolution stratigraphy of the Mancos 
le in Mesa Verde NP, a Cretaceous ma- 
strata rich in fossils. The study was 
;essful as much for its yield of90 taxa (yet 
e described) as for cooperation with the 
c in working through the necessary ar- 
Dlogical clearances along the half-mile 

at Jablonski, an active caver at Carlsbad 
ems NP, described an easy-to-manage 
mique for excavating deep cave fossils; 
d1 Manganaro detailed her study of fossil 
oals found in Graveyard Cave at Wind 
e NP. Both presenters highlighted the 
jntial of caves to reveal relationships 
>ng species trapped within them, 
adlands NP researcher William Wall 
of a bio-mechanical change in the jaw 
:ture of oreodonts in response to a late 
ene to Oligocene climate shift that fa- 
sd grazers over browsers. Robert Hunt 
>rted on his research at Agate Fossil Beds 
, where he excavated the earliest known 
xene) carnivore den communities on 
rd. Discovered in association with fos- 
of the bear dog animal group, these 
nbers measure 10m in length by 2m in 
h. To close the full day of sessions, 
don Bell reported on his work in Big 
d NP in dating a fork in the evolutionary 
of the marine reptiles known as 

he symposium demonstrated that good 
»s can come to parks that integrate pale- 
logy into their programs. Most of the 
entations detailed significant advances 
ur understanding of life on earth from 
arch conducted just within NP units. But 
antucci commented later, this kind of 
ering is just one component needed to 
ler paleontology in the parks. Also 
Drtant is to develop partnerships with 
ersities, use volunteers to carry out 
sets, train resource protection rangers to 
tify fossils at risk, encourage interpreters 
are the stories in the rocks, and motivate 
s to participate in paleontology informa- 

hose who missed this discussion of pale- 
logy within the parks have another op- 
unity to participate when the fourth con- 
ice on fossil resources is held in Colo- 
Springs this October 3 1 to November 4. 
conference has broadened its scope to 
ide fossil resources on all public lands 
die list of cooperators is now made up of 
3LM, USFS, USGS, and the Colorado 
; Lands Board, along with the sponsor- 
Florissant Fossil Beds NM. Contact 
gie Johnston for further information at 
Box 185, Florissant, CO 80816; 719/ 

Heck is the incoming editor of Park Science 

The National Biological Survey- 
A Perspective 
From the Past 

By R. Gerald Wright 

The administration of Franklin Roosevelt 
was a heady time for those individuals who 
believed that the federal government should 
play a major role in the socio-economic 
affairs of the country. Conservation of the 
nation's natural and cultural resources was 
one of those roles. Harold Ickes, the Secre- 
tary of the Interior under this administration, 
firmly believed that this goal could best be 
accomplished through the creation of a De- 
partment of Conservation— an agency that 
would include the Forest Service, National 
Park Service, Biological Survey, Bureau of 
Fisheries, and me Grazing Division. 

This concept had at least the tacit approval 
if not the strong endorsement of the Presi- 
dent However, because of intense Congres- 
sional opposition against moving the Forest 
Service out of the Department of Agriculture, 
the creation of this new department was not 
realized — although over the years, the con- 
cept has retained its allure and has surfaced 
time and again under subsequent adminis- 

In lieu of achieving mis larger goal, Ickes 
was offered the more modest prize of taking 
over the administration of the Bureau of 
Biological Survey, which was transferred 
from Agriculture to Interior in 1940. The 
Biological Survey was an agency with a long 
and illustrious history. Originally estab- 
lished as the division of Economic Ornithol- 
ogy and Mammalogy in 1 885 and headed by 
the famous biologist C. Hart Merriam, its 
name was changed to the Bureau of Biolog- 
ical Survey in 1905 to betterreflectMeniam's 
interests . . . that was as the natural history 
agency of the government, with much of its 
early work being devoted to defining the 
geographical distribution of animals and 
plants in various regions of the country. In 
subsequent years, however, economic and 
utilitarian factors exerted an ever greater 
influence on the agency and its primary roles 
became predator control and the manage- 
ment of wildlife refuges and migratory wa- 

With the transfer of the Biological Survey 
to Interior, Ickes sought to carry out his goal 
for a Department of Conservation on a small- 
er scale by consolidating all federal research 

personnel in the department (primarily wild- 
life researchers) in die Biological Survey. 
This involved the transfer of the wildlife 
biologists from the National Park Service 
and the Grazing Division, and the biologists 
in the Bureau of Fisheries to the Biological 

This expanded Biological Survey had 
many similarities to die present National 
Biological Survey. Among them were de- 
bates over how well NPS research needs 
wouldbe served by biologists thatnowworked 
for another agency. Although an "Office of 
National Park Wildlife" was established 
within the Biological Survey which housed 
the transferred NPS biologists, it was, as 
Lowell Sumner (one of the transferred biol- 
ogists) told me in an interview: "...difficult 
to know how to address national park con- 
cerns in a bureau whose goals were set by ... 
predator control and sport hunting [inter- 
ests]." Also, as today, the number of NPS 
biologists transferred to the expanded agen- 
cy was small in comparison with the number 
of biologists who already were a part of the 
existing Biological Survey. 

The expanded Biological Survey proved 
to be short-lived because, after only a few 
months, Ickes decided to merge the Biolog- 
ical Survey with die Bureau of Fisheries to 
create the Fish and Wildlife Service. So in 
1947, seven years after it was established, the 
Office of National Park Wildlife, then in the 
Fish and Wildlife Service, was abolished and 
the scientists in that office were transferred 
back to the NPS, where it took many years to 
build a credible natural science program. 

Wright is a wildlife research scientist and Unit 
Leaders of the NPS CPSUat U/ID, Moscow, ID. 

Suggested Readings 

Cameron, J. 1929. The Bureau of Biological Sumy: Its 
history, activities and organizations. Johns Hopkins Press. 

Sellers, R. W. 1993. The rise and dedne of ecological 

attitudes in national park management 1929-1 940. George 

Wright Fotum 10(3)38-54. 
WatWns, T. H. 1990. Righteous Pilgrim: The He and limes of 

Harold L Ickes. Henry Holt and Co. NY. 
Wright R. G. 1992. Wildlife research and management in tie 

national parks. U/IL Press, Urbana. 

wr 1994 


Reconstructing Climate Data in Parallel Watersheds 
Provides Useful Data on Muir Woods 

By Robyn Myers 

While I was a graduate student and also a 
former ranger at Muir Woods National Monu- 
ment (NM), a class assignment provided me 
the opportunity to reconstruct the Muir Woods 
precipitation history as part of a 
dendroclimatic study. The tree ring analysis 
itself was not significant, but the precipita- 
tion reconstruction provided some interest- 
ing and useful data. 

Muir Woods NM has kept precipitation 
data only since 1 948. However, anearby, and 
parallel, watershed in Kentfield has instru- 
mental precipitation data going back to 1 888. 
Because the two watersheds exhibit similar 
precipitation patterns, I was able to recon- 
struct the precipitationrecordforMuir Woods 
for the years prior to 1948 based on the 
instrumental record for Kentfield. 

Climatic data series generally are based on 
instrumental climatic measurements, but also 
may be based on historical documents and 
paleo-climatic reconstructions from tree rings, 
ice cores, and sediment cores. These data all 
vary in quality, geographic coverage and 
time resolution, as well as the total length of 
the record (Fritts 1 99 1 ). According to Fritts, 
instrumental data have the highest quality 
and resolution, but in North America they 
seldom span the last 200 years. The primary 
goal in collecting tree rings for dendroclimatic 
analysis is "to obtain the longest and clearest 
record of past climatic variations," Fritts 
notes. However, he adds that ring width 
measurements do not always contain infor- 
mation on climate. It is for mis reason that 
other methods of obtaining climate history 
often are used. 

For a Muir Woods dendroclimatic study 
(Myers 1993), climatological data for the 
Muir Woods area were obtained from several 
sources. Muir Woods itselfhas kept climatic 
records and reported them for inclusion in 
the California State Climatological Data 
books since 1 948. On request, Muir Woods 
sent me the seasonal rainfall from 1 948 to the 
present. I obtained the annual rainfall totals 
from the State Climatological data books. 
Redwood Creek in Muir Woods is one of 
several watersheds originating on Mt. 
Tamalpais. Muir Woods' rainfall is consis- 
tentl y greater and has a different partem from 
that of the County weather station at the 
Marin County Civic Center in San Rafael. 
Therefore, due to the differing weather pat- 
terns, the County weather data were not 
appropriate for comparison and were not 

However, a watershednear RedwoodCreek 
has a weather recording station that has 

Figure 1. 

Figure 2. 






















































































































































































95% S 


is . 


Figure 3. 





50 00 

Regression line reUtmg KentfieW 
preop iomwf Woods precip 

M = 06S«-M.S413 








i 3000 


R-square« 084 







20 00 




» I00C 2000 


40 00 

S000 6000 

70 00 



100 00 

Kentf«eW Preap («) 



econstructing Climate Data continued from page 22 

intained precipitation records dating far- 
r back. The Kentfield weather station 
tose historical and current location re- 
ins a mystery, even after telephone inquir- 
throughout the county!) has maintained 
cipitarion data back to 1 888. The U/CA- 
As had California State Climatological 
a books with Kentfield data back to 1907. 
a from 1888-1906 were obtained from 
State Climatologist at the State Depart- 
it ofWater Resources, Division of Flood 
nagement, in Sacramento, 
lie Kentfield area in Marin county is 
ther of the primary watersheds of Mt 
oalpais. Kentfield has the not undeserved 
atation ofbeing the "wettest" place in the 
inty in terms of annual rainfall. Despite 
erences in the rainfall amounts between 
ltfield and Muir Woods, there was a 
ngcorresponsdence between the patterns 
he two precipitation records. When a 
ng correspondence is present it is pos- 
e to reconstruct reasonable estimates for 
missing data in the parallel watershed. 
: Muir Woods precipitation from 1 888 to 
8 was reconstructed based on the Kentfield 
fall data. 

Tie following hypotheses were tested us- 
climatological data from Muir Woods 
Kentfield weather reporting stations: 

HI: Muir Woods rainfall is directly corre- 
lated to Kentfield rainfall . 

Hla: There will be a strong positive cross- 
correlation function. 

Kentfield (1988-1991) and Muir Woods 
(1948-1991) annual precipitation (instru- 
mental) records were plotted for years and 
inches of precipitation (Fig. 1). The instru- 
mental precipitation records for Kentfield 
(1948-1991) and for Muir Woods (1948- 
1991) show a reasonably close correspon- 
dence, with Kentfield generally having the 
greater rainfall. 

The cross correlation function between 
the Kentfield and Muir Woods instrumental 
precipitation was calculated (Fig. 2) using 
ASTSAforWindows(Shumway 1992). The 
data show a strong positive cross correlation 
at lag of .9168, where 95 percent signifi- 
cance is .2955. The statistical correlation for 
Kentfield vs. Muir Woods precipitation was 
plotted in Excel for Windows (Fig. 3). As 
expected, the Kentfield instrumental pre- 
cipitation data (1948-1991) and the Muir 
Woods data (1948-1991) show a very close 
correlation, with an R2=0. 84. Considering 
they are watersheds on the same side of Mt 
Tamalapais, experiencing the same weather 
patterns, this high correlation is not surpris- 

jure 4. 

Regression Silastics 

Multiple R 


R Square 


Adjusted R Square 


Standard Error 




Analysis of Variance 


Sum of Squares 

Mean Square 


Significance F 















Standard Error 



Lower 95% 

Upper 95% 















gore 5. 



50.00 - 

A . 

40 00 - 


30.00 - 


20.00 - 


10.00 ■ 
0.00 - 


minimi ii 

The Kentfield vs. Muir Woods precipita- 
tion regression statistics were calculated in 
Excel for Windows (Fig. 4). As discussed 
above, the regression statistics for the instru- 
mental precipitation data of Kentfield and 
Muir Woods show a very high correlation 
These statistics were used in the graph shown 
as Figure 5. Data for the missing Muir 
the Kentfield instrumental data for those 
years. Muir Woods precipitation was recon- 
structed for the years 1888-1947. Bom the 
reconstructed and instrumental precipitation 
data using the data from the regression statis- 
tics above were plotted (Fig. 5). While these 
are only estimates, they are a best guess based 
on the high R2. 


It is clear that Muir Woods rainfall is 
directly correlated to Kentfield rainfall, sup- 
porting hypothesis HI. The time series 
analysis confirmed this with a strong positive 
cross-correlation function, supporting hy- 
pothesis Hla. The reconstructed precipita- 
tion data for Muir Woods from 1 888 to 1 947 
could be useful in future dendrochronologi- 
cal analyses. 

This technique may prove useful in other 
locations when weather station instrumental 
data is available from parallel watersheds. 
Like tree ring analysis itself climate data 
patterns can be linked by matching the pat- 
terns. Where instrumental data from the 
parallel watersheds show a strong correla- 
tion, extrapolation of missing data from one 
watershed to the other appears to be a reliable 

Myers is a PhD candidate in the Graduate 
Group in Ecology at U/CA-Davis. She is coop- 
erative education research scientist trainee in 
the Ecosystem Science and Technology Branch 
of the NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett 
Field CA. 


Cook, E.R. and L.A. Kairiukstis. 1990. Methods of 
Dendrochronokjy: Applications in the Environmental Sci- 
ences. Wuwer Academic Publishers, the Netherlands. 

Douglass, A.E. 1936. CSmatic Cycles and Tree Growth: A 
Study of Cycles. Carnegie Institute of Washington, 

Fritts, H.C. 1991. Reconstructing Large-scale dmatlc Pat- 
terns from Tree-Ring Data: A Diagnostic Analysis. U/AZ 
Press, Tucson. 

dock, W.S. 1937. Principles and Methods of Tree-Ring 
Analysis. Carnegie Institute of Washington, Wash.,DC. 

Granger, 0. 1991. Lecture notes: Global Climate Change. 
Dept of Georgraphy, U/CA. Berkeley. 

Myers, R.L 1990. "Redwood Creek Water Balance Hydro- 
togic Year 1985-86." Research paper, Forestry 122:Forest 
Influences. U/CA, Berkeley. 

Myers, FLL 1993. Time Series analysis of 1993 Fallen 
Redwood, Muir Woods National Monument' Research 
Paper, Statistics 138:Time Series Analysis. U/CA-Davis. 

tier 1994 


Gap Analysis: 
Another Look 


The winter 1994 issue of Park Science 
carried a thought-provoking article by Machlis 
et al., which extends the concept of gap 
analysis describedby Scott etaL (1991, 1993) 
to its social dimension 

Gap analysis has been advanced as a 
means of identifying "unprotected yet criti- 
cal areas of biodiversity." Through gap 
analysis, it is posited, we will be able to 
protect areas that are crucial to the conserva- 
tion of biodiversity. 

Such an approach is attractive, since it 
presents an objective means of identifying 
areas to be protected. However, it is based on 
two fundamental assumptions, which need 
to be critically examined. In discussing 
them, my intent is not to undermine the 
concept of gap analysis, but to encourage 
critical thought about it 

The first assumption of gap analysis is that 
a viable population of each rare species can 
be contained within the delineated reserve. 
This may be possible for resident species, but 
it is more problematic for species that require 
widely separate summer and winter range, 
not to mention highly migratory species such 
as many shorebirds and songbirds. For 
species to persist over the long run, provision 
must also be made for changing landscapes 
and recolonization following disturbance. 
Ecosystem Linkages 

This leads to the important point that gap 
analysis focuses not on ecosystems but on 
aggregations of individual species. An eco- 
system is far more than simply an aggrega- 
tion of species. The essence of an ecosystem 
is the flows and processes, and the interrela- 
tionships among the myriad species. It is 
critical to recognize that gap analysis is not 
a method that will necessarily conserve eco- 
systems. There is no guarantee that a reserve 
designed through gap analysis will conserve 
the vital linkages and interrelationships of 
the intact ecosystem. 

The second assumption in gap analysis is 
that species and, presumably, the ecosystems 
of which they are part, can be effectively 
protected in a reserve. One has only to look 
at the results of our efforts to conserve the 
integrity of park ecosystems to see that the 
validity of this assumption is debatable. Re- 
serves designed through gap analysis are a 
valuable part of the conservation agenda, 
serving valid roles as biological insurance 
policies and in their contribution to diversity 
of management However, reserves alone are 
not sufficient to conserve biodiversity if they 
are surrounded by a landscape that is hostile 
to life. 

In delineating reserves to conserve 
biodiversity, gap analysis accepts a paradigm 
of dualism, a paradigm that considers people 
as separate from die natural world, and 
human-use areas as separate from reserves. 
Human use of resources and land are seen as 
incompatible with nature and the conserva- 
tion of biodiversity. At its extreme, such a 
dualistic approach does not recognize any 
substantive link between the well-being of 
people and the well-being of the environ- 
ment In its more moderate version, it focus- 
es conservation efforts on delineating pre- 
serves that will be protected from human 
activities that will continue unabated beyond 
the preserve boundaries. 

Impact or Interaction? 

We have too easily accepted the premise 
that human activities are inherently destruc- 
tive. This is even reflected in our "Environ- 
mental Impact Statements." In striving to 
minimize the impact ofhuman activities, we 
imply there will inevitably be some level of 
impact Need this be so? 

As Scott et al. (1993) noted briefly, mere 
is an alternative paradigm, one that rejects 
the dualistic approach and instead views 
people as inextricably linked with the earth. 
According to this paradigm, wherever we go 
we are part of an ecosystem In the air we 
breathe, in the water we drink, in our inter- 
actions with plants, animals, insects, even 
soil microorganisms, we are linked with the 
ecosystem around us. We take responsibility 
for the direct and indirect effects of our 
activities, not just in a few reserves, but 
everywhere, in everything we do. 

This alternative to dualism might be con- 
sidered an "ecocsystem" approach. Its fo- 
cus is on interrelationships, flows, and pro- 
cesses. Considerhowourapproachwouldbe 
different if we consciously recognized our 
connectedness-the interrelationships be- 
tween ourselves and the ecosystem in which 
we live and work. 

In discussing the social dimensions of gap 
analysis, Machlis et al. (1994) cited "demo- 
graphic change" and "monetary wealth and 
capital" as two factors that contribute to 
impacts on biodiversity. However, these two 
factors do not inherently lead to impacts. 
Rather, the impacts stem from the level of 
resource consumption that we have consid- 
ered acceptable in our society and which 
varies with demography and wealth. Simi- 
larly, industrial activities and land use do not 
inherently lead to ecosytstem impacts. It is 
the way of living and doing business that 
needs to be redesigned. 

What Goes Around Comes Around 

Viewing people as connected with the 
ecosystem, we would look differently at the 
effects of our activities on the ecosystem We 
would not be so accepting of their destruc- 
tiveness. It is true that life and death are 

fundamental ecosystem processes. Bu 
what other species in an ecosystem de 
stroys not only life, but the very life-grvinj 
potential of the system? Humans do, througl 
release of toxic materials, extinction of spe 
cies, destruction of fertile soil, and man} 
other actions. Seeing ourselves as member 
of the community of life, we would be mon 
likely to recognize that when we harm thi 
ecosystem, we harm ourselves. We need ta 
become more responsible members of ou 

One way we can do this is to work with 
rather than against ecosystem processes-K 
strive to nurture die ecosystem around us, it 
diversity oflife, and its life-giving capability 
In business there is a growing field known a 
industrial ecology. Industrial ecology ex 
plores ways m which industrial processes cat 
be designed using ecosystems as a model 
Processes in ecosystems tend to occur a; 
loops and cycles rather than the linear pad 
from the source to the dump that character 
izes so many of our industrial processes. Ii 
an ecosystem, the by-products of one process 
are the raw materials for another, and then 
is no such thing as effluent 

How would our operations in nationa 
parks differ if we were to adopt an approacl 
such as this— if we use ecosystems as ou 
model worked with, rather than against 
ecosystem processes, and fostered a sense o: 
connection between people and the earth' 
Consider how we would design visitor cen 
ters, roads, and housing areas if we vie wee 
people and our infrastructure as a nurturing 
component of the ecosystem. Consider how 
we would design a facility if, for example, w< 
saw ourselves not as using water, but onl) 
borrowingit Consider how we would desigr 
the visitor experience if a common threat 
running through it was to foster our sense o: 
connection with die world around us. 
A Society in Transition? 

Adopting such a paradigm is not as unre- 
alistic as it may seem. Things change 
Society's values and behavior change. Oui 
old way of doing business and the way wc 
related to the environment simply is no 
working anymore, and the results are becom 
ing less and less acceptable. More and more 
people, and more and more communities, art 
recognizing that there is a different way 
There is a perception that society is entering 
a transition, with increased recognition of thci 
difference between needs and wants, anc 
greater willingness to forego immediate grati 
fication in the interest of long-term well 

The NPS has a choice: We can either 
follow along behind society in these changes; 
or we can move to the forefront as leaders ii 
environmental stewardship. Wecansuppor 
a dualistic paradigm that has not been re 
Continued on page 2. 



ii Larson Retires As 
WR Chief Scientist 

i Larson, who retired May 3, 1994 as 
ic Northwest Regional Chief Scientist, 
ing down the capably held reins of 
osibility for a life of reading, biking, 
mplating, and generally enjoying the 
things he has had to squeeze into the 
s of life up till now. 
-son began his Park Service career in 
as a ranger in Mount McKinley (now 
li)NP. He served as park naturalist at 
y Mountain and Haleakala NPs. In 
Larson joined the Office of Natural 
ce Studies under NPS Chief Scientist 
rt Linn in Washington, DC. Since then, 
i served as Regional Chief Scientist in 
tutheast, Midwest, Alaska, and Pacific 
west Regions. He began his PNR tour 
y in 1983. 

s the hope of this editor, who also is 
ig, that Jim will continue to read exten- 
' in the science and resource manage- 
field, and will share his readings with 
y ark Science editor Jeff Sellick, as he 
me so generously over so many years to 
merit of this editor and Information 
file readers. 

■son has been a mainstay of the Park 
:e editorial board, holding the post of 
nan continuously since the board was 
din 1983. He will be missed 
* * * 

Jope Appointed Acting 

thy Jope, PNR Chief of Natural Re- 
i Management, has been named Acting 
Scientist in an interim action and will 
on the job of developing a working 
srship with the National Biological Sur- 
i it staffs its new eco-regional office in 
e. Shirley Clark will continue as Assis- 
egional Chief Scientist 

Meetings of Interest 

Oct. 22-26 

Bellevue, WA Embassy Suites Hotel; a 2-day local workshop will pre- 
cede the national focus on the needs of wildlife, advice for conserva- 
tion, and measuring progress toward meeting the needs of both people 
and wildlife in metropolitan environments. Sponsored by the National 
Institute for Urban Wildlife; contact Dr. Lowell W. Adams, NIUW, 
10921 Trotting Ridge Way, Columbia, MD 21044; (301)596-3311. 
GEOLOGIC SOCIETY OF AMERICA Seattle, WA; for program, regis- 
tration, and lodging information, call (303)447-2020 or 1-80O472-1988. 
Burlington VT; Theme: "Take a Closer Look" — The public and pri- 
vate sectors will join experts to find effective ways to make watchable 
wildlife work to conserve biodiversity. Contact National Watchable 
Wildlife Conference, 607 Lincolnway West, Mishawaka, IN 46544. 
Springs, CO; contact Maggie Johnston, PO Box 185, Florissant, CO 
80816: (719)748-3252. 

ENCE — "The Spirit Lives: Reflections and Visions on the 30th Anni- 
versary of the Wilderness Act," at the Sweeney Convention Center, 
Santa Fe, NM; contact Peter Keller, Rm. 3230, NPS — Park Planning; 
1849 C St. NW, Washington, D.C. 20240. 

by The George Wright Society; Portland, OR. Theme: "Sustainable 
Society and Protected Areas — Challenges and Issues for the Perpetua- 
tion of Cultural and Natural Resources." Registration information will 
not be available till September 1994, but those interested in attending 
should notify at once The George Wright Society, PO Box 65, Hancock, 
MI 49930-0065 

Parsons Named Director of Wilderness Institute 

The Aldo Leopold Wilderness Institute (see Park Science 13:3, p 12) has a new director 
David J. Parsons, formerly NPS Research Scientist at Sequoia/Kings Canyon NPs. The 
Institute is located in the Research branch of the USFS but physically situated on the campus 
ofU/MT at Missoula. 

The new venture is designed to bridge the gap between science and management as applied 
to the broad concept of wilderness management. It will focus on ecological as well as visitor 
impact and social phenomena. "I hope," Parsons said, "to use the Institute as a forum to 
continue my efforts to improve the quality of science available to managers and pohcy makers 
in furthering the long-term understanding and protection of wilderness, parks, and other 
natural areas." 

The Institute is an interagency effort, with memoranda of understanding among the USFS, 

Oct. 24-27 

Oct 26-29 

Oct. 31-Nov. 4 

NOV. 14-18 

Apr. 17-21 

(Analysis continued from page 24 
ingly successful in the past and whose 
osis for long-term success is dim, or we 
mbrace our role as responsible and 
rtful members of our diverse ecosys- 

rreisno difference betweenyou and the 
Whenyou learn to read the Earth, you 
to read yourself. When you heal the 
, you heal yourself. 


Skagit Systems Cooperative 

lative American Tribal Organization) 


Jope is Chief, Natural Resources, NPS Pacific 
Northwest Region, Seattle, WA 98104 

Literature Cited 

Machlis, Gary E., Deborah J. Forester, and J.E McKendry. 
1994. Gap analysis and national parks: Adding the socio- 
economic dimension. Park Science 14(1):6-10. 

Scott. J.M., B. Csuti, K. Smith, J.E Estes, and S. Caicoo. 
1991. Gap analysis of species richness and vegetation 
cover An integrated conservation strategy, pp. 282-297 in 
KA Kohm, ed. Balancing on the brink of extinction. Island 
Press, Washington, D.C. 

Scott, J.M., F. Davis, B. Csuti, R. Noss, B. Butterfieid, C. 
Groves, H. Anderson, S. Caicoo, F. D.'Erchia, T.C. Edwards, 
Jr.. J. Ulliman, and R.G. Wright 1993. Gap Analysis: A 
geographic approach to protection of biological dversity. 
Wildlife Monograph 123. 41pp. 

Mihalic, Johnson and 

Loope Win 1993 

Natural Resources 


The Director's Natural Resource Awards 
for 1993 were presented at die March 22 
Regional Directors' Meeting to Dave 
Mihalic, Mammoth Cave NP Superinten- 
dent; Beth Johnson, Chief of Research and 
Resource Planning at Delaware Water Gap 
NRA (and a new member of the Park 
Science editorial board), and Lloyd Loope, 
Conservation Biologist at Haleakala NP, 
(now with the National Biological Survey). 


Book Review 

Fire Ecology of Pacific Northwest For- 
ests by James K. Agee. Island Press. 1993, 
Box7,Covelo,CA 95428. 

"As longas plant biomass had been present 
on the earth, "Jim Agee writes in his opening 
chapter, "lightning has ignited fires, and the 
myriad ecological effects have been repeated 
time and again." This comprehensive and 
well written book could not come at a better 

Among the lessons learned over the past 
few years about how to and how not to 
manage forest ecosystems, one of the more 
important has been the critical need to under- 
stand and account for fire when developing 
strategies for protecting species and restor- 
ing and maintaining ecosystem health. Like 
me fierce Hindu goddess, Kali, who carries a 
bloody dagger in one hand while blessing 
and protecting with another, fire both de- 
stroys and renews, and in this complex pro- 
cess plays a central role in maintaining eco- 
system health. 

The importance of fire in shaping forests 
of western North America is evidenced by the 
wide array of adaptations evolved by trees 
and other plants to either survive or quickly 
recover from fire: thick bark, the ability to 
sprout from roots, serotinous cones, seeds 
that he buried for hundreds of years to germi- 
nate only when sufficiently heated My 
colleagues and I have hypothesized that the 
ubiquity yet uncertainty of wildfire has cata- 
lyzed the evolution of cooperative relation- 
ships among plant species. In the west, we 
have learned to our chagrin that eliminating 
the frequent, gentle fires that historically 
burned through dry forests has led to unfore- 
seen and unwanted consequences; native 
insects and pathogens have become more 
aggressive and forests more susceptible to 
drought, and rather than eliminating fire the 
stage has been set for fires that are signifi- 
cantly more widespread and destructive than 
those that occurred in the past 

The book is divided into 13 chapters. The 
first six chapters deal with individual forest 
zones, including Sitka spruce, redwood and 
hemlock; Pacific silver fir and red fir forests; 
subalpine forests; mixed conifer and mixed 
evergreen associations; ponderosa and lodge- 
pole pines; and oak and juniper woodlands. 
For each forest type, Agee discusses fire 
regimes, stand development patterns follow- 
ing fire, and management implications. The 
final chapter addresses the future role of fire 
in ecosystem management, park and wilder- 
ness management, species conservation, and 
forest health, and briefly touches on how fire 
regimes might be altered by global climate 

The Ecology of Coexistence 

The Feb. 18, 1994 issue of Science 
contains a book review by James H. 
Brown at the U/NM biology depart- 
ment of Species Diversity in Ecologi- 
es Communities: Historical and Geo- 
graphical Perspectives, Robert E. 
Ricklefs and Dolph Schluter, editors; 
University of Chicago Press, 1994 
($32.50). The review, which appears 
on pp 995-6, applauds the work as 
evidence that "contemporary ecolo- 
gy is built upon a strong empirical and 
theoretical foundation.'* 

Brown's review opens with a refer- 
ence to G.E. Hutchinson's 1959 es- 
say, "Homage to Santa Rosalia, or 
why are there so many kinds of ani- 
mals?" and observes that "not only 
did Hutchinson focus attention on the 
ecological processes that enable spe- 
cies to coexist in the same environ- 
ment, he was remarkably prescient: 
most of the processes he hypothesized 
to be important in regulating diver- 
sity are still the subjects of major 
research programs today." 

And now, 35 years after 
Hutchinson's 1 4-page essay, ' Sve have 
a wonderful 414-page volume sum- 
marizing the extent to which modern 
ecology has succeeded in explaining 
biological diversity." Editors Ricklefs 
and Schluter have put together 30 
chapters by 50 authors from 10 coun- 
tries and provided "an exceptionally 
broad and deep representation of the 
current state of the science. There is 
such a wealth of ideas and informa- 
tion that in my department we plan to 
spend the entire coming semester of 
our journal dub on the volume." 

The word that comes most often to mind as 
I think about this book is "scholarry"- 
however, I hasten to add that does not trans- 
late into boring or unreadable. Quite the 
contrary, the book is readable and packed 
with good information. It is thoroughly 
researched and documented (close to 1,000 
references), and includes numerous graphs 
and photos (including some interesting his- 
torical shots showing changes in stand struc- 
ture following fire exclusion). 

Though the book deals with the Pacific 
Northwest, Agee does not hesitate to pull 
relevant information from other regions, 
thereby avoiding a feel of provincialism 
There are a few issues I would like to have 

Two important things tnebookdoes, 
says Brown. "First, it shows how 
much we have learned about the orga- 
nization and diversity of ecological 
communities in the last 35 years ... 
(and second) it makes dear that mod- 
ern ecology stffl has no general, satisfy- 
ing answer to Hutchinson's question." 
No consensus yet exists for explaining 
the most pervasive patterns of biolog- 
ical diversity, but the book illustrates 
this well by two chapters (Rosenzweig 
and Abramsky; Wright et al) that 
discuss the relationship between di- 
versity and productivity and reach 
quite different conclusions. 

In recognition that traditional eco- 
logical studies of local patterns and 
processes are inadequate to under- 
standing diversity, the editors include 
chapters by biogeographers, 
paleobiologjsts, and systematists, giv- 
ing the book "an exceptional breadth 
of data, theory, and viewpoint." 

Brown's enthusiasm comes through 
strongly in his concluding paragraph: 
"Many scientists in other disciplines 
still think of ecology as old-fashioned 
natural history or as comparable in 
rigor to a social science. Someecolo- 
gists, both young and old, are hyper- 
critical and discouraged, rather than 
optimistic and excited, about the sta- 
tus and prospects of their discipline. 1 
wish that all these skeptics would read 
this book. It is a testament to how far 
ecology has come in the last 35 years 
and to the great challenges that still Ik 

seen receive more space (e.g. the important 
of sprouting plants in stabilizing soils, tl 
protective role of some hardwood species : 
conifer forests). However, that should 1 
considered minor criticism; I know of i 
other work on the ecology of fire, from at 
region, that comes close to being as compr 
hensive and far-ranging in the topics it co 

I recommend it highly for profession 
land managers, academics, environments 
ists, and anyone with interest in forest ecos> 

David A. Pen 

Perry is a professor of forest science at Oi 
gan State University, Corvallis. 



Regional Highlights 

ific Northwest 

ie Rivers, Trails and Conservation As- 
ace (RTC A) program in the Region is 
ting the Department of Agriculture to 
lop USFWS/NPS cooperative partner- 
projects with outside groups in four pilot 
.-Seattle, Atlanta, Chicago, and New 
l RTCA held its first workshop on 
uary 17-discussion among 50 Seattle 
;ounty (King, Pierce, and Snohomish) 
ials, and conservation leaders from all 
the region. Since then, RTCA has 
:ed with organizing groups to develop 
dentify partnership goals and potential 
ct areas; todefine the organizing frame- 
; of the Partnership; to select a full-time 
lership coordinator, and to set a sched- 
f implementation for the rest of the fiscal 

[rector Kennedy has made a formal com- 
lent of NPS staff through RTCA to the 
lopment of this concept, and the RTCA 
will continue to participate in its devel- 
;nt and implementation. 
* * * 

rCA and the Soil Conservation Service 
'0 rki ng with the Kalispel Reservation in 
leastern Washington for the use and 
ction of the Reservation. TheKalispels 
small tribe interested in habitat restora- 
and resource management, and in the 
lopment of recreation/interpretive op- 
inities that could generate revenue. The 
vation, which possesses significant wild- 
labitat and a rich abundance of water 
, mammals, and rare riparian forests, is 
ed in a scenic but poor part of the state 
las untapped resources for tourism. The 
will provide proposals for resource con- 
ition and restoration, interpretation, rec- 
on, and appropriate economic enter- 

rCA is helping the Trust for Public 
is and the Evergreen Alliance write and 
uce the "Conservation Toolbox," a 
ual for communities to use in developing 
;gies for acquiring and/or protecting 
i space and other significant local, natu- 
nltural, or recreational resources. They 
uvestigating development of electronic 
ucts to accompany the manual, which 
be available for distribution by Septem- 

iith Anderson attended the annual long 
nee trail managers meeting in Tallahas- 
FL in February. Strategic planning for 
distance trail management had been 
ited at the last annual meeting in Tuc- 

ier 1994 

son, AZ, and the improved focus has become 
particularly important in light of various 
reorganization plans. Other initiatives dis- 
cussed included multi-objective resource 
management, GIS, cultural landscape iden- 
tification, and urban initiatives. 

The Pacific Northwest Region's proposal 
to conduct a cultural landscape inventor}' and 
study along the Oregon National Historic 
Trail may become a demonstration project 
for other Regions. 

* * * 

Bill Walters and Kathy Jope are working 
with the Regional Interagency Executive 
Committee toward implementation of the 
President's Forest Plan. Supporting the 
Executive Committee are 18 working groups 
addressing such topics as watershed analy- 
sis, watershed restoration, endangered spe- 
cies consultation, coordination with other 
intergovernmental efforts, adaptive manage- 
ment, strategic research planning and coor- 
dination, monitoring, and public informa- 

NPS personnel from Crater Lake, Mount 
Rainier, Norm Cascades, Olympic, Redwood, 
and the PNR Office, are participating on 14 
of the working groups. The Committee has 
approved delineation of 12 multi-watershed 
"provinces' ' in the area extending from the 
Canadian border to Muir Woods in Califor- 

* * * 

Marsha Davis, geologist in the Regional 
Office, met in Menlo Park, CA with re- 
searchers from the USGS, Washington DNR. 
and Oregon State University to discuss the 
Cascadia 2000 research program, the results 
of which will have significant implications 
for all the parks in western Oregon and 

Beginning in 1994, the USGS, through its 
Deep Continental Studies Program, will con- 
duct geophysical experiments in southwest- 
ern Washington to study the geometry of 
plate boundaries, their interactions, and the 
deformation and mobility in the continental 
rocks. Tectonic research can yield informa- 
tion about deeper parts of the earth that 
cannot be gained by surface geologic map- 

Purpose of the Menlo Park meeting was to 
discuss possible locations for an east-west 
seismic survey line from offshore to the 
eastern margin of the Cascade Range. Part 
of the research involves seismic refraction 
and wide-angle reflection surveys. Thepro- 
posed seismic survey will fall between Mount 
Rainier and Mount St Helens. Exact loca- 
tion will be based upon proximity to geologi- 
cal anomalies that would interfere with the 

data, accessibility by road, and permitting 
approval by WA/DNR. 

* * * 

In recognition of his contributions to the 
university community, Dr. H. Gregory 
McDonald, NPS paleontologist at Hagerman 
Fossil Beds National Monument, has been 
appointed an affiliate faculty member in the 
ID/State University department of geology. 
Dr. McDonald is developing the monument's 
research programs and fossil resource inven- 
tory criteria. 

* * * 

PNR Chief of Natural Resources (and 
Acting Chief Scientist) Kathy Jope has ac- 
cepted an invitation to serve on the Advisory 
Board for the Division ofEcosystem Science 
and Conservation in the U/WA College of 
Forestry. The advisoryboardwill help devise 
the curriculum for the "Wildlife" and the 
"ConservationofWildland Resources" ma- 
jors, as well as address other needs such as 
continuing education and potential opportu- 
nities for students to work onnatural resource 
surveys and other park projects. 

* * * 

Michael Tollefson, Associate Regional 
Director, represented the PNR at the dedica- 
tion of the Sterling Munro Trail at North 
Cascades NPS Complex on May 28, as part 
of the celebration of National Parks Week. 
Supt William F. Paleck, speaking at the 
Henry M Jackson Visitor Center, reminded 
guests of the tremendous contributions to 
natural resource protection by Senator Jack- 
son and his administrative assistant, Munro. 
The results of their work, Tollefson told the 
assemblage, "benefited the NPS and all 
Americans." Among those significant ac- 
complishments are the Wilderness Act, the 
Redwoods NP Act, the North Cascades NP 
Act, and the National Environmental Policy 

Tollefson cited the Service's primary re- 
sponsibilit>--protection of park resources, 
and credited Jackson and Munro for break- 
ing important ground in this direction "Ec- 
osystem management must be our proactive 
style," he said "We must be committed to 
increasing our understanding of how entire 
ecosystems interrelate and how other agen- 
cies and organizations manage their lands so 
we can better protect park resources." 

Western Region 

David M Graber, Research Scientist at 
Sequoia and Kings Canyon NPs, (now with 
the National Biological Survey at the Se- 
quoia/Kings Canyon NPs Field Station), is 
the author of a chapter in Nature and Real- 
ity: Critiques of Postmodernism 


Regional Highlights 

Deconstruction, edited by Michael E. Soule 
and Gary Lease and published eariy this year 
by Island Press, Washington, DC. 

Graber's chapter is entitled "Resolute 
Biocentrism: Managing for Wildness in Na- 
tional Parks." In seven packed pages, he 

examines the concept of ' 'wildness, ' ' the 
attempts to perpetuate of native ecosystem 
elements and processes, the largely unac- 
knowledged landscape alterations that oc- 
curred as a result of former aborigine activi- 
ties, the on-going alterations that are taking 
place in the no-man's land of it's-not-mv- 
job, man, and the biodiversity problems 
thereunto pertaining. 

In a provocative wind-up, Grater asks 
"What are parks for?' ' He doesn't so much 
answer as suggest answers, but he does sug- 
gest that "Whatever the 'rightness' or 
'wrongness' of the civilization we continue 
to invent, wild nature and national parks 
represent—however imperfectly and howev- 
er dependent upon our continued care-eco- 
logical anchors to our own and the planet's 

Alaska Region 

The National Park Stewardship Associa- 
tion (NPS A) was organized recently to rep- 
resent the concernsofNPS resource manage- 
ment professionals. Membership is open to 
persons interested in the application of scien- 
tific principles in the monitoring and man- 
agement of national park natural resources. 

The group provides a forum (meetings and 
newsletter— first edition has teen printed) for 
the discussion and information exchange of 
NPS policies and practices related to the 
science of resource management. The news- 
letter includes a viewpoint section that offers 
pros and cons of controversial issues. Over- 
all, the aim is to support leadership and 
fellowship among members. 

New of the organization comes from Gary 
Vequist, who gives the following address for 
copies of the newsletter and membership 
information: NPSA; 1902 N. Salem Dr.; 
Anchorage, AK 99508. 

Southeast Region 

The regional office has begun a water 
resources monitoring program to provide 
small parks with a cost-efiFective, self-sus- 
taining mechanism to acquire and interpret 
sound aquatic resources data The program, 
designed and directed by the SER Water 
Resources Coordinator, aids in developing 
baseline aquatic biological and water quality 
information. It also addresses threats to 
water resources. 


The monitoring program at Kennesaw 
Mountain National Battlefield Park in Geor- 
gia is the prototype. King's Mountain Na- 
tional Military Park in South Carolina and 
Shiloh National Military Park in Tennessee 
have instituted similar programs. More 
parks will follow as funding becomes avail- 
able. A detailed account ofthis program will 
be submitted this year to the Highlights of 
Natural Resource Management publication. 
For information, contact Brendhan Zubricki 
at 404/33 M916. 

* * * 

A regional resource management work- 
shop was held in April in Chattanooga, TN 
and attended by representatives of 22 parks. 
Two days of the workshop focused on exotic 
vegetation management Highlights includ- 
ed presentations by NBS Research Center 
Directors Milton Friend and Robert E. 
Stewart, and Asst Center Director Nick 
Fufmicelli, and presentations by U.S. Con- 
gress Office of Technology Assessment 
Project Director Phyllis Windleandby Randy 
Westbrooksof APHIS. Updates were provid- 
ed by WASO Wildlife and Vegetation staff 
and a field exercise was conducted at 
Chickamauga Battlefield, where Bob War- 
ren of U/GA provided interim results of his 
deer research. 

Christine Johnson and Lillian McElrath 
conducted an overview of the region's exotic 
vegetation Rob Sutter of The Nature Con- 
servancy covered I&M techniques, and Dav- 
id Jones, Doug DeVries, and Tony Pernas 
discussed exotic pest plant councils and a 
case study. Also covered were various JPM 
topics, including fire ants, Africanized bees, 
and hantavirus. A computer lab was devoted 
to the new WASO resource management 
plan software and GIS applications. 

* * * 

Trish Patterson, Program Analyst for the 
region's Natural Resource Management and 
Science Office, has been selected for the 
Women's Executive Leadership Program. 
This program, for non-supervisory employ- 
ees at GS levels 11 and 12, is designed to 
prepare participants for future leadership 


* * * 

Recently published reports include: 

Hammitt, W.E., M.E. Patterson, RM 
Chubb, F.M Noe, and N. Guse. 1994. 
Starting a Geographic Information System 
(GIS) Database for Blue Ridge Parkway. 

Publications of interest: 

Davis, S.M, and J.C. Ogden (eds). 1994. 
' 'Everglades: The Ecosystem and Its Resto- 
ration." St Lucie Press, Delray Beach, FL. 

Mid-Atlantic Region 

Under the coordination ofElaine Furbish 
Assateague Island National Seashore (NS 
successfully conducted two prescribed burn 
in March 1994, over a total of 200 acres. Th 
bum plan and fire management plan wen 
prepared by Dr. Bill Patterson, U/MA. Ttt 
purpose was to evaluate the use of fire ti 
maintain native dune grass communities 
The protective nature of the dunes has al 
lowed the development of an unnatural shrut 
community, which is a desirable habitat fa 
the exotic sika deer. 

* * * 

Colonial National Historical Park is com 
pletingwork ona Water Resources Manage 
ment Plan and associated GIS map portfolio 
Work is continuing on a groundwater stud] 
of adjacent urban impacts. Three-fourths a 
the sampling has been conducted by the 
Virginia Institute of Marine Sciences, also i 
cooperator on the Plan. Locations of all thf 
sampling wells are being entered into thf 
park's GIS. The park also is cooperating 
with the Virginia Department of Nature 
Heritage in the preparation of a detailec 
monitoring and management plan for RTE 
species; and the Virginia State Geologist h 
working on a 1:24,000 geological map that 
will include the park and be GIS-based 

* * * 

Results from a 1991 timeof travel study oi 
the Delaware River have been published 
"Determination of traveltime in the Dela 
ware River, Hancock, New York, to th< 
Delaware Water Gap by use of a conservativi 
dye tracer." 1994 USGS Water-Resource- 
Investigations Report 93-4203. 

* * * 

An organizational meeting of cooperativt 
researchers involved in the Hemlock Woolh 
Adelgid project was held March 8 at Dela 
ware Water Gap NRA Preliminary result! 
from the 1 993 season were presented for the 
hemlock monitoring program, the small 
mamma l and amphibian survey, and the fist 
population study. Plans for the understorj 
vegetation study were presented and strate- 
gies developed to prevent conflict and over- 
lap of simultaneous studies. 

* * * 

Delaware Water Gap NRA staff attended 
a Neotropical Migratory Bird Workshop 
sponsored by New Jersey. The objective at 
the conference was to inform people of na- 
tional, regional and state efforts to protect 
Neotropical birds and their habitat; and tc 
develop a state (N J) plan to guide protection 
monitoring, research, management and in- 
formation and education programs. 


Conservation Biologists Conduct 
Off Alien Species in Hawaiian 

ttnMym tnd ChiWim SchorwwaktCox 

: are currently conducting a multi-scale 
of the spread of alien species into the 
i rainforests of windward East Maul 
study involves the National Park Ser- 
(NPS), National Biological Survey 
), NASA, the Nature Conservancy, and 
Hawaiian agencies. Ourprimaryanary- 
)1 will be ARQNFO geographic infor- 
n system (GIS) software. 
: are trying to coordinate our efforts 
ither local, state, andfederalagencies to 
nize duplicate efforts and maximize 
the results. Because our work involves 
ing standards for aerial photography 
don classification, inventory and moni- 
'„ GIS data analysis, and meta-data 
on, we want to be sure that others 
red in similar work are aware of our 
ng study. If you have information on 
orving standards, protocols, and tech- 
s we describe, or if you would like more 
nation on our research, please contact 

netscape Transformation Factor 

i conservation ofbiologi cal diversity is 
KRtant topic in both resource manage- 
ind research. Recently ecologists have 
i to recognize issues in biological con- 
ion as high priority research topics, 
ling habitat diversity, the conservation 
e and declining species, natural and 
>pogenic changes in patterns of spe- 
ind the effect of global and regional 
e on biological diversity. The loss of 
s, cormnunities, or entire ecosystems 
:ntly is the result of human landscape 

i spread of alien species into native 
; is a concern in most island and conti- 
1 systems. However, most attempts to 
and map the spread of alien species 
teen conducted at the two extremes of 
scale: (1) local transect analysis, which 
jnsive and geographically limited; and 
ellite imagery analysis, which is diffi- 
) interpret and frequently too coarse- 
id to compensate for geographically 
ted transects. This study, for the first 
provides an integrative approach for 
lying, detecting, and predicting changes 
i to alien species spread into native 
; at both scales, integrated and con- 
1 by a meso-scale analysis. 
iservation generally takes place at the 
ape or regional level, while ecological 
ch occurs at the species or community 

leveL Our challenge is to integrate the two, 
while focusing on a middle ground Integra- 
tive multi-disciplinary research is the key to 
finding practical and biologically defensible 
solutions to conservation problems. This 
study provides an integrative approach for 
identifying, detecting, and predicting changes 
related to alien species spread into native 
montane forests— for the first time at both the 
micro and macro scales, and integrated and 
connected by a meso-scale analysis. 
A Crisis Management Tool 

Our primary motivation in this effort is 
drawn from the crises related to ecosystem 
changes caused by the introduction of alien 
species. Our long-term goal is to determine 
the patterns of alien species spread in such a 
way that our methods of interpretation can be 
used throughout Oceania and the Pacific 
Rim. These islands (Polynesia, Micronesia, 
Melanesia) are experiencing alien species 
invasions with concomitant losses of native 
fauna and flora. 

This multi-scale interdisciplinary study is 
designed with three primary components 
(Fig. 1). The Macro-scale Component is a 
coarse-grained landscape analysis of geo- 
graphic features for the entire watershed; the 
Meso-scale Component is a medium-grained 
landscape analysis examining current and 
historic aerial photographs over time in iden- 
tified focus areas; and the Micro-scale Com- 
ponent is a fine-grained field verification of 
landscape features conducted in permanent 
plots and transects to identify corresponding 
native and alien species assemblages and 
indicators of disturbance. Previous research 
lias suggested that the presence and extent of 
alien species are related to disturbance, 
whether the result of human land use or 
natural events. 

Our first goal will be to identify the key 
factors in this relationship. A gap analysis 
(Scott etal. 1 993) ofthemacro-scaledata will 
be analyzed in the ARCENFO Geographic 
Information System, comparing agency land 
use policies with changes in the percent of 
alien vegetation cover to identify gaps in 
protection of native forest 

Our second goal is to identify what land- 
scape features and species assemblage infor- 
mation can be detected at each scale. Using 
a multi-scale approach, we will analyze the 
abilities and limitations of the three compo- 
nent scales of observation to detect landscape 
features and patterns. 

Our third and final goal is to determine if 
the presence of alien species assemblages can 

H. Ronald Pulliam 
Named To Direct NBS 

R Ronald Pulliam, whose research speci- 
alities are conservation ecology, ecosystem 
management and avian population dynam- 
ics, will take over the reins of the newly 
emerging National Biological Survey-crea- 
ture of Secretary Babbitt's effort to sharpen 
and focus scientific research across the board 
at the Department of the Interior. The NBS 
mission is to gather, analyze, and dissemi- 
nate biological information helpful for good 
stewardship of natural resources. 

A native of Miami Beach, FL, Pulliam 
received his formal training at U/GA (B.S., 
1968), Duke University (PhD., 1970), and 
postdoctoral studies at the University of Chi- 
cago (1070-71). 

Most recently, he was director and profes- 
sor at the U/GA Institute of Ecology (1987- 
1994). Under his leadership, the Institute 
expanded from its research mission to a 
school at the University, offering a full grad- 
uate and undergraduate curriculum. His 
recent research focus has been on predicting 
the impact of land use changes on animal 
population trends. 

Pulliam was highly recommended for the 
appointment to the NBS post by the National 
Academy of Sciences, which at the request of 
Secretary Babbitt conducted a nationwide 
search for qualified candidates. The Acad- 
emy recently recommended the nomination 
of the current director for the U.S. Geological 
Survey, Dr. Gordon Eaton 

Babbitt noted that "We want Americans 
everywhere to understand and learn more 
about the health of our nation's resources. 
The NBS isatool that will make science more 
accessible to the public. " 

Eugene Hester, who guided the NBS 
through information period, will continue at 
NBS as deputy director. 

be detected by specific dominant canopy 
classes and landscape features using aerial 
photography and/or remote sensing. 

Myers is a PhD candidate in the Graduate 
Group in Ecology at U/CA Davis, and a cooper- 
ative education research scientist trainee in the 
Ecosystem Science and Technology Branch of 
the NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, 
CA. Her dissertation research in East Maui is 
being conducted with interagency cooperation 
attheNBS/CSUatDavis. Schonewald-Coxisa 
research scientist with the NBS/CSU and adjunct 
professor at U/CA Davis. 


Scott, J.M., B. Caufi, R. Nobs, at al. 1991 Gap Analysis - A 

Geographic Approach to Protection of Biotogical Diversiy. 
Wklife Monographs, N123:M1. 



Information Crossfile 

A productive and easy method to discover 
what animal species are present in a particu- 
lar parcel of managed land is the conduct of 
regular road kill surveys. This method is 
described in Resource Management Notes, 
Vol. 6 No. 2 p. 4, the Newsletter published by 
theFLDNRin Tallahassee. As a result of this 
practice, six "new' ' species have been added 
to the Guana River Stte Park ' s vertebrate list 

Systematic collection of these data can be 
made during routine patrols of park staff in 
performance of their regular duties. An 
impressive vertebrate list can be accumulat- 
ed in this way in a cost effective manner. Bert 
Charest, the state park's biologist, points out 
that rare and highly secretive species can 
often be added to park lists via road kill 

* * * 

On April 21, 1994, Director Kennedy's 
Bulletin Board contained a memorandum to 
all NPS employees regarding strategic plan- 
ning for the Service. Sections on "Creating 
Our Future," "Our Changing Circum- 
stances, ' ' and "Our Symbiotic Roles,' ' were 
followed by ' 'TheTenMost Important Things 
WeCanDo." Separate sections on these 10 
were headed: (1) Lead through exemplary 
park resource management; (2) Achieve 
sustai nability in park operations and devel- 
opment; (3) Ensure that the NP System 
reflects our shared national heritage and use 
the System to help people forge emotional, 
intellectual, and recreational ties with that 
heritage; (4) Develop and support heritage 
education; (5) Move toward ecosystem man- 
agement; (6) Reorient assistance programs 
to focus on conservation of entire landscapes 
and critical open space; (7) Develop NPS 
leadership; (8) Invest in employees; (9) Cre- 
ate management structure and systems that 
place organizational resources as close as 
possible to the sources of value and enhance 
accountability for results; and (10) Pursue 
maximum public benefit through partner- 
ships and other forms of entrepreneurial 

* * * 

Craig Shafer, author of Nature Reserves: 
Island Theory and Conservation Practice, 

has written an invited chapter entitled ' 'Be- 
yond Park Boundaries" for a forthcoming 
book, Landscape Planning and Ecological 
Networks, tobe published in 1 994by Elsevier. 

Focus of the book is on reversing the negative 
effects of habitat fragmentatioa 

* * * 

R Gerald Wright NPS Research Biolo- 
gist is one of three authors of an article, ' ' An 
Ecological Evaluation ofProposed New Con- 
servation Areas in Idaho: Evaluating Pro- 


posed Idaho National Parks," appearing in 
Conservation Biology,Vol.%,No. I,pp207- 
216. The article deals with four areas that 
have been proposedby various interest groups 
as national parks. The four average 220,000 
ha and contain important biological, scenic, 
recreational, and geological resources, but 
the biological resources that would be pro- 
tected have received little consideration. 
Using the USFWS Gap analysis project da- 
tabases, the authors evaluated the vegetation 
types contained in each proposal and found 
the proposals wanting in this regard 

"However," their abstract states, "the 
protection provided by each proposal could 
be enhanced . . . with the addition of relatively 
few hectares... Although national parks 
throughout the world play an important role 
in the conservation of biodiversity, this at- 
tribute is often accidental and as our analysis 
showed, more attention needs to be devoted 
to biological data in the selection and design 
of new parks." 

* * * 

An ecological thriller in the making is the 
orce-abancfoned and new about-to-be-revived 
effort to combat Solenopsis invicta, the Ar- 
gentine fire ant accidentally introduced into 
the U.S. in the early '40s, and seriously 
threatening insect biodiversity in its seem- 
ingly inexorable spread 

The unfinished story isouthned by Charles 
C. Mann in the March 18, 1994 issue of 
Science (pp 1560-61). The ants, which 
began as territorial "monogynes," have de- 
veloped a "porygyne" form that creates 
interconnected "super-colonies' ' with scores 
of egg-laying queens. Today they dominate 
in Texas and may be ready to spread through- 
out the South... their pofygyne form repre- 
sents ' 'a kind of sheet of fire ants through the 
earth," according to David F. Williams of 
the Medical and Veterinary Entomology Re- 
search Lab at the USDA Agricultural Re- 
search Service in Gainesville, FL. In one 
research area studied, the number of other 
ant species fell by 70 percent after the fire ant 
invasion; the number of arthropod 
species — insects, spiders, ticks, etc., dropped 
by 40 percent 

A late 1950sattempttoeliminatethe pests, 
using World War II bombers and the poison 
mi rex, only helped spread the fire ants rather 
than controlling them, and the effort was 
abandoned after 1960. However, recent 
reports that they are actually damaging the 
environment has given rise to plans for a 
"rejuvenated" program. . .one that will not 
resemble the mirex orgies of the past but 
instead will be "a three-legged stool: " occa- 

sional use of mirex, educational efforts, and 
biological control. 

Three organisms are being studied — for 
efficacy and for their effects on non-targeted 
species. The three most likely candidates foi 
"hero" in this epic are a protozoan parasite, 
Thelohaniasolenopsae, known in Argentina 
to kill as many as 2/3 of the S. invicta in a 
colony; a phorid fly in the genus Pseudateon, 
that preys exclusively on fire ants; and 
Solenopsis daugerri, a parasitic ant Because 
of its ability to mimic the queen's phero- 
mones, the parasitic ant hornswoggles worker 
ants into feeding it rather than the queen they 
are supposed to be guarding — thus allowing 
the parasites to "yoke" the queen, who 
starves to death in full view of the workers 
who serve her. 

Williams says controlling fire ants my be 
necessary to avert a small-scale catastrophe 
for insect biodiversity in the South. 

* * * 

TheDesert'sPast: ANaturalPrehistoryal 
the Great Basin, by Donald K. Grayson 
(Smithsonian Institution Press, Washing- 
ton, DC, 1993, 356 pp, $44.95) is reviewed 
in the March 18, 1994 issue of Science b) 
David P. Adam of the USGS, Menlo Park 
CA. He notes that the book provides a useful 
overviewofthe insights gained through analy- 
sis of packrat middens and accelerator-mass- 
spectrometer radiocarbon dating over the 
past two decades. The remarkably late ap- 
pearance of single-leaf pinon pine during the 
Holocene, for example, now is understood fai 
better than it was only a few decades ago. 
This book brings together the results of a 
wide variety of investigations in archeology, 
geology, paleohydrology, climatology, me- 
teorology, biogeography, dendrochronology, 
and history ' 'to create an engrossing descrip- 
tion of the region's changing environment 
during the past 25,000 years." 

* * * 

Desperate measures to control the rabbit! 
and foxes introduced to the island of Austra- 
lia in the mid-1800s are being considered by 
the Cooperative Research Centre for Bio- 
logical Control of Verebrate Pest Popula- 
tions (a government and university consor- 
tium), and a chorus of rising concern ii 
greeting the proposal. 

Described by Virginia Morell in the Au- 
gust 1993 issue of Science (pp 683-4), the 
plan is to release genetically redesigned vi- 
ruses that wiU sterilize most foxes and rabbits 
by tricking the females' immune system: 
into attacking male sperm 

Mark Bradley, a reproductive immunolo- 
gist and project leader of the fox program, 
admits that "No country has ever tried tc 

Information Crossfile 

ge a pest species on this scale or in this 
tefore. It raises questions across disci- 
>, from virology to immunology to the 
ails' social behavior and ecology. ' ' Yet 
ild, if successful and safe, provide a 
1 for wiping out pests in other fragile, 
ened habitats such as Hawaii and New 

ring the 1 10 years of failed control 
pts, foxes and rabbits have been impli - 
in the extinction 20 species of local 

* * * 

n, do not walk, to find the April 1994 
of BioSdence (VoL 44, No. 4). No 
are cited, because the entire issue is 
acked with articles of interest to NPS 
ists and resource managers. FiveSpe- 
>ecrion articles deal with Hurricane 
;w and its impact on the Everglades: 
ricane Andrew" by Stuart L. Pimm, 
E. Davis, et al, assesses damage and 
lers long-term consequences to well- 
d ecosystems; "Hurricane Andrew's 
s on Marine Resources" by James T. 
in t, Richard W. Curry, Ronald Jones, et 
scribes the small underwater impact 
Dntrasts sharply with the destruction in 
rove and upland-forest communities; 
ricane Impact on Uplands and Fresh- 
Swamp Forest" by Lloyd Loope, 
iel Duever, Alan Hemdon, et al, treats 
trees and epiphytes, which sustained 
eatest hurricane damage; "Hurricane 
iw'slmpact on Freshwater Resources ' ' 
arles T. Roman, Nicholas G. Aumen, 
. Trexler, et al, finds that water quality- 
nportant to defining the Everglades' 
e ecological composition— appears to 
>een little affected; ' 'Mangroves, Hur- 
s, and Lightning Strikes" by Thomas 
ith m, Michael B. Robblee, Harold R 
;ss, and Thomas W. Doyle, is an assess- 
of Hurrican Andrew that suggests an 
ction across two differing scales of 

he same issue, Jeffrey P. CohnVSala- 
ers slip-sliding away or too surrepti- 
o count?' ' is an overview of the scien- 
ebate regarding salamander numbers, 
tes that Interior Secretary Babbitt an- 
ed last November that the USFWS and 
lational Paper had agreed to conserve 
acres of company-owned timberland 
Alabama for the Red Hills 
ander. . . listed as threatened in 1976. 
o in this excellent issue is a piece by 
ond E. Grizzle titled "Thinking of 
jy: Environmentalism should include 
n ecological needs." Grizzle's "refer- 
amounts to a literature review of the 

Dinosaur Blood: Warm or Cold? 

The paleontological debate over 
ectothermy vs. endothermy among the 
dinosaurs continues to rage within the 
scientific arena, hotter than the hottest 
blood proposed by the most ardent endo- 
thermy advocates. For an entertaining 
recap of the battle thus far, see Richard 
Monastersky's piece in Science News, 
May 14, 1994,pp.312-313. 

Monastersky outlines the history of the 
debate, quotes the scientists whose names 
recall the various twists and turns in the 
evidentiary arguments, and brings us up 
to date with the recent work by Anusuya 
Chinsamy of U/P A, who compared the 
bones of young and old animals from a 
single species. Her reconstruction ofhow 
dinosaurs grew has yielded ' 'a confusing 
array of results," arising from analyses of 
the cross sections of femurs from the 
dinosaur type called Syntarsus. She found 
growth rings, usually indicating tempo- 
rary stops in bone-building and seeming 
to link the animal with ectotherms (cold- 
blooded animals that tend to become dor- 
mant in difficult seasons such as winter- 

But Chinsamy also found evidence that 
this small predatory dinosaur stopped 
growing when it reached adult- 
hood — typical of endotherms and not of 
ectotherms. In addition, the Syntarsus 
bone showed rapid growth, another char- 
acteristic of endotherms. 

subject, citing 37 sources including former 
NPS scientist S.P. Bratton. Grizzle posits 
that lack of explicit inclusion ofhuman needs 
in the formulation of environmental protec- 
tion programs has created problems that are 
insurmountable at the level of what he terms 
"the basic world view." Striking a now 
familiar note of "transcendence" above the 
current level of struggle, he concludes: "En- 
vironmentalism must be expanded to explic- 
itly address human needs." 
* * * 

A dismal record of success in attempts to 
reintroduce endangered plants (in "mitiga- 
tion' ' efforts) as an easy option in the political 
and legal frameworks of conservation is 
exposed in an article by William H Allen in 
the February 1994 issue of BioScience (pp 
65-68). Translocation, often in order to 
allow a development years in the planning 
' 'to reconcile the long-term realities of ecol- 
ogy with the short-term imperatives of the 

Into this muddy picture has leapt John 
Ruben, Oregon State University professor 
of zoology. Ruben contends that the focus 
hasbeen all wrong — that paleontologists, 
instead of examining slices of femur, 
should have been looking up a dinosaur's 
nose. Endotheimicammalshavea special 
set of nasal bones directly related to their 
metabolism, called maxilloturbinals- 
bones that form thin, folded sheets inside 
the nasal passages ofbirds and mammals 
and prevent warm-blooded, fast-moving 
animals from losing too much moisture. 

The maxilloturbinals work as a humid- 
ifier-dehumidifier system. Willem J. 
Hillenius, a former student of Ruben's, 
has traced the evolution of endothermy in 
mammals by searching for maxillo- 
turbinals or the internal ridges to which 
they attached. His findings support the 
idea that endothermy evolved because it 
enhanced an animal's ability to maintain 
strenuous activity, and he suggests that 
this is the most promising avenue to 
pursue in determining whether dinosaurs 
had a fast metabolism. 

Ruben points out that some modern 
ectotherms can grow and move rapidly, 
but they lack the endurance of mammals 
and birds. ' 'I think in the end," Ruben 
said, ' 'we're going to find that dinosaurs 
were probably fairly typical ectotherms, 
they were sluggish or uninteresting. ' ' 

economic bottom line") is the most dramatic 
of the reintroduction techniques "and the 
one where success is the most 
uncertain — especially for species that are 
rare or restricted to rare habitats. " 

Instead of being treated as something we 
know how to do with a high degree of 
confidence, "mitigation" by this means is 
"surrounded by uncertainty and partial suc- 
cess at best and failure more frequently," 
according to a quote from Don Falk, execu- 
tive director of the Society for Ecological 
Restoration based in Madison, WL "At its 
worst," Falk says, "mitigation can be a 
charade, a fairy tale." He adds: "At its best, 
it is a healing art of ecology. . .the art of the 

* * * 

' 'A Conceptual Model of Arid Rangeland 
Degradation" by Suzanne J. Milton, W. 
Richard J.Dean, et al in the February 1994 

Continued on back cover 










c 2 

in in c a 


_ > 
m o 

29.3/4: 14/4 


A Resource Management Bulletin 

Dlume 14 - Number 4 

National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior 

Fall 1994 


Park Hosts 'Pulse II 

And the Beat Goes On. 

NOV 5 19 


Eleven years after their first "pulse 
dy" in Sequoia/Kings Canyon National 
•ks (SEKI), Dr. Jerry Franklin, Profes- 

of Ecosystems Analysis at the Univer- 
r of Washington (UW), and a 65-mem- 

group of researchers returned to the 
ginal sites at the 7000-foot level to see 
at the passage of time afforded in the 
y of a stereoscopic view. The scientific 
ciplines represented by the research 
m covered the broad range of study 
jles involved in discerning a total pic- 
e. As team members picked up on the 
isystem beat that was first pulsed in 
J2-83, what struck the observer was the 
larkable evolution of the pulse itself. 

The data gathered between June 20 and 
must await analysis, but the dynamic, 
lerative nature of the pulsing process 
s immediately apparent. Like a strong 
ly, the pulse attracts not only indi- 
ual researchers (see companion article), 
whole long-range research programs, 
'era! of the latter either held overlap- 
g meetings at the SEKI pulse campsite 
were represented by individuals, who 
in in and out of the action-making their 
n inquiries and sharing their findings. 

Hear Oregon State University (OSU) 
logist (and rotten log maestro) Mark 
rmon, holding forth at the pulse group ' s 
sing campfire: 

The original pulse studies were a spark 
t ignited a paradigm shift in research- 
in single species and single problems in 
ividual parks to an awareness of biotic 
nmuiuues and ecosystem functioning 
:r broader areas that extend beyond 
k boundaries." 

Back in 1980, when Franklin orga- 
ed a pulse at the Hoh River drainage at 
mpic NP (see Pacific Park Science 
I 1, No. 1), he was working for the 
FS out of the Corvallis, Oregon For- 
ty Sciences Lab. A corps of scientists 
I associates with a tradition of inte- 

grated, ecosystem-oriented research had 
developedaround programs centered there. 
Baseline data to serve managerial and 
scientific purposes within Olympic Na- 


By Jean Matthews; photographs by the editor 


tional Park (NP), especially the South 
Fork of the Hoh River drainage, were 
needed. One objective was to describe the 
role of vegetation in landform develop- 
ment and the formation of different aquatic 
habitats. Another was to develop baseline 
descriptions of the valley bottom forest; 
another was to analyze the role of dead 
and down wood and the regeneration of 
trees in valley bottom forests; another to 
describe and analyze aquatic habitats and 
their use by fish; and finally to examine 
the interactions between Roosevelt elk 
and vegetation. 

Seven scientific papers grew out of the 
Hoh River pulse study. A summary by 
Franklin stated the major conclusions and 
described the interrelationships among 
ecosystem components. 

The Pulse I study at SEKI, was de- 
scribed in the Fall 1983 issue of Park 
Science. The study involved plant ecol- 
ogy, geomorphology, hydrology, entomol- 
ogy (aquatic and terrestrial), aquatic biol- 
ogy, forestry, and geography. The focus 
was largely on collections of basic de- 
scriptive data on the stream, riparian, and 
forest systems at the selected study sites. 

In the decade-plus since Pulse I, SEKI's 
original 6 research plots grew to 23. Nine 
acid deposition plots were added, as were 
8 global change plots (5 in SEKI, 3 in 
nearby Yosemite NP). Many of the same 
people were back. Sequoia NP science 
personnel—Wildlife Ecologist Dave 
Graber, Ecologists Nate Stephenson and 
Annie Esperanza, and Larry Bancroft, 
Chief ofResource Management—were still 
keeping sweaty fingers crossed as to what 
the future under the new National Bio- 
logical Survey (NBS) might hold. Jeff 
Manley, Natural Resource Specialist; 
Mary Beth Keifer, park Staff Ecologist; 
and Dan Driscoe, Forestry Technician, 

Continued on page 3 


FALL 1 994 

A report to park managers of recent and on-goin^i 
research In parks with emphasis on its implications to! 
planning and management. 


• Sequoia National Park Hosts 'Pulse 

II' And the Beat Goes On 1 

• Project Diversification a Positive 

Sign for Pulse Future 7 

• Dave Parsons' Farewell 8 

• NBS Director Pulliam to Address 

Problems Faced by Former NPS 
Scientists 8 

• Cooperative Research on Glacier- 

Climate Relationships Begins in 
the Pacific Northwest 9 

• Natural Resource Publications: a 

Resource of Products and People . 

• Changes Bring Greater 

Opportunities for Resource 
Managers to Write for Park 
Science 12 

• Contributing to Park Science: .... 13 

• Delineation of Old-Growth Oak 

and Eastern Hemlock in Great 
Smoky Mountains National Park.. 

• Keeping Visitors On The Right 

Track: Sign and Barrier Research 
at Mt. Rainier 17 

• Western Park Personnel Meet on 

Mountain Lion-Human 
Encounters 20 

• Is This Fauna Recovering From a 

Prehistoric Rood? 22 

• Prairie Dog Control at 

Fort Lamed, Kansas 24 

• Labrador Retriever Assists in 

Ecological Research 25 

• Captive Cougars May Aid Florida 

Panther Project 26 


• Editorial 2 

• Regional Highlights 27 

• Meetings of Interest 30 

• Information Crossfile 31 


Six months have gone into the transi- 
tion between editor Jean Matthews (now 
retired) and myself and this time has made 
me very appreciative of the strengths of 
this publication, the interests of its read- 
ers, the importance of its supporters, and 
especially the skills and dedication of 

Last June, the two of us traveled to 
Sequoia and Kings Canyon NPs to be a 
part of a specialized kind of holistic eco- 
system research, called a pulse study. 
Working amongst the giant trees and along- 
side "giants" from the field of forest ecol- 
ogy was a thrill and reemphasized the 
value of repeating basic monitoring pro- 
tocols over time. Jean's article (our cover 
story) explores the pulse study and tells of 
its importance through the thoughts and 
actions of its participants. As photogra- 
pher, I especially enjoyed the activities of 
the tree climbers, but also took pleasure in 
documenting the many basic processes of 
the week. Together, Jean and I formed a 
friendship and productive bond that has 
yielded a terrific cover story. Speaking for 
all Park Science readers, I thank Jean for 
sharing her talents over the years as a 
writer, editor, and steward of our earth, 
and invite her to continue contributing 
thoughts, articles, and editorials to the 

bulletin from time to time. Best wishes i 
your retirement, Jean. 

The rest of the articles this issue rang 
from a third installment of social scienc 
research on off-trail hiking deterrents & 
Mount Rainier NP to a profile of tr 
people and products of the Natural R( 
sources Publication Program, which guidf 
Park Science. Several items deal wit 
wildlife; they include pieces on Floric 
panther radio collar signal calibration as 
recommendations for managers of pari 
with mountain lion safety issues. On tl 
other end of the spectrum, geologist Wayi 
Hamilton interprets the geologic histoi 
of Zion NP through the comparison < 
fossil mollusks with those found thei 
today, while University of Maine CPS 
leader Allan O'Connell describes the bei 
efits of using a labrador retriever in 
Gateway NRA research project. We ah 
see a summary of a developing Glob; 
Change Program project that will com 
late glacial advances and retreats wil 
climate in the Pacific Northwest. 

Altogether, the materials represent pai 
areas and interests from all over the coui 
try. Contributors include a good balanc 
of biologists, resource managers, Nation; 
Biological Survey (NBS) scientists, an 

Continued on back covi 

Enjoying a week out of the office and away from her computer, retired Park Science editor 
Jean Matthews interviewed scores of scientists and their assistants in preparing this 
edition's lead article. 

Park Scien 

tequoia Pulse . . . and the beat goes on (cont'd from p. 1) 

raipleted the SEKI staff on hand. Long- 
tne Senior Scientist Dave Parsons at- 
nded Pulse II as a final farewell. He 
as leaving not just the park, but the 
irk Service (See article on page 8). 

Stream ecology studies begun in 1 983 
ere on hold because their personnel 
ere needed for intensive aquatic sam- 
ing for the Coastal Oregon Productiv- 
f Enhancement. But two new strings 

the pulse bow were the canopy archi- 
cture and epiphyte ecology study be- 
in in the permanent reference stands, 
d respectively by Robert Van Pelt of 
W and Steven Sillett of OSU, and the 
rest floor epiphyte study, led by Dave 

OSU Research Associate Steve Acker 
led the team investigating changes in three 
reference stands (riparian, white fir, and 
mixed conifer), and found pronounced evi- 
dence of mortality. Gregg Riegel, a major 
organizer of the 1983-84 Pulse I study at 
SEKI, reported that almost 30 percent of the 
sugar pines tagged in 1983 had died and a 
much higher percentage of the remaining 
trees are infected with white pine blister 
rust, paving the way for beetles as the proxi- 
mate cause of death Acker's team also 
recorded what was found in the Jeffrey pine 
and the two giant sequoia reference stands. 
All these data will be reviewed, verified, and 
entered by Acker into OSU's Forest Science 
Data Bank, whose establishment was sup- 
ported in large part by the National Science 
Foundation (NSF). 

the shadows of huge sugar pines (Pinus lambertiana), this sappling struggles to 
npete for limited sunlight. Researcher Gregg Riegel, with the OSU Silviculture Lab in 
nd, Oregon, documents the tree's vital statistics, noting poor general health and the 
sence of white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola), a normative fungus and pathogen 
it has become more prevalent in the ten years since Pulse I. 

Ruth Kern, Duke University gradu- 
ate student working with the Global 
Change Program, reported on her inves- 
tigations into regeneration in mixed 
conifer zones at the 5000- to 7000 foot 
elevational level. In one approach, she 
enters the permanent reference stands 
and plots seedling patterns of regenera- 
tion in relation to light patterns. Baseline 
information useful to the parks will come 
from models that predict seedlings sur- 
vival and that show whether there is a 
repeatable pattern for success or whether 
the reality is too random to make a 
difference. So far, her results indicate 
that survival and growth are strongly 
related to light, but almost not at all to 

Continued on page 4 

Pulse pioneer Jerry Franklin chips in with 
the basic pulse work: remeasunng trees from 
the six permanent study plots originally laid 
out and surveyed as part of Pulse I and 
assessing them for growth, vigor, disease, 
and causes of death. Researchers hope to 
leam more about the health of the mixed 
pine forests and sequoia groves nearby and 
the factors responsible for any changes of 
the past decade. Preliminary findings 
suggested greater mortality in the Jeffrey 
and sugar pine forests than ten years earlier. 


Sequoia Pulse (cont'd) 

Art McKee, Site Director at the USFS 
H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest in Or- 
egon, who sampled the original riparian 
plots for vegetation diversity (along belt 
transects on three streams), was back to 
measure changes. In 1994, in addition to 
resampling streamside vegetation, for com- 
parison his team sampled species richness in 
surrounding uplands. A somewhat surpris- 
ing early indication is that vascular plant 
species, while they are more diverse as 
expected in riparian zones, are not more 
than two- to three-fold richer than upland 
zones. The four- to five-fold greater diver- 
sity that had been expected for plants did 
hold true for riparian "critters" compared to 
critter numbers in upland situations. 

Mark Harmon, author of "Ecology of 
Coarse Woody Debris in Temperate Eco- 
systems" (in Advances in Ecological Re- 
search, Vol. 15, 1986) began investigating 
SEKTdead" woodduringthe 1982-83 pulse. 
Harmon revels in decomposition. "Sequoia 
National Park," he said approvingly, "is a 
very rotten place." He points out that the 
"so-called 'live' trees consist of no more 
than five to ten percent living tissue~a bio- 
logical desert Now a dead tree" he says, his 
eyes beginning to sparkle, "is about half 
living matter." 

Harmon and his rotten loggers found in 
1994 that downed sequoias had remained 
almost as they were 1 1 years before, whereas 
white and red fir logs showed such rapid 
deterioration that some previously recorded 
simply no longer existed Carpenter ants, 
termites, and white and brown rot fungi 

can't get a meal out of sequoias, but fir logs 
decay so last "they almost vaporize" in 
Harmon's words. 

The Sierra Nevada sequoia stands offer 
an unparalleled opportunity to study the 
swings of climate over thousands of years, 
and such a magnet is drawing top drawer 
scientists into the pulse. Malcolm Hughes, 
Director, and Lisa Graumlich and Thomas 
Swetnam, associate professors, all from the 
Tree Ring Lab at the University of Arizona, 
reported findings from dendrochronology 
and fire scar studies that make possible 
reconstruction of the spatial and temporal 
patterns of surface fires in five giant sequoia 
groves for the past 1,500 years. The extent, 
the intensity, and the seasons of fire in 
general correlate with the climate. Multidi- 
mensional disturbance (fire) patterns now in 
hand show fire regimes by elevation Begin- 
ning with the chaparral level, fires occur 
every four years or so, becoming less and 
less frequent at higher elevations. The upper 
tree line also has moved up and down over 
the years in response to climate changes. 

Sequoia regeneration is spotty, accord- 
ing to the findings of the tree ring people. 
Sometimes decades go by with none at all, 
followed by a flurry of successes; distur- 
bance, such as fire, would be a key factor in 
such an event. The pollen record in the 
meadows suggests that sequoias may have 
become established only 4,000 years ago, 
"which means," Swetnam said, "that these 
groves are only two tree-lifetimes old." 

Malcolm Hughes looked around the 
campfire and beamed: "I love people who 
actually go out and measure, instead of just 
having wonderful evolutionary thoughts. 

\ r- .* - £jf* 'ft- 

OSU research assistant and sawyer Jay Sexton prepares "cookies" or crosssections of 
decaying pine for evaluation by his Pulse Study teammates. After measuring diameter and 
thickness of the sections and then weighing them, the team evaluates the means and rate of 
decay by comparing samples from the two studies. 

"Rotten logging" is the interest of OSU 
researcher Mark Harmon who reexamines 
the decay process in logs studied a decade 
ago at Pulse I. Since then, many specimens 
have been all but reclaimed by the forest 
ecosystem. Among the most important 
factors in their speedy demise is moisture 
content: too wet or too dry and decay is 
retarded; just right, as in SEKI, and 
mechanisms, such as brown and white rot 
(fungi), termites and ants, and other 
creatures from bacteria to black bears, 
efficiently redistribute log nutrients. 

My joy is reading the ancient past throug] 
tree ring records. In every giant sequoia, tin 
A.D. 500-year growth ring is either entirer. 
missing or very, very thin Some particula 
climatic event is indicated here-probabr. 
drought. We find that in the past 80 years 
thin rings match a climate of severe drought 
We're now using that relationship to estab 
lish the dates of such severe droughts ii 
California for the last 2,000 years." 

Lisa Graumlich' s research looks at long 
lived trees for what they can tell her abou 
past climate and atmospheric composition 
helping her formulate more realistic hy 
potheses. Data from the ancient past abou 
subalpine forest dynamics (tree rings ant 
fire scars) have provided the basis for a mor 
complex model of past climate. She ha 
found temperatures in the past (A.D. 1101 
to 1300) exceeding those of the 20th Cen 
tury, showing that this century's tempera 
tures, while wanner than average, "ar 
within the envelope of natural variabil 

Park Scienc 

"Our investigators at the upper 
eline," she continued, "find dead trees; 
ing these trees shows that the upper 
e line retreated around A.D. 1,000— a 
le of regional drought." She described 
5 ring evidence for century-long drought 
the past. "A drought-stressed tree 
akers down," she said, "so that its bole 
isists of a mere strip of live cambium, 
opposed to a cambial sheath that nor- 
lly surrounds the entire bole." Then she 
ndered aloud: "Do they sort of hiber- 

At the opposite end of the research 
le lies the microsite work of Pat Halpin. 
lpin's studies overlap with the pulse at 
% Creek near the Giant Forest. They 
lress the theoretical question of where 
dividing line lies between the large 
>., climate) actions and the tree-to-tree 
tractions in a particular plot. How long 
i established local interactions outweigh 
effects of major global climate change? 

Halpin and his wife spent six weeks in 
summer of 1993 in the Log Creek site, 
irting water flow paths and flow accu- 
lations "at a ridiculously small scale" 
three 2-ha sites. They report that they 
nd tree-to-tree interactions more im- 
tant at the microscale level, but that 
larger physical controls are beginning 
nake themselves felt, even there. Hid- 
i water storage in many giant sequoia 
ves seems to be acting as a drought 
vival agent, mainly to downstream 
is. Halpin also has found roots much 
per than the 200 cm depths thought to 
usual for sequoias— some as far down 
500 cm. 

Depressions that once may have been 
bases of mature sequoias, now long 
le, are holding water up to three weeks 
ger than the surrounding ground, "and 
uoia seedlings are popping out in the 
v routes and on the catchments downsite 
m the mature trees," Halpin reported. 

On Friday, the last full day of Pulse n, 
mbers of the Global Change Research 
'gram arrived. This formerly NPS pro- 
m was transferred in its entirety in 
member 1993 to the National Biologi- 
Survey. Global change in the Sierra 
/adas poses such potential problems as 
5 of biotic diversity, increase in fre- 
;ncy and severity of wildfire, increased 
; and shrub mortality from drought and 
lution, shifts of treeline and other veg- 
tion to higher elevations, changes in 
cies distribution, increased stress on 
; plant and animal species, and de- 
ased snowpack with earlier runoff. 

Objectives of the Global Change Re- 
rch Program are to understand and 


Professor Jerry Franklin hosted traditional evening information exchange campfires where 
pulse takers compared their preliminary findings from the day's hard work with data logged 
ten years earlier. Carried over from Pulse I, the nightly gathering was also a venue for 
discussions on the next stage in SEKI's prescribed burning program and reports on Global 
Change projects. 

predict changes in the structure and func- 
tion of the Sierra Nevada ecosystems, 
with emphasis on the effects of climate on 
forest ecosystems (including disturbance 
regimes), species-habitat relationships, 
and hydrology. The program provided 
support for a number of individual re- 
search projects and for long-term study 
plots, data management activities, and 
cooperative outreach activities. Members 
of the Global Change project attended the 
Thursday and Friday night campfires, and 
several pulse study people sat in on the 
Saturday meetings of the Global Change 

Early Recognition 

The importance of the earlier pulse 
study was first sounded when then-Super- 
intendent Boyd Evison wrote in the Spring 
1983 issue of Park Science: 

"A remarkable team of 30 scientists, 
students, and technicians from Oregon 
State University [arrived at the park in 
September 1982 and worked for 10 days] 
from dawn to dusk, carrying out intensive 
field studies of stream, riparian, and forest 
systems in a mixed-conifer forest, a giant 
sequoia forest, and a meadow." Evison 
described the nightly campfire sessions 
held by the group and led by Jerry Franklin 
as "structured, but very lively discussions 
of project objectives, progress, and appli- 
cations to Park needs . . . open to Park 
staff, who were able frequently to provide 
valuable insights." 

Evison applauded the pulse for its at- 
tention to "assuring maximum applicabil- 
ity of the findings to on-going Park pro- 
grams such as basic resources inventory, 
acid rain research, and long-term moni- 

toring of vegetation changes, the effects 
of fire, and water quality." He credited the 
pulse with "providing interdisciplinary 
information of the kind that most parks 
unfortunately seem to have little hope of 

In 1994, the scene of the repeat pulse 
was a park with no superintendent. Tom 
Putter, its latest leader and once head of 
the NPS Western Region's Science Advi- 
sory Task Force, had retired to a cabin in 
the Puget Sound area. The future of park 
management was a hazy question mark, 
but the pulse beat went on. The ecosystem 
continued to adapt to its own inner and 
outer conditions; the park research team 
continued to gather information about how 
the ecosystems work-struggling to refine 
their research methodologies, sharpen their 
focus, and deepen their understanding of 
both the work they must do on behalf of 
the systems, and the work they must do to 
assure their own continued support. 

The results of SEKI Pulse I largely 
dominated the 1984 conference at the 
University of California/Davis on Re- 
search in California's parks, but the pa- 
pers given there were mostly descriptive 
and only a very few were published in 
journals. A dozen years ago, in order to 
get one's results into the mainstream of 
science literature, it was necessary to pub- 
lish in the journals-a process whose time- 
liness has been aptly described as "pro- 
ceeding with glacial dignity." Today, the 
flood of data coming out of pulse and 
pulse-related research is being fed into 
data banks—there to await bright 
hypothesizers who can devise models to 
test alternative futures. 

Continued on page 6 

Sequoia Pulse Study 

The emerging genius of the pulse lies 
in this new approach to resource manage- 
ment. No longer will we have to rely on 
what Nate Stephenson calls "the lumber- 
ing, limping, ancient equations of 1988" 
that give one or two recommendations for 
park management to accept or reject. 
Today's scientists are looking confidently 
toward the day when they can run off a 
host of "what if' scenarios, using the 
numbers laboriously collected in the field. 
From these models they anticipate being 
able to give management a score of "out- 
comes" to choose from. However, Sarah 
Greene, USFS ecologist at the Forestry 
Sciences Lab in Corvallis, Oregon, cau- 
tions that much more data remain to be 
collected before we can confidently pre- 
dict ecosystem futures. "A model is still 
only a weak attempt at best to second 
guess nature," she warned. 

"Models are tools for 
thinkers, not crutches for 
the thoughtless." 

M.E. SouUf 

Given the enormous array of variables 
inherent in, and affecting, ecosystems, 
just where the SEKI study plots are head- 
ing in the long term is still guesswork. But 
the pulse crews carrying on the "work" are 
chipping away at the "guess" in guess- 
work. Meanwhile, social science research 
is becoming an increasing necessity, as 
management is faced with such additional 
questions as, What do people conceive of 
as "natural wilderness?" What do they 
come to parks to experience (and thus 
what are they willing to support)? How 
much personal freedom are people willing 
to forego and how much money are they 
willing to spend to shape nature to the 
preferences of human nature? (And once 
we have that answer, do we really want to 
let it guide resource management?) 

Franklin's answer, voiced during an 
evening campfire: "I suspect that the next 
century will find the 'naturalness' issue to 
have pretty much gone by the boards. 
You'll be choosing how you want your 
parks to look, and managing them to look 
like that. At Sequoia/Kings Canyon, air 
pollution from the valley and a couple of 
degrees of climate warming will make the 
whole question of 'naturalness' irrel- 

Or, as a University of Montana phi- 
losophy professor fondly remembered by 
Dave Graber observed some years ago: 
"We're about to enter an era in which we 

(cont'd from page 5) 

Vital to any research project, data 
recording was accomplished at Pulse II 
through the skillful use of electronic data 
recorders. Sarah Greene tirelessly translated 
the shouts of distant and near forest pulse 
takers into keystrokes that accurately 
portrayed the trees' vital signs, i.e., 
identification numbers, species, diameter, 
general health, and prominence in the forest 
canopy. The data were then downloaded to 
computers for deferred analysis in Corvallis. 

will treat nature—once lively, vigorous, 
and stronger than any of us-as a dodder- 
ing, beloved old aunty, requiring our 
thoughtful, loving care." 

Even as the ecosystem is showing signs 
of stress and change, so too is the steward- 
ship system. At precisely the time that 
land managers (e.g., the National Park 
Service) need the most careful and con- 
tinuing research, the rug is being rear- 
ranged under their science capability. "The 
transfer of the NPS's Global Change Re- 
search Program to the new National Bio- 

logical Survey," says the 1993 SEKI Ai 
nual Report, "leaves many questions n 
gar ding the funding and direction of tl 
Sierra Nevada Global Change Researc 
Program." From resource managers acroj 
the entire National Park System can I 
heard a shaky "Amen." 

As the latest chapter in the Hairbreadt 
Harry story of science and the parks : 
written, two quotations come to mini 
The first is from Shakespeare: "... tongue 
in trees, books in the running brook 
sermons in stones, and good in even 
thing. I would not change it." The otto 
is from John Muir, one of the most el< 
quent tongues the trees ever had: "We a 
travel the milky way together—trees an 

And when we have mulled all this, v 
can pick up the next issue of the Georj 
Wright Society's Forum and read Wil 
iam E. Brown's latest "Letter froi 
Gustavus," in which he writes: 

"No discussion of wildlife, habitat, < 
ecosystem preservation has any long-ten 
meaning unless the human condition < 
overpopulation and its amelioration an 
eventual solution is the overarching coi 
text of discourse. All else is fiddling whi 
Rome burns-playing games with researc 
plots, taking record photos before assure 
destruction. Assuredly all these things mu 
go on, but if they go on in other than 
context of human population control, tto 
will have no bearing on coming realities 

Sequoia Ecologist Annie Esperam 
may not be as eloquent as the immort 
bard, but her words at a Pulse II campfii 
are as appropriate an epilogue as can 1 
said at this uncertain moment in pai 

"The pulse payoff for the park is tl 
short-term labor force it affords us, tl 
collection of a mountain of data, the sti mi 
lation and excitement of the participan 
who work in this important place and wl 
know they are doing important work her 
The long-term payoff is the way it helj 
us keep long-term research alive her 
The tone of acceptance from managemei 
is so much better than it was when tl 
pulsing began. We still get resistance, to 
it' s friendly resistance. 

"Research has become more institi 
tionalized than ever it was before. We> 
proved our worth to management. And v 
did it by 'swarming' them. We dug ou 
selves deep into the fabric of the park unl 
our work has become as much a part * 
park management as cleaning the toilets 

Matthews recently retired as editor < 
Park Science. She now makes her home l 
Vancouver, WA., where her address 
6010 Riverside Dr., Vancouver, W 
98661, (206) 690-8568. 

Park Scien 

Project Diversification a Positive Sign for Pulse Future 

The week of Pulse n was busy with the 
erections of researchers from the first 
KI study 10 years ago and leaders of 
w satellite studies that were added more 
:ently. The Pulse projects had diversi- 
d from the bread-and-butter originals 
remeasuring the permanent reference 
nds and reexamining their decay pro- 
ses to include forest mapping, ephiphyte 
dies, and others. 

Ph.D. candidate Robert Van Pelt of 
V brought his expertise in three-dimen- 
nal mapping to the Pulse as the ground- 
rk for developing a detailed computer 
del of a sequoia grove that could be 
d to answer What if ... ? questions. 

Studying canopy lichens and other epi- 
rtes that live hundreds of feet off the 
iund in giant sequoias challenged epi- 
rte niche expert and aerialist Steven 
lett (OSU) and his partners. The expe- 
aced tree climbers spent three days 
ling four sequoias and examining the 
itionship between tree height, growth 
face availability, and lichen species. 
;ir goal was to produce a detailed map 
be distribution of the epiphytes in the 

David Shaw's (UW) team used a 
thod for surveying the tree canopies for 
lens that allowed them to operate from 
ground. The tedious job involved col- 
ting all of the lichens that had fallen 
m the trees overhead and were lying 
hin a series of 2m-radius plots ran- 

By the editor 

domly located throughout the six study 
plots. Shaw's hope was to determine the 
diversity of the lichens found in the mixed 
pine/fir stands, to estimate their abun- 
dance in the forest, to associate them 
species by species with tree species, and 
to categorize them by function. Both 
Sillett's and Shaw's work provide an in- 
ventory of species diversity, density, and 
health that will serve as baseline data for 
future pulses. 

The Pulse approach to research has 
generated tremendous interest as exem- 
plified by the number, and kind, of partici- 
pants. The large undertaking appealed to 
graduate students who wanted to contrib- 
ute their skills to proven research experi- 
ments. The experiments also enticed re- 
searchers wanting to learn about the pulse 
process and imitate it in similar studies 
elsewhere on the continent. Now recog- 
nized as a foundation for long-term re- 
search, the Pulse study plots lured scien- 
tists to the park to add a layer of new 
studies to augment the originals. 

The Sierra Nevada Global Change Pro- 
gram (initiated by NPS, now run by NB S), 
while independent of Pulse, coordinated 
eight projects, many of which used the 
same Pulse study plots to add to the col- 
lective data. Pat Halpin, Global Change 
research assistant from the University of 
Virginia, summed up the success and syn- 
ergism of Pulse in saying, "the beauty of 
the Pulse Study lies in the permanent plots 
that have been established and that can be 

used by subsequent researchers. New 
projects can be started that build on a 
foundation of data that will improve with 
time. Scientists hear about the Pulse and 
are more likely to sign on because they 
trust that their own work will contribute 
to a greater whole. It creates a research 
situation that compounds.'' 

The growth in participation at Pulse II 
suggests that the study may operate under 
its own power in the future while getting 
to the bottom of the tough questions about 
the forest ecosystem's health, its dyna- 
mism, and its threats. Pulse founder and 
dynamic leader Jerry Franklin always 
wanted it this way. 

se investigator Robert Van Pelt surveys a study plot in the Lower Crescent Meadow 
tiage at Sequoia with the help of a state-of-the-art laser theodolite. Van Pelt plans to generate 
toiled 3-d computer model or "map" of the giant sequoia plot with enough detail to predict 
effects of global wanning and other natural disturbance regimes on the forest. 

Tree climber Sillett ascends a 280 foot tall 
giant sequoia (Sequoia gigantea) in search 
of lichens and other epiphytes living high up 
on the huge trees. 


Dave Parsons' Farewell 

Editor's note: Parsons is a past research 
scientist at Sequioa and Kings Canyon NPs. 
He left the park and the NPS in June to become 
the director of the Leopold Wilderness Institute 
in Missoula, Montana. The following are 
excerpts from an interview he had with past 
editor Jean Matthews around the Pulse Study 

I came to Sequoia/Kings Canyon in 
1973-21 years ago— when there was very 
little science in the parks. We built the 
program from a one-person operation to a 
fairly effective program, with outside sci- 
entists, with other agencies, and with aca- 
demics. It was a cooperative effort that 
brought science to bear on day-to-day 
park management. 

The pulse studies of 1982-83 were the 
strategic event that really swung science 
here into a new, exciting mode. NPS sci- 
ence has struggled over the years. There 
have been flashes of hope, signs of excel- 
lence, and managers who have backed our 
efforts and who saw our usefulness to 

But the new direction—the National 
Biological Survey— is draining the NPS 
science ranks and threatening to redirect 
research. It is critical that the NPS and 
NBS establish effective communication 
links if the parks are to avoid a return to 
the days of management by whim. Today's 
world requires quality scientific data upon 
which to make management decisions. 

We had come such a long way. We had 
convinced managers of the value of good 
data to managers. For instance, we were 
just beginning to get a handle on the data 
we need in order to manage fire properly. 
Nate Stephenson's research shows we 
aren't getting the hot spots we need for 
sequoia regeneration. David Graber re- 
cently showed that under modern fire 
management we have achieved a fire cycle 
in mixed conifer stands of no more than 
70 to 80 years, whereas the presettlement 
fire cycle was closer to 15-20 years. 

We're not getting anywhere with our 
current fire practices. We're a long way 
from the end of the tunnel. Our fire pro- 
gram is still far from perfected. We're 
facing the need to burn more, burn hotter, 
and educate the public to the need for this 
. . . plus figure out how to do it without 
violating air pollution standards. We need 
better functional understanding so we can 
posit various valid scenarios. There are 
the management frustrations here, and 
we've had to play whatever funding game 
is currently hot in order to get money for 
what needs to be done. 

SEKI is a premier study site for long- 
term environmental research, but it has 
never been successful in securing a long- 
term funding base. The lack of an overall 
commitment to science on the part of the 
NPS will become even more of a problem 
nowthat their researchers have been moved 
to the NBS. 

In addition, many in the scientific com- 
munity are convinced that there's no point 
in doing research in the national park 
system, since the Service on the whole has 
been negative about accommodating the 

intrusions necessary for long-term ect 
logical research site work. 

It is easy to feel discouraged with tl 
current situation. But it will not do ar 
good to feel sorry for ourselves. We ai 
faced with a new set of rules and we net 
to make them work. We must work t< 
gether— NPS, NBS, and other agency at 
academic scientists and managers— to a 
sure that the NPS is able to meet tho: 
needs, and then that the parks are prepare 
to apply the new scientific findings. It 
time to make the system work! 

NBS Director Pulliam to 

Address Problems Faced by 

Former NPS Scientists 

NBS Director Ron Pulliam has appointed Dr. Charles Van Riper III of the agency 
Colorado Plateau Research Station in Flagstaff, Arizona, to serve for three months i 
an ombudsman, or complaint investigator, for the new agency. Acting on reports th 
the NBS already has too many layers of bureaucracy between field scientists ai 
headquarters, Pulliam felt it necessary to appoint a trusted former NPS researcher, su< 
as Van Riper, to investigate problems and offer realistic solutions. Pulliam has direct* 
the scientist to begin his investigation with former NPS employees now transfern 
to the NBS because he believes their problems are especially acute and need to 1 
addressed promptly. 

During the next three months, Van Riper will be calling on former NPS scientis 
and present managers to discuss several issues. Van Riper considers his most importa 
area of investigation to be the relationships between the NBS scientists and their pare 
bureaus. He plans to find out how NBS field stations relate to NPS managers that on< 
supervised them as well as to help the agencies form an ideal relationship. Also ( 
his list of inquiries are questions about overhead costs affecting field researche 
negatively, lacking support services (technical, clerical, etc.) that were available : 
former agencies, and inefficiencies resulting from bureaucratic layering. Van Rip 
sees this as a very positive move and encourages scientists and managers to use tl 
opportunity to be candid and solution-oriented in the upcoming effort. This midcour 
Correction exercise may be very helpful. Van Riper can be reached at (602)556-746 


Anderson, William H. 

1100 Ohio Drive, SW 
Washington, DC 20242 
8 (202) 342-1443 

Kimball, Suzette 
75 Spring St. SW 
Atlanta, GA 30303 

Foley, Mary 

15 State St. 
Boston, MA 02109 
(617) 742-3094 
FAX: (617)367-8515 

Hiebert, Ron 

1709 Jackson St. 
Omaha, NE 68102 
8-864-3438/(402)22 1 -3438 

Huff, Dan 

P.O. Box 25827 
Denver, CO 80225 

Karish, John F. 
Ferguson Bldg, Room 209-B 
Pennsylvania State Univ. 
University Park, PA 16802 
8-(8 14)865-7974 

Kilgore, Bruce 


600 Harrison St., Suite 600 

San Francisco, CA 94107-1372 


Kunkle, Sam 

P.O. Box 728 
Santa Fe, NM 87501 

Jope, Kathv (acting) 


909 1st Ave. 

Seattle, WA 98104-1060 


Deschu , Nancy (acting) 


2525 Gambell St., Room 107 

Anchorage, AK 99503-2892 


Park Scier, 

Cooperative Research on Glacier-Climate 
Relationships Begins in the Pacific Northwest 

nes Glacier on the heavily glaciated Mt. Olympus, Olympic NP, Washington 

Vt least 800 glaciers occur in the greater 
ific Northwest, extending from the 
ific Ocean to the Rocky Mountains, 
veen the Columbia River and the Ca- 
ian border. This concentration of ice 
le largest in the conterminous United 
tes, and crosses a gradient from mari- 
e to continental climate. 

jlaciers exist in the Pacific Northwest 
ause winter precipitation often exceeds 
lmer melt, even at relatively low el- 
tions. They are sensitive indicators of 
late change due to their size which 
ects winter snow accumulation and 
tmer temperature. Melting of glaciers 
esponse to changing climate will have 
stantial consequences for river hydrol- 
, particularly increasing flow-rate in 
short-term and altering seasonality of 
v in the long-term. Glacial melt could 
> result in greater incidence of geo- 
ic hazards. These changes will affect 
etation and animal habitat, as well as 
e economic consequences. 


Although the size of glaciers is depen- 
dent on climate, defining the precise re- 
lationship is difficult. Describing the cli- 
mate experienced by the glacier is com- 
plicated by the lack of local weather 
records. Detection of changes due to short- 
term weather trends may be difficult be- 
cause effects may be obscured by the flow 
dynamics of glaciers. Finally, there are 
few long-term records of annual changes 
in glaciers to compare with climate records. 
However, these difficulties are not insur- 
mountable, especially if the expertise of 
researchers from many fields is combined. 

Personnel from NPS (some now with 
NBS) and USGS have been cooperating 
informally to obtain histories of the gla- 
ciers of the Pacific Northwest. Supported 
by the NBS Global Change Program, the 
agencies held a workshop entitled Gla- 
cier-Climate Relationships on May 17- 
18, to develop a coordinated glacier-cli- 
mate research project. Numerous federal 
agencies, including the NPS, NBS, USGS, 
and National Weather Service sent repre- 
sentatives. Glacial resource national parks 

from the Pacific Northwest, including 
Olympic, Mount Rainier, North Cascades, 
and Glacier, as well as Denali, Alaska, 
also sent staff. 

Presentations by participants showed 
that glaciers throughout the region are 
currently in retreat, although some gla- 
ciers in maritime climates had a period of 
advance in the 1970s and 1980s. Glaciers 
now experiencing a continental climate 
are merely remnants. Climatologists and 
glaciologists described the available cli- 
mate models and several approaches to 
linking glaciers with climate. These par- 
ticipants identified the most valuable vari- 
ables to collect from historic glacier size 
records. Finally, the group designed a 
four-stage research project to study gla- 
cier response to climate in the Pacific 
Northwest. They are currently seeking 
funding for this project. 

For more information, contact Andrea 
Woodward, College of Forest Resources/CPSU 
AR-10, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 
98195, (206) 685-4448, fax (206) 543-3245. 

Natural Resource Publications: 
A Resource of Products and People 

Interested in the complexities of rein- 
troducing an extirpated wildlife species? 
Considering alternatives for dealing with 
a difficult wildlife issue? Need to priori- 
tize threats from exotic plant species be- 
fore targeting funds and personnel? The 
answers to these and many other typical 
resource management concerns can be 
found in publications of the NPS Natural 
Resources Publication Program, available 
through the NPS Natural Resources Pub- 
lication Office (NRPO) in Denver, Colo- 

Since 1989, this publication program 
has provided guidance for managing the 
publication of natural resource informa- 
tion, specifically information disseminated 
through the national Park Science bulle- 
tins, the Scientific Monographs and Pro- 
ceedings series, the Technical and Natu- 
ral Resources Report series, the annual 
Science Report series, and the regional 
report series. The national publications 
address natural resource topics that are of 
interest and applicability to a broad read- 
ership that includes the NPS, others 
charged with managing natural resources, 
the scientific community, the public, and 
the conservation and environmental con- 
stituencies; the regional series address 
issues of regional interest. Each has its 
niche-purpose, readership, content, re- 
view—and is associated with a variety of 
NPS professionals who have roles and 

By Donna O'Leary 

responsibilities in managing the publica- 
tion of natural resource information. 

The Natural Resources Publication Ad- 
visory Board advises the Associate Direc- 
tor, Natural Resources, the regional chief 
scientists, and chiefs of resource manage- 
ment on policy, procedures, and standards 
for managing the publication of natural 
resource information through the national 
and regional series. This board meets 
yearly to discuss publication issues and 
make recommendations relevant to the 
national and regional series (see sidebar). 

Park Science, under the editorship of 
Jean Matthews for 14 years, grew from a 
regional bulletin of the Pacific Northwest 
Region (PNR) to a national and interna- 
tional bulletin that includes the widest 
readership of any natural resource publi- 
cation. The Park Science Editorial Board 
reviews proposed articles and editorials 
for technical credibility and management 
applicability and gives appropriate con- 
sideration to NPS policy and sensitive 
topics. The board consists of NPS profes- 
sionals with technical credentials that rep- 
resent a wide range of scientific and re- 
source management expertise and knowl- 
edge of NPS issues. Jim Larson, Chief 
Scientist, PNR, retired in May and has 
handed over the chairmanship of this board 
to Ron Hiebert, Chief Scientist, Midwest 
Region (MWR). 

Natural Resources Publication Advisory Board 

(front row left to right) Gary Sullivan, MWR; Jean Matthews, PNR; Donna O'Leary, NRPO; 
Jeff Selleck, NRPO; (back row) Dr. Charles van Riper, HI, Northern Arizona University, 
NBS; Dr. R. Gerald Wright, University of ID, NBS; Dr. Milford Fletcher, University of NM, 
NPS; and Robert Cook, Gateway NRA. 

The prestigious Scientific Monograph; 
(formerly the Fauna of the National Parte 
Series of the 1930s) and the Scientific 
Proceedings, the only NPS peer-reviewec 
series for natural resource research, offei 
scientists an alternative to publish long© 
and more comprehensive research of schol 
arly quality in-house. Under an NPS-Fisl 
and Wildlife Service (USFWS) inter 
agency agreement since 1992, and a con 
turning partnership with the NBS, wildlife 
biologist Dr. Paul Vohs edits, reviews 
and manages both series. Formerly witl 
the FWS, but "adopted" by the NPS, Vohi 
serves as the senior editor, with the sup 
port of the technical publication edito: 
and editorial assistant. This fine editoria 
team has produced nine publications(sei 
sidebar for a list of titles) and will con 

of the Board 

Meeting on May 10-11 in Al- 
buquerque, NM, the advisory 
board focused on forming policy 
in regards to extending services 
to former NPS scientists that are 
now with the NBS. They also 
began developing strategies to 
encourage resource managers to 
publish more in the natural re- 
source series. 

Recommendations included 
retaining the Scientific Mono- 
graphs and Proceedings series at 
this time in the NPS; allowing 
former NPS scientists to continue 
submitting manuscripts to the 
natural resource series; continu- 
ing to fund reprint charges for 
former NPS scientists; continu- 
ing regional funding of a portion 
of Park Science to ensure that 
"ownership" of the bulletin re- 
mains in the field; and continu- 
ing the NPS regional natural re- 
source series—some are now 
managed by former NPS scien- 


Park Scietu. 

<"k Science editorial board 

* to right) Elizabeth Johnson, Delaware Water Gap NRA; Ron Hiebert (Chairman), 
iwest Regional Office; and Jon Jarvis, Craters of the Moon, NM. Absent are Gary 
vis, Channel Islands NP and John Dennis, Washington office. 

ue to produce the Monographs and Pro- 
;dings and manuscripts submitted by 
mer NPS scientists to NBS series. 

The Technical Reports disseminate 
hnical information that addresses man- 
sment issues, such as research results, 
memories and monitoring activities, lit- 
iture reviews, bibliographies, and pro- 
;dings of technical conferences that are 
t peer-reviewed. Natural Resources 
ports contain information on technolo- 
:s and resource management techniques, 
dw to" resource management papers, 
aference proceedings, and prototypes 
programs and resource actions plans. 

The yearly Highlights of Natural Re- 
sources Management report, edited by 
Lissa Fox, is produced through this series. 
I serve as the managing editor of both 
series (a new listing of titles along will be 
published in the winter issue of Park 

Finally, the annual Science Report lists 
the research projects and related studies 
ongoing or completed in a calendar year. 
The managing editor of these reports for 
the past seven years, Anne Frondorf, is 
now with the NBS. That editorship has 
been turned over to Tim Goddard, Wild- 
life and Vegetation Division. 

mographs and Proceedings editorial team 

t to right) Jerry Cox and Martha Nichols, NPS, and Dr. Paul Vohs, NBS. 

O 'Leary serves as publications coordinator 
for the Natural Resources Publication Office. 
As program manager, she coordinates all as- 
pects of publishing the national series, con- 
sults with series authors, administers the plan- 
ning, review, and compliance processes, fa- 
cilitates the activities of the editorial and 
advisory boards, and oversees the partnership 
with the NBS. She also maintains a complete 
listing of available natural resource publica- 
tions and can be reached at P.O. Box 25287, 
Denver, CO 80225-0287. 

Available Monographs 
and Proceedings 

1. Ecological effects of the Lawn Lake 

flood of 1982, Rocky Mountain 
National Park. HE. McCutchen, 
R Herrmann, and D. R Stevens, 

2. Ecological issues on reintroduc- 

ing wolves Into Yellowstone Na- 
tional Park. RS. Cook, editor. 

3. Demography of grizzly bears in 

relation to hunting and mining 
development in northwestern 
Alaska. W.B. Ballard, L.A. 
Ay res, D.J. Reed, S.G. Fancy, 
and K. Faulkner. 

4. Proceedings of fourth conference 

on research in California's na- 
tional parks. S.D. Veirs, Jr., T J. 
Stohlgren, C. Schonewald-Cox, 

5. Proceedings of first biennial con- 

ference on research in Colorado 
Plateau national parks. P. 
Rowlands, C van Riper, IH, and 
M. Sogge, editors. 

6. Ecology and management of ticks 

and Lyme disease at Fire island 
National Seashore and selected 
eastern national parks. H.S. 

7. Mammals of Indiana Dunes Na- 

tional Lakeshore. J. Whitaker, Jr., 
J. Gibble, and E. Kjelimark. * 

8. Mountain goats in Olympic National 

Parle biology and management of 
an introduced ungulate. D.B. 
Houston, EG. Schreiner, and B.B. 
Moorhead. * 

9. Proceedings of the second biennial 

conference on research in Colorado 
Plateau national parks. GvanRiper, 
DX editor. * 

* Available first quarter of FY95. 



Changes Bring Greater Opportunities for 
Resource Managers to Write for Park Science 

At a time of great change for the re- 
source management and science programs 
of the National Park Service, I foresee a 
need to develop a cadre of Park Science 
contributors primarily from among the 
resource management ranks. The estab- 
lishment of the NBS, the proposed com- 
bination of natural and cultural resources 
under one associate director for resource 
stewardship, streamlining, and the con- 
tinuing professionalization of resource 
management challenge us to improve our 
skills, work more effectively, develop our- 
selves as leaders, and refine the role of 
resource management and science in the 
parks. In order for Park Science to con- 
tinue its relevance and usefulness, we 
must look to our resource managers to 
become principal writers for this publica- 
tion to keep apace with these develop- 

The transfer of our scientists to the 
National Biological Survey has had great 
ramifications for the role of resource man- 
agement and will probably begin to affect 
the numbers and kinds of articles that are 
submitted to Park Science. Staff scientists 
will no longer be the central source of 
material for this publication. Cooperative 
Park Studies Units scientists, contract re- 
searchers, and affiliated university inves- 
tigators studying local questions will, of 
course, continue to be excellent sources 
for articles and assistance. To be sure, I 
encourage article contributions to con- 
tinue from these sources and from the 
NBS, but also want to extend an invitation 
to resource managers to submit items for 

While we expect to be well served by 
the NBS, USGS, and other research orga- 
nizations in meeting our research needs, 
resource managers may now recognize 
opportunities to begin filling some of the 
niche formerly held by our scientists. Re- 
source managers will have to carry out 
monitoring protocols that, in the past, 
often fell to researchers. As long as good 
scientific design is employed and results 
are repeatable, resource managers may 
also be able to forge ahead into new areas, 
discovering new ways to make progress 
with research needs through reduction and 
analyses of monitoring results. 


By the editor 

Resource managers are also beginning 
to coordinate the larger activity of defin- 
ing the role of science for the parks. This 
important responsibility gives resource 
managers the opportunity to work with 
scientists to identify the most critical re- 
search questions; they must also deal ef- 
fectively with regional offices and W ASO 
to generate research initiatives through 
the park planning process. 

This role as research broker, prioritiz- 
ing local research needs and figuring out 
how best to accomplish them, is likely to 
become more important without staff sci- 
entists. Opportunities to write about these 
maturing roles in Park Science may prove 
both valuable and relevant as innovative 
approaches to research are tried, projects 
are completed, and professionalization of 
the resource management division contin- 

While on a recent trip to several parks, 
I discovered another argument for encour- 
aging article submissions from a broader 
corps of writers. Many readers perceive 
that contributions to Park Science must 
comprise hard research to be eligible for 
publication. While research is welcome, 
the application of research in implement- 
ing a local resource management project 
(along with its results), for example, is of 
equal interest and importance. Similarly, 
an article need not concentrate on an es- 
pecially popular or timely issue, such as 
wolf reintroduction, but might simply do 
a good job detailing an approach to solv- 
ing a routine problem. The recent studies 
at Mount Rainier on visitor responses to 
signs requesting that they stay on trail are 

a good example of this. New data 01 
followup information about existing re- 
source management projects might also 
make good articles. 

In general, submissions to the publica- 
tion may include natural and social sci- 
ence research and associated recommen- 
dations, resource management project 
implementation summaries and results, 
inventorying and monitoring updates, 
public affairs strategies for handling con- 
troversial resource management issues, 
even the use of interpretation as a man- 
agement tool to involve the public in z 
resource management program. I suspecl 
that we also will publish more articles (01 
cross reference them with the CRM) hav- 
ing to do with cultural resources as we 
move toward integrating natural and cul- 
tural resource management into a single 
division. As long as articles discuss the 
management implications of research anc 
resource management activities they are 
suitable for submission to Park Science. 

With all their variety, parks challenge 
us with complex and diverse resource 
management problems. Our response tc 
these problems, through resource man- 
agement as detailed in Park Science, dis- 
tinguishes this publication. As we meet 
the challenges ahead, Park Science wil 
continue to be the vehicle that tracks oui 
successes, gives us feedback on our fail- 
ures, demonstrates our effectiveness, anc 
measures our progress toward sound sci- 
ence-based resource management. Let'! 
continue to use this publication to cel- 
ebrate our development and distinguisl 
ourselves as we adapt to the big change! 
that are upon us. 

National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior 

Roger G. Kennedy, Director 
Dennis B. Fenn, Acting Associate Director, Natural Resources 

Editorial Board 

Gary E. Davis, Marine Research Scientist, Channel Islands NP; Ventura, CA 

John Dennis, Biologist, Washington Office; Washington, D.C. 

Ron Hiebert, Editorial Board Chair and Chief Scientist, Midwest Region; Omaha, NE 

Jon Jarvis, Superintendent, Craters of the Moon NM, Arco, ID 

Elizabeth Johnson, Chief, Research and Resource Planning, Delaware Water Gap NRA; Bushldll. PA 

Jeff Selleck, Editor, P.O. Box 25287, Denver, CO 80225-0287 

and 12795 W. Alameda Parkway, Lakewood, CO 80228; 

(303) 969-2147; Fax (303) 969-2822. 


Park Scienc 

Contributing to Park Science: 

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Park Science is a quarterly, 32-page, 
National Park Service resource manage- 
lent bulletin. It explores natural and so- 
ial science-based solutions to natural and 
ultural resource management problems 
i the national park system. Wide circu- 
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Content—The publication features ar- 
eles of general interest on field-oriented 
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ase studies, trends in resource manage- 
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pportunities, regional highlights and cal- 
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Focus and Tone — Material should em- 
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Criteria—Feature articles and case stud- 
:s may include (1) a description of the 
;source management problem(s) that 
rompted the research; (2) an explanation 
f the significance of the resource man- 
gement project; (3) discussion of man- 
gement considerations related to the 
roblem(s), such as relevant legislation 
jnabling, NEPA, ARPA, FACA, Endan- 
ered Species Act, etc.), pertinent park 
lanning documents (GMP, SFM, FMP, 
MP, etc.), planning procedures, and po- 
tical considerations; (4) a summary of 
le methodology of the experiment; (5) 
le results and recommendations of the 
search; (6) a description of how the 
ndings were applied in the field; and (7) 
i appraisal of the scope of applicability 


of the findings to other park areas. As 
additional information about a project ac- 
crues, follow-up reports (one or more years 
later) may be very useful in fine tuning 

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Deadlines — Fall issue— August 1; Win- 
ter—November 1; Spring— February 1; 
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Park Science 

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Delineation of Old-Growth Oak and Eastern Hemlock 
in Great Smoky Mountains National Park 

By Edward C. Yost, Katherine S. Johnson, and William F. Blozan 

Editor's Note: The Great Smokies old-growth 
baseline data study was funded through NRPP 
(Natural Resources Preservation Program) 
monies as an inventory and monitoring project 
and was the first of its kind within the park 

In response to the southerly spread of 
two exotic forest pests, the gypsy moth 
(Lymantria dispar (L.)) and the hemlock 
woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae Annand), 
Great Smoky Mountains NP, Resource 
Management and Science Division, initi- 
ated the Old-Growth Project to identify 
and map the park's old-growth oak 
(Quercus spp.) and eastern hemlock (Tsuga 
canadensis (L.) Carr.) forests and to es- 
tablish long-term vegetation monitoring 
plots within these areas. Identification 
and mapping of representative stands is 
now complete and establishment of long- 
term monitoring plots is beginning. 

Stand Location and Delineation 

We located the old-growth hemlock 
and oak forests using current Geographic 
Information Systems (GIS) data (Pyle 

Researchers using increment coring tools 
examined 700 trees throughout the study 
area in order to confirm the presence of old- 
growth. Increment coring is a common 
technique for aging trees by counting growth 


1985, MacKenzie 1991) and recent aerial 
photography (1: 12,000 scale) in conjunc- 
tion with historical information, old pho- 
tographs, previous vegetation studies, re- 
ports of anthropogenic disturbance, and 
interviews with persons knowledgeable in 
early pre-park history. We selected a mini- 
mum stand size of 5 hectares (ha) for 
hemlock; a minimum stand size was not 
used for oak forests due to their small size 
and patchy distribution (smallest delin- 
eated area equaled 2 ha). Each potential 
site was ground truthed and mapped. We 
conducted a minimum of two arbitrarily 

placed canopy tree tallies in each stand 
using approximately 1/10-ha circular ar- 
eas to tally species, relative frequency, 
crown class, and regeneration. The tally 
information was used to estimate canopy 
dominance, species composition, and to 
verify forest types (see table 1 for forest 
type descriptions). We determined the: 
old-growth forest type by the species or 
species association with the highest (mini- 
mum 50% frequency) representation in 
the dominant and codominant canopy 
classes. We took increment cores and! 

Table 1. Description of Forest Types Used for Delineation 
Mesic Oak 

Within the park, these forests occur at middle to upper elevations from 1,585- 
1,067 m (3,500-5,200 ft) on gently sloping ridge crests with south, east, or west 
aspects, and at lower elevations from 763-1,372 m (2,500-1,800 ft) on nearly flat 
south aspects. At the higher elevations northern red oak is dominant, with canopy 
associates of white oak (Quercus alba L.), chestnut oak (Quercus phnus L.), red 
maple, eastern hemlock, and Carolina silverbell. Mesic oak forest at lower eleva- 
tions is dominated by chestnut oak associated with red maple, black gum (Nyssa 
sylvatica Marsh.), pignut hickory (Carya glabra (P. Mill.) Sweet), and black birch 
(Be tula lenta L.). In both cases, oak species comprise 50% or more of the upper 
canopy (per canopy tree tally). The understory community includes sweetshrub 
(Calycanthusfloridush.), maple-leaf viburnum (Viburnum acerifolium L.), azaleas 
(Rhododendron spp. L.), and witch-hazel (Hamamelis virqiniana L.). 

Submesic Oak 

These forests occur on moderate middle elevation 763-1,372 m (2,500-4,500 ft) 
slopes, with southerly aspects or on nearly flat north-facing ridge tops in the western 
end of the park. These ecosystems are dominated by chestnut oak, northern red oak, 
and red maple, and oak species comprise 50% or more of the upper canopy layers 
(per tree tally). The understory is dominated by deciduous ericads — primarily 
huckleberries (Gaylussacia spp. Kunth), blueberries (Vaccinium L.), and azaleas. 

Subxeric Oak 

These forests are dominated by chestnut oak, scarlet oak (Quercus coccinea 
Muenchh), and black oak (Quercus velutina Lam.), which comprise 50% or more 
of the upper canopy (per tree tally). Pines (Pinus spp. L.) often mix with the 
hardwoods. The understory component is primarily mountain laurel (Kalmia spp. 
L.), with other ericads such as blueberries, huckleberries, and rhododendron 
(Rhododendron spp. L.). 

Xeric Oak 

Blackjack (Quercus marilandica Muenchh.), scarlet, and chestnut oaks are 
common on these dry, often south-facing areas. Oak species represent 50% or more 
of the upper canopy. Virginia pine (Pinus virqiniana P. Mill), pitch pine (Pinus 
rigida P. Mill), and Table Mountain pine (Pinus echinata P. Mill) often share the 
canopy, along with sourwood (Oxydendrum arboreum (L.) DC), black gum, and 
red maple. Blueberries and mountain laurel generally occupy the shrub layers. 

Hemlock/Cove Hardwoods 

These forests generally occur on moist, north-facing slopes to about 1,219 m 
(4,000 ft) in elevation. Hemlock dominates the upper canopy, and hardwood 
associates include tulip-poplar, black birch, yellow birch, and Fraser magnolia . The 
understory is typically dense rosebay rhododendron (Rhododendron maximum L.) 
and dog-hobble (Leucothoe spp. D. Don). 

Park Science 

delineation of Old-Growth Oak and Eastern Hemlock (cont'd) 

iameters at breast height from a mini- 
lum of two trees per tally site, and noted 
Id-growth characteristics and anthropo- 
enic disturbance (see tables 2 and 3 for 
riteria). Additional increment core data — 
iken on the location of potential old- 
rowth stands and in areas of suspected 
isturbance — were essential for verifying 
ee ages and releases in annual growth. 
/e considered a minimum age of 150 
jars a coarse filter for old-growth candi- 
acy, as the lower valleys were cleared for 
piculture and timber as early as 1840 
["rout 1987). 

Results and Discussion 

We located and mapped 86 stands, 
tailing 926 ha, as summarized by forest 
pe in table 4. The stands were distrib- 
ed throughout the park, although oak 
pes tended to be concentrated in the 
estern portion and hemlock types in the 
istern portion. In general, the hemlock 

stands represented relatively undisturbed 
areas; oak areas exhibited a higher level 
of disturbance, especially due to the loss 
of the American chestnut (Castanea 
dentata (Marsh) Borkh.). With the excep- 
tion of xeric oak, we located representa- 
tive stands in all of the oak and hemlock 
forest types considered in this project, 
although we delineated only one small (2 
ha) stand in subxeric oak. In the remaining 
forest types — mesic oak, submesic oak, 
hemlock/northern hardwoods, and hem- 
lock/cove hardwoods — stands with both 
high and moderate virgin forest attribute 
ratings were delineated and are available 
for permanent plot location. 


Hardwood forest types of the eastern 
and southern United States are highly 
variable (Avery 1978), and infrared aerial 
photo interpretation of old-growth forests 
proved difficult within our study area. We 

Table 2 
Old-growth Characteristics 

Listed attributes rated in all forest types except oak specific (++) and hemlock 

specific (*). 
•Logs in all stages of decomposition 
•Standing snags 

•Majority of canopy tree ages 150 years or greater 
•Canpoy gaps (log present in some stage of decay) 
•Little evidence of human disturbance 
•Pit and mound microtopography 

•High amount of woody debris on ground and in associated streams 
•Old bark characteristics of canopy trees 
•Bole and root decay 

•Canopy structure multilayered (uneven-aged or in a series of age classes ++) 
•Rat-topped tree crowns ++ 
•Undisturbed soil * 
•Uneven-aged structure * 
•Large trees (relative to site) * 

•Large commercially important tree species of high quality * 
•Rounded tree crowns in profile * 

Table 3 
Disturbance Rating Classes 

High in virgin forest attributes (A): the stand retained natural structure with little 
or no record or evidence of human disturbance. 

Moderate in virgin forest attributes (B): the stand generally retained natural 
structure with record of evidence of selective logging or chestnut blight. 

Low in virgin forest attributes (C): the stand retained scattered old-growth trees 
with record or evidence of extensive disturbance due to logging or chestnut 

Adapted from Pyle 1985. 

II 1994 

did not determine a reliable, consistent 
photo identification pattern of forest types, 
due in part to the seasonal differences in 
photo sets and the wide range of color 
variation between prints on the same flight 
line. Images at the edges of stereo pairs 
were inherently distorted and hemlock 
canopy dominance was visually exagger- 
ated within these areas. In contrast with 
hemlock, old-growth oak in our project 
areas could not be reliably determined by 
photo characteristics. For example, areas 
with old-growth characteristics such as 
large flat-topped crowns were generally 
younger (60-120 years), than vigorous 
northern red oaks (Quercus rubra L.) or 
second-growth forest. Areas on the photos 
that appeared as canopy gaps were often 
rocky areas, cliffs, or steep changes in 
elevation, and could not be considered 
indicators of old-growth based solely on 
the photo image. 

Initially, we used a composite GIS map 
of areas lacking known human distur- 
bance (Pyle 1985) overlaid with predicted 
forest cover types (MacKenzie 1991) to 
locate old-growth oak. Ground truthing 
revealed that oak forest type predictions 
were fairly accurate but that human dis- 
turbance records were not consistently 
reliable. Old-growth mesic oak was par- 
ticularly over-predicted, and submesic oak 
was often of old-growth character inside 
and outside the predicted areas. 

Experience in each forest type has led 
us to realize that one old-growth charac- 
teristics rating system is not applicable to 
all forests in the park, and forest type- 
specific rating methods need to be devel- 
oped. As an example, attributes that were 
rated higher in our mesic oak forests, such 
as pit-and-mound microtopography, were 
rated lower in submesic stands where the 
trees typically rot and decay without up- 
rooting. The lower rating was not due to 
a lack of old-growth integrity but perhaps 
to a difference in soils and windthrow 
characteristics. Modifications might in- 
clude quantifying each old-growth at- 
tribute or "weighing" human disturbance 
more heavily than other attributes. 

The 150-year-minimum age for old- 
growth — intended to "filter out" most 
European influence in the park — tended 
to exclude old-growth ecosystems with a 
severe or regular disturbance regime be- 
cause they lacked the project's old-growth 
characteristics, such as consistent "old" 
ages and uneven-aged structure. In addi- 
tion, "virgin" forests recovering from ex- 
tensive disturbances, including wind and 
ice storms, chestnut blight, or forest fires 
could have been excluded if the distur- 
bance occurred after the 1840s. 

Continued on page 16 

Old -Growth (continued from page 15) 

Table 4 
Delineated Area Totals by Forest Type 

Total survey area: 959 ha* 

Oak Types Hemlock Types 

(665 ha) (294 ha) 

Mesic Submesic 




Total ha per type 212 

451 2 

247 47 

# stands surveyed 21 

39 1 

19 6 

Avg. stand size 10 12 

2 14 


% Total 22 47 0.2 

26 5 


♦Areas displayed in this table are not adjusted to scale for slope. 

Table 5 

Forest Type Comparisons Based on Canopy Tree Tallies 

Hemlock Type: Hemlock/Cove Hemlock/North 

Species Comp% Canopy% Comp% Canopy% 

Betula alleghaniensis 6.4 

Acer rubrum 3.7 

Magnolia fraseri 2.8 





Oak Type: 

mesic submesic subxeric 

mesic submesic subxeric 


Quercus rubra 30.0 

Quercus prinus 4.0 

Quercus velutina 0. 1 

Quercus cocci nea 0.4 

Quercus spp. total 40.8 

% Composition 

14.6 0.9 

22.6 23.4 

3.1 8.1 

2.0 14.4 

49.1 54.0 



% Upper Canopy 








Through the collection of 748 complete 
(readable, to center, and lacking rot) core 
samples, we determined that bark character- 
istics did not always indicate relative age. 
For both hemlock and oak, old (exceeding 
150 years) suppressed trees had "young" 
bark characteristics, and young vigorous 
trees had the very rough and furrowed bark 
usually associated with old trees. In addi- 
tion, we found some species with atypical 
bark characteristics, and some species such 
as American beech (Faqus qrandifolia 
Ehrh.), Fraser magnolia (Magnolia fraseri 
Walt), and American holhy (Ilex opaca 
Ait) may never develop rough bark. 

Tree Tally Information Summary 

The following information is based on 
arbitrarily placed canopy tree tally areas and 
should be considered preliminary, data from 
the permanent monitoring plots will be nec- 
essary to substantiate or refine these obser- 


Two types of eastern hemlock forests 
were surveyed in this project: Hemlock- 
Cove hardwoods and Hemlock-Northern 
hardwoods. Within our study area, prelimi- 
nary information suggests considerable com- 
positional differences between the two types 
(table 5). Some patterns, however, appeared 
common to both forest types. Species such 
as Fraser magnolia, yellow birch (Betula 
alleghaniensisBiitL), and silverbeU (Halesia 
tetraptera var. monticola Ellis) had a low 
recruitment to the upper canopy, based on 
their total compositional value. In contrast 
red maple (Acer rubrum L.) was relatively 
even in distribution throughout the canopy. 
Hemlock was more frequent in the sup- 
pressed canopy class, which may indicate 
that suppressed hemlock saplings were dis- 
tributed evenly throughout the lower canopy 
(therefore, well represented in the tally data), 
whereas suppressed hardwoods were only 
well represented in scattered canopy gaps. 

In both types, hardwoods dominated the 
intermediate canopy class. 

We differentiated three types of oak for- 
ests based on overall canopy composition 
related to exposure and elevation (Whittaker 
1956). Oak dominated all types and varied 
considerably in composition as well as in the 
canopy distribution of species in each. Oak 
increased in compositional value as a com- 
ponent of the forest as a whole and within 
upper canopy layers as aspects became more 
exposed and better drained. Overall, oaks 
(aside from northern red) increased in com- 
position from mesic to subxeric sites. 


Currently, 959 ha of old-growth oak and 
hemlock stands are delineated in the 
Smokies, and permanent monitoring plots 
will continue to be established through the 
1994 field season The baseline data will 
provide information for the definition and 
understanding of these ecosystems, and are 
valuable as a preinfestation reference for 
future pest management decisions. 

Yost, Johnson, and Blozan are NPS forestry 
technicians at Great Smoky Mountains National 
Park, 107 Park Headquarters Road, Gatlinburg, 
TN 37738, (615)436-1707 

References Cited 

Avery, E.A. 1978. Forester's Guide to Aerial Photo Inter- 
pretation. U.S. Forest Service Agriculture Handbook 
No. 308. 

Carbomeau, L.E. 1986. Old-growth forest stands in New 
Hampshire: a preliminary investigation. Master's thesis, 
University of New Hampshire, Durham. 

Eyre, F.H. 1980. Forest Cover Types of the United States 
and Canada. Society of American Foresters. Washing- 
ton, D.C. 

MacKenzie, M.D. 1991. Vegetation map of the Great 
Smoky Mountains National Park based on Landsat 
Thematic Mapper Data: accuracy assessment and nu- 
merical description of vegetation types. University of 
Wisconsin, Madison. 

McCarthy, B.C. 1991. Ecology of old-growth forests. In 
Department of Biology, Proceedings of Faculty Lecture 
Series. Frostburg State University, Frostburg, MD. 

McLeod, D. 1992. Attributes of old-growth mixed meso- 
phyticforests in the Southern Appalachians. In Proceed- 
ings of the Southern Appalachian Man and Biosphere 
Conference. Gatlinburg, TN. 

Miller, F.H. 1938. Brief narrative descriptions of the vegeta- 
tive types in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. 
Report to the Superintendent National Park Service, 
Great Smoky Mountains National Park Library, 
Gatlinburg, TN. 

Nowacki, GJ. 1991. Old-growth characteristics list In 
Proceedings from the Old-Growth Characteristics and 
Methodsof Inventory Workshop. Nantahala/PisgahLand 
and Resource Management Plan Re-analysis. U.S. 
Forest Service, Asheville, NC. 

Pyle, C. 1985. Vegetation disturbance of the Great Smoky 
Mountains National Park: an analysis of archival maps 
and records. Research/Resources Management Report 
SER 77. National Park Service, Southeast Region, 
Atlanta, GA. 

Trout, E. 1987. Logging in Sevier County, Tennessee. 
National Park Service Report, National Park Service, 
Great Smoky Mountains National Park Library. 
Gatlinburg, TN. 

Whittaker, R.H. 1956. Vegetation of the Great Smoky 
Mountains. Ecological Monographs 26(1): 1-80. 

Whitney, GG. 1 987. Some reflections on the value of old- 
growth: scientific and otherwise. Natural Areas Journal 

7(3)32-99. „ , „ 


Keeping Visitors On The Right Track: 

Sign and Barrier Research at Mount Rainier 


Editor's Note: This is the third report 
' the authors on noncompliant visitor 
havior at Mount Rainier. 

Paradise Meadows is one of the most 
ipular and accessible areas in Mount 
dnier NP (MORA). Thousands of park 
sitors stop at Paradise Meadows each 
y during peak season to hike, eat, view 
s mountain, and tour the visitor center. 
T-trail hiking is a major source of hu- 
an impact that creates social trails and 
lated erosion throughout the several thou- 
nd acres of subalpine meadows. With 
i to 5,000 visits a day, even a small 
oportion of visitors leaving established 
ills and deviating onto the meadows has 
lignificant adverse impact. Managers at 
radise Meadows need data on the effect 
various control strategies to protect the 
vironment from inappropriate and de- 
•uctive behavior. 

Since off-trail hiking can cause severe 
mage to fragile natural environments, 
lilside signs, barriers, and other visitor 
ntrol techniques represent the last op- 
rtunity for resource managers to deter 
appropriate activities in such locations. 
) test the effectiveness of such strate- 
ss, the University of Washington Coop- 
itive Park Studies Unit administered 
veral experiments at Paradise Mead- 
re. These experiments are presented as 
:ase study in the applications of social 
ience methods to natural resource man- 


The research at MORA assessed the 
Eicacy of alternative trailside sign texts, 
rrier types, and uniformed personnel in 
terring off-trail hiking. Altogether, we 
idied the behavior of 17,416 visitors at 
ree sites in the meadow in an experi- 
jnt designed to compare the effective- 
ss of six different types of signs, 
iroughout each observation day, re- 
archers systematically rotated all ex- 
rimental signs at each site to control for 
is due to lack of randomization. Con- 
iucted of a standard engraved brushed 
;tal and bolted onto brown steel posts, 
; signs were positioned about knee high 
>ng the trail. The topography of the 
'adows and the position of the signs 
ide it difficult to pass the experimental 
p and fail to see the signs (see sidebar 
| a description of the experimental sign 

U 1994 

Thomas C. Swearingen and Darryll R. Johnson 

In another component of the study, a 
barrier experiment included behavioral 
data on 6,006 subjects at three sites. At 
these sites, we studied the effect of two 
types of trailside barriers. The experiment 
consisted of systematic rotation of (1) a 
split rail fence, (2) a yellow polypropy- 
lene rope supported by lathe posts placed 
at knee height (approximately), and (3) a 
control (no barrier). Due to the more per- 
manent nature ofbarriers, each was erected 
on each site for several days. 

Experimental Signs 

The experiment design used one 
stake, six sign treatments, and a con- 
trol (no sign). The signs read: (1) "No 
Hiking - Meadow Repairs 1 * (the stan- 
dard NPS meadow sign), (2) "Stay 
On The Paved Trails And Preserve 
The Meadow** (new preservation 
appeal sign), (3) international red 
circle/crosshatch sign with a hiker's 
profile (symbolic sign), (4) "No Off- 
Trail Hikings-combination of a pro- 
hibitory message with the same hiker 
symbol-(hy brid), (5) "OfT-Trail Hik- 
ers May Be Fined 1 * (threatened sanc- 
tion), (6) short stake (approximately 
Vim or 1 Vi ft high) with a small ver- 
sion of the symbolic sign (stake), (7) 
THE PLANTS** (humorous sign), 
and (8) control (no sign). 

At one site, each experimental sign 
was alternately displayed either once at 
the behavior observation site or several 
times along the trail leading up to the 
observation site. Researchers collected 
data on the behavior of subjects exposed 
to the experimental signs (preservation 
appeal, symbolic, hybrid, sanction, and 
humorous signs). We designed this proce- 
dure to determine if the initial effect of a 
novel sign would be different from re- 
peated exposure to that sign as the novelty 

At a different experiment site, a uni- 
formed NPS employee was alternately 
present and absent through entire sign 
treatment rotations on random days. The 
female employee wore a class A field 
uniform with green jeans or shorts, a NPS 
short sleeve shirt, and a forest green NPS 
baseball cap. She did not wear the class A 
dress uniform with a more military or 
authoritarian appearance. The employee 
did not approach visitors to enforce rules, 
but was clearly visible along the trail at 
the experimental sign site during the ap- 
propriate data collection periods. 

Trained personnel observed visitors 
from unobtrusive sites, and visitors could 
not infer that they were under observa- 
tion. Data were recorded on standardized 
observation sheets, and additional quali- 
tative comments and observations were 
logged into daily journals. Data described 
each participant, group, and compliant or 
noncompliant behavior in the presence of 
the signs or barriers, and the behavior of 
other parties in close visual proximity. 
We defined noncompliance as off-trail 
hiking where the subjects deviated off the 
trail in the immediate proximity of the 
signs or barriers. 

The Sign Experiment 

The sign experiment results indicate 
that trailside signs significantly reduce 
off-trail hiking in comparison to no sign 
(a control). In comparisons between signs, 
each sign was statistically compared to 
the next most effective sign in a step-wise 
procedure to determine how the effective 
signs might be grouped. 

Different signs varied significantly in 
observed rates of noncompliance (table 
1). The threatened sanction sign was more 
effective than the next best treatment, the 
new preservation appeal (chi square = 
10.0, p= .0016), and reduced off-trail hik- 
ing by 75% in comparison to the control. 
The next four most effective signs (new 
preservation appeal, humorous, hybrid, 
symbolic) were not significantly differ- 
ent. However, the symbolic sign was not 
significantly more effective than the old 
standard sign. Thus, the new preservation 
appeal, humorous, and hybrid signs rep- 
resent middle-range effectiveness. The old 
standard and the symbolic signs are a third 
range of effectiveness, and the old stan- 
dard "Meadow Repairs" sign is the least 
effective. Off-trail hiking rates did not 

Continued on page 18 

Keeping Visitors on the Right Track: 

differ significantly from the control (chi square = 3.3, p = .0684) 
when visitors were exposed to the stake. 

The research also addressed the potential for a novelty effect 
on hiker behavior of the presence of unusual signs placed 
singularly or repeatedly on the trailside. We investigated whether 
repeated exposure to an unusual, novel sign causes a change in 
the effectiveness of the unusual sign type. Data analysis revealed 
that there was not a significant difference in compliance rates 
when the repeated preservation appeal, symbolic, or sanction 
signs were present or absent. There was, however, a significant 
difference in compliance rates between single and repeated 
exposures to the hybrid sign; off-trail hiking increased [this is 
surprising] when the sign was present several times along the 
trail corridor. 

Characteristics of Off-trail Hikers 

At experimental sites, the majority (58%) of all off-trail 
hikers were white adults. However, a disproportionate number 

were non-white (a large percentage of whom were foreign) 
Some Asian tour groups were even observed being led off-trai 
by their tour leaders. Although adults accounted for 58% of al 
non compliant behavior, analysis of the data indicated that teen 
and children were more likely to deviate off-trail. 

The majority of off-trail travel (78% ) occurred when othe 
parties in the vicinity of the party under observation stayed oi 
the trails. However, the probability of off-trail hiking increase 
when the offending hikers could view noncompliance by other 
in their general vicinity. Finally, when the observed noncompli 
ance occurred among a group of visitors, a large proportion o 
all of the group was likely to walk off-trail. 

The Barrier Experiment 

The data from the barrier experiment sites are presented i: 
table 2. The yellow polypropylene rope barrier was significantl 
more effective in deterring off-trail hiking than the split rai 
fence. On average, ropes were over twice as effective as spli 
rail fences in reducing noncompliance. Both barriers signifj 

Table 1 

cantly reduced off-trail hiking in comparison to no barrier (th 

Sign Text by Visitor Compliance 

Uniformed Personnel 

Mount Rainier Sign Study 

Noncompliance almost disappeared in the presence of th 
uniformed employee (table 3). Interestingly, additional analyse 

revealed that the positive effect of signs remair 

ted evident: thz 

Sign Text 

Compliance Status 1 

Row Totals 

is, signs still had a significant, although slight, deterrent effec 



on off-trail hiking in the presence of the unifc 
Management Implications 

>rmed person. 

Sanction (Row) 




The statistical analyses indicate that the threatened sanctio 





sign is the most effective. Indeed, the next most effective sig 





(preservation appeal) had a noncompliance rate nearly twice a 

Preservation Appeal 










Table 2 








Barrier Type by Visitor Compliance 


Mount Rainier Barrier Study 





Barrier Type 


Status 1 

Row Totals 










Old NPS Standard 




Rope (Row) 






















Split Rail 
















Control (no sign) 




















Column Totals 




Column Totals 
















Missing Cases = 

Missing Cases = 

Chi-Square = 77.5, 

p = .0000 

Chi-Square = 44.7 

p = .0000 

Cramer's V=. 07 

Cramer's V=. 11 
'C = Complier 

NC = Noncomplier 

*C = Complier 

NC = Noncomplier 


Park Scien 

ign and Barrier Research at Mount Rainier, cont'd 

h as the sanction sign. A cluster of signs of nearly equal effect, 
hiding the preservation appeal, humorous, and hybrid signs, 
ow the sanction sign. All remaining signs were either signifi- 
tly less effective (symbolic and old standard signs) or essen- 
ly ineffective (stake). 

We did not assess the effect of the sanction sign on the visitor 
enence. Thus, this sign should be used with caution and only 
;n adverse environmental impacts dictate stringent measures, 
ler less intrusive signs may suffice to reduce visitor impacts 
nany circumstances. 

[here does not appear to be a novelty effect related to the 
amiliar, experimental signs; they worked equally well as a 
jrrent to off-trail hiking in multiple or single exposures, 
vever, there was some indication of a novelty effect specific 
he hybrid sign. 

Die effect of the presence of a uniformed employee suggests 
: off-trail hikers are not ignorant of agency expectations 
irding appropriate behavior. Evidently, a uniformed park 
jloyee in the immediate vicinity of a sensitive area will 
itly reduce noncompliant behavior. Without further research, 
do not understand the psychological basis for the effective- 
s of the uniformed employee. It appears, however, to be one 
he most effective deterrents. 

[he use of both barrier types improved visitor cooperation, 
n the least effective barrier (split rail) proved advantageous, 
16% less noncompliance was observed in its presence in 
lparison to the control (no barrier). At a third site (data not 
>ented), the rope barrier also reduced off-trail hiking at a 
ular snow play area, but noncompliance remained very high. 
lough not directly compared to the signs in this study, rope 
riers may not be more effective than threatened sanction signs 
leterring off-trail hiking. 

Table 3 

Uniform Presence by Visitor Compliance 

Mount Rainier Barrier Study 


Compliance Status 1 

Row Totals 



iform Present 













iform Absent 










lumn Totals 










ssing Cases = 32 

i-Square = 32.2 

p = .0000 


= Complier 

NC = 



Vandalism and Uttering literature consistently suggests that 
"vandalism [littering] begets more vandalism [littering]." A 
similar pattern of behavior was also observed in relation to off- 
trail hiking. Furthermore, when noncompliance occurred within 
a party, it often involved a large proportion of the group, 
indicating a likely peer effect relating to noncompliant behavior. 

Both youths and foreign visitors disproportionately engaged 
in off-trail hiking. Perhaps specific communications could be 
directed toward these visitor subpopulations. However, the 
primary visitor management strategies must concentrate on the 
majority of the off-trail hikers— white adults. 


The Mount Rainier study tested the effectiveness of selected 
social control techniques designed to deter off-trail hiking. Such 
behavior can cause immense damage, both environmentally and 
aesthetically, and this problem has been noted in most outdoor 
recreation areas. Furthermore, the park efforts at rehabilitation 
of the resources (e.g., high standard trails and meadow restora- 
tion) can only be effective if the continuing problem of human 
impact is also contained. 

The park has attempted to influence visitor behavior with 
naturalist programs and passive communications which empha- 
size the importance of low impact use of the area and apprecia- 
tion of nature. An implicit assumption of this strategy is that 
noncompliant visitor behavior (e.g., off-trail hiking) is caused 
by a lack of knowledge about, or appreciation for, proper use of 
the resource. The objective of this communication approach is 
to motivate behavior by creating a pro-social psychological state 
in which recreationists view behavior desired by park managers 
as satisfying personally desired goals. 

Exposure to a message does not ensure that it will be accepted 
or understood by all people, and many other visitors may never 
see or hear the messages. Some proportion of park visitors will 
always be unaffected by even the best communication strategies. 
In these circumstances, the last chance to influence undesirable 
behavior of day hikers on a park trail occurs with their exposure 
to behavioral cues located at or near areas where such behavior 

Barriers and signs represent an opportunity to affect the 
behavior of those visitors who were not influenced by or exposed 
to other park communication efforts. Similarly, the presence of 
a uniformed employee may also create a salient reminder of 
appropriate behavior. 

The study established that onsite behavioral cues do influence 
behavior. To accomplish their purpose, onsite cues must provide 
motivational incentives that are understood and effective among 
diverse populations. The observed variable effects of signs, 
barriers, and the presence of uniformed employees on 
noncompliant visitor behavior suggest that decisions on the use 
of on site cues must include more consideration of the type of 
intervention and the impact of such visitor controls on the 
behavior and recreation experience of the visitors. The studies 
represent an important first step in the necessary behavioral 
research to assist resource managers in controlling undesirable 
visitor behavior. 

Swearingen is an assistant professor in the Department of Health, 
Physical Education, and Leisure Services at the University of South 
Alabama, Mobile, Alabama 36688, (205) 460-7131. 

Johnson isa social science project leader with the University of 
Washington Cooperative Park Studies Unit, CFR AR-10, National 
Biological Survey, Seattle, Washington 98195, (206) 685-7404. 


Western Park Personnel Meet on 
Mountain Lion-Human Encounters 

Close-encounters and attacks on hu- 
mans by mountain lions ifelis concolor) 
have increased in the past 20 years in 
western North America and in a number 
of parks. In April, a lone female runner 
was killed by a lion in the Sierra Nevada 
foothills east of Sacramento; this was the 
second runner fatality in three years (a 
Colorado runner was killed in 1991) and 
the fifth lion attack in California since 
1985. In Olympic NP, 33 lion-human en- 
counters (i.e., sudden unexpected meet- 
ings at close range) and five near-attacks 
have been reported since 1991 with at 
least 12 occurring in 1994. Several other 
western national parks (Sequoia, Red- 
wood, Big Bend, and Yosemite NPs) re- 
port similar patterns with two attacks oc- 
curring in Glacier NP in the past five 
years. This trend presents a visitor safety 
problem, has legal ramifications, and re- 
quires timely preparation by park resource 

On July 12-13, we participated in a 
workshop at the University of California, 
Davis (UCD) on managing lion-human 
conflicts in western parks. The workshop 
was sponsored jointly by Redwood NP 
and the CPSU/UCD. About 30 persons 
participated, including lion and legal ex- 
perts, houndsmen, rangers, biologists, ad- 
ministrators, and interpretive specialists 
from various national parks (Glacier, 
Olympic, Sequoia and Kings Canyon, 
Yosemite, Lassen Volcanic NPs, Red- 
wood National and State Parks), 
Whiskeytown and Golden Gate NRAs, 
the Western Regional Office, and the Cali- 
fornia Park Service. 

Dr. Howard Quigley of the Hornocker 
Wildlife Research Institute summarized 
lion ecology and behavior based on long 
term research in Idaho, Yellowstone and 
Glacier NPs, and New Mexico. Inunhunted 
populations, adult lions (>two years old) 
occur in rather stable social territories that 
tend to limit population density, with one 
male territory typically overlapping sev- 
eral (three to five) female territories. Re- 
lations between lions in territories (out- 
side of breeding) vary from tolerance to 
serious fighting and frequent deaths. Fe- 
male territories are more responsive to 
prey changes locally. Young animals dis- 
persing from natal territories can move 
300 miles in search of home ranges; lin- 
gering in an adult territory can amount to 
a death sentence. These transient animals 

By Bruce Moorhead and Terry Hofstra 

often interact with humans. Research is 
still needed, however, on the habituation 
of lions to people and encounter/attack 
rates as the human population increases 
and people move closer to lions. 

Dr. Paul Beier, University of Northern 
Arizona, summarized and expanded on 
his published research on lion attacks 
(Beier. 1991. Cougar attacks on humans 
in the U.S. and Canada. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 
19:403-412). Overall, the risk of a lion 
attack is very small although it is increas- 
ing and is causing concern in some areas. 
In the 1 00 years from 1 890- 1 989, about 50 
humans were injured, while 10 people 
were killed due to lion attacks. The ma- 
jority of victims (66%) were unsupervised 
children or lone adults; 60%of the attacks 
occurred in British Columbia. In the 20 
years from 1970-90 (since the end of 
bounty hunting), the risk of an attack 
increased five times (from 0.4 human 
deaths/100 yrs to 2.5/100 yrs). 

Avoiding Attack 

While children are most vulner- 
able to attack, risk is much lower 
when accompanied by an adult Simi- 
larly, people traveling in groups are 
more difficult targets for lions. At 
close range, lions may interpret def- 
erence in people as increased (prey) 
vulnerability. Therefore, when en- 
countering a lion, people should stand 
their ground, not run, be assertive, 
keep their eyes on the animal, not 
play dead, and fight back, if neces- 

Bill Clark of California Wildlife Inves- 
tigations Lab discussed the protocol for 
investigating incidents, such as the April 
1994 fatality where a lone female runner 
was killed and partially consumed in a 
state park east of Sacramento. Assume 
that you'll be sued, and act immediately 
to protect the scene of an injury or fatality 
and to permit identification of the lion 
involved (by tracks, etc.). For forensic 
work, time is also critical since tissue and 
other evidence either decomposes rapidly 
at a scene or is digested by the animal. In 
the April fatality, human autopsy data, 
lion tracks, and reference skulls were used 
to develop a profile of the lion being 
sought based on its cranial characteristics 

inferred from bite wounds and other clues 
Chase dogs captured the right lion sooi 
thereafter, underscoring the value o 
tracker availability. The cat's identity wa 
confirmed by DNA analysis of humai 
tissue residues found at the base of it 
claws. The animal was a lactating femali 
with cubs. 

The field solicitor of the Department o 
the Interior and the deputy attorney gen 
eral for California addressed park liability 
issues. While liability is evaluated case b; 
case, it depends largely on whether or no 
a park is aware of a safety threat (no 
reasonably to be expected by the averag 
visitor) and whether or not due warning i 
given. Everyone entering a park when 
lions are being observed or frequent! 
encountered should be informed of th 
natural presence of and potential hazard 
posed by lions (e.g., by entry brochure 
and posted signs). Reports of lion sighting 
and interactions with people should b 
taken seriously, documented, and investi 
gated. More specific warnings should b 
posted (and areas closed temporarily i 
warranted) where multiple lion observa 
tions and encounters occur. Warning 
should be neither too soft nor undul; 
alarming, but must communicate the pres 
ence of lions in an area, the potentia 
hazards, how to reduce the likelihood o 
encounter, and what to do if you meet ai 

On the second day of the workshop, th 
group developed uniform mountain lioi 
management guidelines for federal an< 
state parks. Terry Hofstra of Redwood Nl 
is editing the guidelines to include sec 
tions on policy and purpose, managemec 
alternatives and tactics, documentatioi 
and data management, and education an< 

Some of the management recommen 
dations include encouraging parks wit 
increasing lion-human interactions to (1 
complete local response plans; (2) star 
dardize lion sighting/incident report form 
and management response procedures^ 
lionbehaviors (movements, postures, chat 
acteristics of eyes, ears, mouth, tail, etoi 
observed during encounters (as summa 
rized by Dr. Lee Fitzhugh/UCD) can ai< 
personnel in placing a particular behavio 
on an ascending scale of attack risks 
(3)control/minimize lion attractants, sue) 
as pets, raccoons, carrion, and improper! 


Park Sciem 

ountain Lion-Human Encounters (cont'd) 

mpic NP visitor and photographer Jan Brill and a partner 
ountered a mountain lion suddenly when hiking the popular 
rdwalk trail between Ozette and Sand Point. What began as 
itement for the wildlife viewing opportunity turned to concern as 
lion neared the hikers. 

Photos by J an Brill 
Noting the lion's ear position, Brill decided to wave his arms (see 
sidebar). The lion sauntered off into the brush ending a typical and 
potentially hazardous lion-human encounter. 

red human food and garbage in 
oldings and recreation facilities; (4) 
ognize that a close encounter is poten- 
ly very dangerous and complex~a 
i's behavior can rapidly escalate or 
ft back and forth between secretive, 
ious, defensive, or offensive depend- 
in good part upon what people do; (5) 
'ise the public to become assertive and 
inter-aggressive when a lion behaves 
pessively or is reluctant to leave an 
a; (6) promptly haze lions away from 
ise public use areas; (7) realize that 
aslocation of problem mountain lions 
implicated by considerations of park 
I and neighboring land use, and may 
se fatal territorial competition between 
is; (8) develop interagency arrange- 
ats to ensure that qualified personnel 
available to capture and remove prob- 

lem animals as needed; and (9) train rang- 
ers and interpreters to educate visitors 
about the hazards of mountain lions and 
appropriate human responses during an 
encounter. The group also identified as 
priority needs establishment of a lion tech- 
nical coordinating group, to improve com- 
munication among parks and lion experts, 
and creation of a central database. 

In conclusion, mountain lion-human 
interactions are increasing in a number of 
western national and state parks. Reports 
of lions should be documented, acted on, 
and taken as seriously as grizzly or black 
bear reports. Managing these incidents is 
more complicated than for black bears, 
however, due to the predatory behavior 
potential in lions. Serious incidents often 
develop through a rather unpredictable 

pattern of "cold" to "warm" reports from 
visitors which can either foretell some- 
thing "hot" soon to follow, or nothing at 
all. Adequate public warning in parks is 
the first priority, followed by prompt ef- 
forts to remove or control pets or other 
food attractants. This trend indicates a 
timely need for improving management 
planning, bettering lion behavior and ha- 
bituation information, and upgrading edu- 
cation in parks. 

Moorhead is a wildlife management biologist 
at Olympic NP and can be reached at 600 E. 
Park Ave., Port Angeles, WA 98362, (206) 
452-4501. Hofstra is chief of research and 
resource management at Redwood NP. Con- 
tact him at P.O. Box 7, Orick, CA 95555, (707) 
488-2911 to request a copy of the mountain 
lion management guidelines. 



Changing Diversity of Mollusks in Zion Canyon 

Is This Fauna Recovering From a Prehistoric Flood? 

By Wayne L. Hamilton 

Sometimes valuable ecosystem data 
are just waiting to be found in some file 
folder in an out-of-the-way cabinet. De- 
ciding what deserves closer scrutiny re- 
quires "pure" thoughts, because the sig- 
nificance of small components is often 
overshadowed by the "popular" fauna of 
the day. When I saw the file containing 
data on snails in the library at Zion in 
1974, I didn't immediately know that I 
was interested, or that mollusks could 
help me interpret ancient sediments of 
ponds and lakes preserved in the canyons 
of the park. Not long after, I remembered 
a course I'd taken and recalled that the 
different species of mollusks have differ- 
ent habitat preferences. I quickly decided 
to become better acquainted with these 
tiny creatures and see how their shells 
could be used as fossil indicators of past 
environments in the canyons of the park. 
Later, it came as no surprise that their 
living descendants could also tell a story 
about very recent changes in Zion Can- 

"The Snails of Zion National Park" is 
an undated manuscript by Angus 
Woodbury, a park naturalist at Zion, prob- 
ably written as a draft of his report later 
published in The Nautilus (Woodbury 
1929). This report represents the earliest 
molluskan inventory of which I am aware, 
for Zion Canyon. He listed 15 species 
collected in Zion Canyon, discussed num- 
bers, and described collecting localities 
(8) and habitats. That study collection is 
kept in the park museum. 

Following closely on Woodbury's in- 
ventory, Chamberlin and Jones (1929) 
collected in the canyon and confirmed all 
but one of the earlier finds and added a 
new terrestrial species. Shortly thereafter, 
Chamberlin and Berry (1930) added an- 
other terrestrial snail. The collections of 
the 1920s constitute, in my opinion, a 
relatively complete inventory. 

In 1935, Wendell O. Gregg collected 
and identified mollusks at all of 
Woodbury's locations, plus three others, 
in Zion Canyon, adding five new species 
to the earlier list (Gregg 1940). By col- 
lecting in May, June, and July, he was 
assured that most species were active. 
Gregg's work was the basis for the hand- 
out given to visitors in the 1970s. His list 
qualifies as an inventory. 


The next data were provided in a letter 
from C. L. Richardson (1965) who col- 
lected in the park in late May 1965, con- 
centrating on aquatics. Richardson men- 
tioned only three collecting localities. 

My collection dates from 1 974 to 1977, 
and it includes both species presently liv- 
ing in the canyon (at most of the locations 
surveyed earlier) and fossils collected from 
4,000-year-old sediments of a slide- 
dammed lake there (Hamilton 1979, 1992 
and forthcoming). My first tutor in iden- 
tifying mollusks was Alice Lindahl (then 
at Utah State University), discoverer of an 
unnamed, probably Amnicola sp., at 
Grapevine Spring. These first identifica- 
tions were checked, and in several cases 
corrected, by Jerry Landye (Flagstaff). 
Thereafter, I worked on my own, but the 
identifications listed here were further 
checked (and corrected) by R Hanley 
(University of Michigan). All specimens 
have been deposited in the park museum. 

In this update I present in graphical 
form (fig. 1-page 23) these earlier lists, 
indicating nomenclature changes conform- 
ing to Burch (1962 and 1989), with more 
emphasis on aquatic species collected in 
Zion Canyon. Table 1 shows all species 
and the localities of aquatics. Underlining 
indicates that a species was collected by 
the investigator. Very few of these mol- 
lusks have common names. 

Figure 1 illustrates the changing num- 
ber of aquatic mollusk species (including 
one seed clam) and terrestrial snails found 
in Zion Canyon over time. Aquatic spe- 
cies require pond, stream, or spring habi- 
tat while terrestrials live on moist surfaces 
near flowing water, under logs and in leaf 
Utter, depending partly on precipitation 
for moisture. The total number of aquatic 
species appears to have increased since 
the time of the earliest inventory. The 
number of terrestrial species observed has 
declined slightly. Are these changes in 
diversity, or simply a result of observa- 
tional bias? 

One probable new arrival is Physella 
virgata. Woodbury (1930) identified it at 
a locality west of the park in 1926, yet he 
did not report this species in Zion Canyon. 
Similarly, Chamberlin and Jones (1929) 
and Gregg (1940) failed to report any 
Physid other than Physa zionis (discov- 
ered by Pilsbry in 1925) in the canyon. 
The first record of another Physid was 

from Richardson (1965), who reportec 
Physa ancillaria Say ". . . in the strean 
near Weeping Rock, at the Amphitheater 
and in springs along the Narrows Trail.' 
In the mid-1970s, I identified the Physk 
common at this and other locations when 
clear, spring-fed tributaries descend to tht 
valley floor, as Physella virgata Gould 
Bequaert and Miller (1973) do not list P 
ancillaria, and I believe that Richardsoi 
may have actually seen P. virgata, whicl 
resembles and which is now common a 
exactly those locations. I suggest that ear 
lier collectors would simply not havi 
missed seeing P. virgata if it had been a 
abundant then as it was in the 1970s. I 
probably moved into the canyon betweei 
1935 and 1965. 

P. virgata was found as a fossil ii 
4,000-year-old shoreline sediments o 
Sentinel Lake in Zion Canyon (Hamiltoi 
1979). If suitable habitat existed then 
why was this snail later extirpated? 

Gregg (1940) reported Lymnaei 
bulimoides in a stream at Saddle Nook ii 
1935, but when Woodbury visited tha 
stream before 1929 he failed to find it 
This too suggests immigration. I did no 
attempt to verify this Fossaria colony. 

Fossaria obrussa Say (Golden Fossaria 
was identified west of the park as Lymnaei 
obrussa by Woodbury (1929), but it wa 
not known in Zion Canyon until I foun< 
numerous shells in a spoil bank along ; 
drainage ditch at Temple of Sinawava 
This suggests either that the species occu 
pied that site in the recent past and ha 
been extirpated, or that it is a recent im 
migrant. If living specimens were to b 
found, this question would be resolved 

The Fossaria dalli in Table 1 (see pagi 
24) was collected along with othe 
Lymnaeids and identified long after be in 
collected, therefore its locality is given a 
Temple of Sinawava (?), the query indU 
eating uncertain locality. 

The number of terrestrial snail specie 
has remained relatively constant over ti mi 
or decreased slightly (fig. 1). Yet, becaus 
of their small size, obscure habitat, muc 
greater diversity, and wider distributio, 
in relation to aquatics, it is difficult L 
exclude observational factors as the caus 
of apparent changes in species diversit] 
Terrestrials are capable of surviving di 
periods, but prolonged drought can ha* 

Park Scien 

O- - -D- - „ 




'Oyraulua parvus 

KuiCUliUB p*rtlOMiUB 

jghy Ua virgata / 
ca. 4000 yr B.P. 

*■ r 5ponfir»ed 


1 "SS 


— (Oyraulua aiailaria)- 

■ * 


•113 f 

S«5S 1QUATIC 0- 

„o — 1 

■ 4ToBB*ti* bnliaoidat) 1 

— .(Fhvialla virgata)— 
MPiaidiua caaartaaua). 

r-(Oyraulua parvua)- 







»ure 1. Number of terrestrial and aquatic mollusk species in Zion Canyon versus time. Species name changes are noted in parentheses, 
wer half of diagram shows aquatic species, with totals represented by open circles. Terrestrial species are shown by squares. Solid squares 
resent number of species reconfirmed from earliest survey. Hollow squares show totals including new discoveries. Open, dashed square 
ludes species in earlier surveys represented only by fossils in the 1970s. 

ious consequences when springs stop 
wing. The trend is interesting enough 
warrant further investigation. 

In the case of the apparent influx of 
ysella virgata and the possible recent 
migration of Fossaria obrussa and F. 
limoides, what agencies might be con- 
ered? The Zion localities are all con- 
ned to the North Fork of the Virgin 
/er, in which brown trout (and other 
h) are common. Introduction of eggs or 
enile forms by fish seems a reasonable 
Sanation for the arrival of new species, 
iter birds have also been suggested as 
ector for snail introduction at isolated 
ads at Badlands (Beetle-Pillmore 1994). 

And what may have removed P. virgata 
i extirpated other species that are now 
ablished in the canyon? Most of the 
)itat lies within the 100-year floodplain 
the North Fork of the Virgin River, 
weover, most spring-fed tributaries are 
jated at the base of hanging canyons cut 
the Navajo Sandstone, having sizeable 
tersheds (Hamilton 1992). This puts 
:h habitat in range of torrential flooding 
en waterfalls scour drainages that are 
tally placid. We may be seeing a recov- 
I supported by natural dispersal, from 
:h a disturbance early in the century, 
haps such episodes are a normal part of 
dynamic canyon ecosystem. 

Physella zionis, an endemic species, is 
ter adapted to survive floods in Zion 
ayon because its habitat is on near- 


vertical surfaces where springs issue from 
the Navajo Sandstone above the canyon 
floor. Seed clams might similarly survive 
if the sediments where they burrow were 
not excised or deeply buried by flooding. 
A small population of Gyraulus parvus 
persisted in the 1970s only at a spring-fed 
bog well above the floodplain at Birch 
Creek. This may have been the only sur- 
viving population from ancient Sentinel 
Lake. The bog (once a pond) at Birch 
Creek is vulnerable to drying because it 
has been tapped as a water supply source. 

These small invertebrates are an im- 
portant constituent of the canyon ecosys- 
tem. They are a valuable food source for 
birds and other small vertebrates and in- 
sects. In contrast, and in spite of their 
seeming insignificance, they also play a 
role in limiting other inhabitants of the 
canyon. When accidently ingested with 
forage, Z arboreus can infect sheep with 
lungworm. C. lubrica similarly acts as a 
vector for the lancet liver fluke that in- 
fects deer and wild sheep (Burch 1962). 
Some aquatic species carry schistosomes 
that are transmitted to humans who wade 
in infested waters. 

Further inventory is recommended as a 
means of testing the hypothesis of immi- 
gration of aquatic snails proposed here. 
Habitat is also subject to encroachment by 
exotic competitors, and a lookout should 
be maintained for them. In the late 1980s, 
the exotic species Helix aspersa was poised 

for immigration in irrigation ditches near 
the park boundary at Rockville. 

Some terrestrial snail habitat is vulner- 
able to acid precipitation, which can hy- 
pothetically reduce soil alkalinity to the 
point where the organism can no longer 
maintain its protective calcium carbonate 
shell. More generally, the niches occu- 
pied by mollusks are subject to loss through 
drought, flood, and fire. The mollusks 
discussed here depend on a variety of 
habitats, and their presence or absence 
implies something of the health of the 
ecosystem. Future inventorying may shed 
light on the significance of the small re- 
duction of terrestrial species over time. 

Hamilton worked in Zion NP beginning in 
1974 as a ranger and, on contract with the 
Zion Natural History Association, as a natu- 
ralist producing a geologic map, a book on the 
park's geology, and several other publica- 
tions. He moved to Yellowstone NP in 1980 
where he now works as a geologist with NBS. 
He is at the Greater Yellowstone Field Station, 
National Biological Survey, Yellowstone Na- 
tional Park, WY 82190, (307) 344-7381. 


Beetle-Pillmore, D. 1994. Letter to the author. 
Bequaert, J.C., andW.B. Miller. 1973. The Mollusks of the 

arid Southwest, with an Arizona check list. Vol. 16. 

Tucson: The Univ. of Arizona Press. 

Burch, J.B. 1989. North American freshwater snails Ham- 
burg, Michigan: The Univ. of Michigan, Malacobgical 


Continued on page 24 

Table 1 

Woodbury 1, Pilsbry 2, Chamberlin & 
Jones 3, Chamberlin & Berry 4 (1925-30) 

Gregg (1 935) Richardson (1 945) 

This Work (1974-77) 

OreoheRx coooeri 1.3 [common] 
MicroDhvsula inaersolli 2 
Econulus fulvus 1.3 [v. rarel 
Glvohvalina indentata 1.3 funcom.l 

Zonaioides arborea 1 .3 (commonl 
Vitrina alaskana 1.3 fwidesDreadl 
Aario/«max camoestris 1 .3 Tcommonl 
Gonvodiscus cronkhitei 1.3 TwidesDreadl 
Succinea avara 1.3 rcommonl 
Gasfrocoofo ashmuni 4 
PuDoides marainatus 1 .3 fv. rarel 
PuDilla svnaenes dextroversa 1.3 

PuDilla svnaenes 1.3 

Vo/tonia aracWcosta 1 .3 (rarel 
Coch/icoDo lubrica 1.3 TwidesDreadl 


Phvsa /PefroDhvsa) zionis Z3.d 
Gvrao/us vermicularis 1 ,3.a 

OreoheRx striaosa depressa 

Retenilla indentata (Say) 
Hawaii minuscula neomexicana 

Oreohelix cf. subnjd's l"Pfeiffer"Reeve?) 
Oreohelix striaosa depressa (Cockerel!) 
Microphysula ingersolli (Bland) F 
Econulus fulvus alaskensis (Muller) F 
GIvDhvalinia indentata oaucilirata Morelet 

Zonatoides arboreus (Sav) F 

Vitrina Dellucida alaskana Dall a.a 
Deroceras laeve (Muller) 

Discus cronkhitei (Newcomb) F.d 
Catinella avara ISay] Fa 

Puoilla btandi 

PuDoides albilabris (Adams) ? 

Pupilla muscorum (Linne) f 

Vallonia oulchella fintrod?l 
Vallonia DersDectiva 
[v. common) 

Vallonia perspective Sterki F 
Vallonia excentrica (Sterki 1 893) f 

[v. commonl 

Cionella lubrica (Muller) f 


Fossaria do/// (Baker) ? 
Fossaria obrussa (Sav) d 
Fossaria bufimoides b 

Phvsa ancillaria c.d.e Phvsella viraata (Gould) c.d.e F 
Phvsella IPetroDhvsal zionis d 

Gvraulus similaris a 
P'eidium abditum a 

Gvraulus parvus (Sav) a F 

Pisidium Icvclocalvx) casertanum (Poli) d 

a. Birch Creek pond, b. Saddle Nook, c. Amphitheater, d. Temple of Sinawava, e. Weeping Rock stream, f. Oak Creek, g. 
Lava Pt., F. fossil, ?, location uncertain (see text) 

. 1962. The Eastern Land Snails. Pictured key 

nature series, how to know. Dubuque, Iowa: Wm. C. 

Brown Co. 
Chamberlin, R.V., and E. Berry. 1930. Molluska from the 

Henry Mountains and some neighboring points in Utah. 

Bull of the Univ. of l/raft 21 £4. 
Chamberlin, R.V., and D. Jones. 1929. A descriptive 

catalogue of the molluska of Utah. But of the Univ. of 

Utah 1-9:1 -203. 
Gregg, W.0. 1940. Mollusca of Zion National Park. Utah. 

7776 Nautilus 54:1, 30-32. 
Hamilton, W.L 1979. Hdocene and Pleistocene lakes in 

Zion National Park, Utah. In Proa of the First Confer- 
ence on Scientific Research in the National Parks. 

Edited by R. Lim. 835-844. New Orleans Conference: 

NPSand Am. Inst. Bid. Sci. 1977. 
. 1992. 7he sculpturing of Zion. Zion National Park, 

Utah: Zion Natural History Assn. 
. Forthcoming. Quaternary ponds and lakes of Zion 

National Park, Utah. In Quaternary of the Colorado 

Pfafeau.EdrtedbyJ. MeadandL. Agenbroad. Flagstaff: 

Museum of Northern Arizona 
Pilsbry, H. A 1 925. A fresh-water snail, Physa zionis, living 

under unusual conditions. Proc Acad, of Natur. ScL of 

Philadelphia 77. 
Richardson, C.L 1965. Letter to park naturalist RoWauer. 

National Park Service files. Zion National Park, Utah. 
Woodbury, A.M. 1929. The Snails of Zion National Park. 

7he Nautilus 43:54. 

Prairie Dog Control 
at Fort Larned, Kansas 

By Felix Revello, George Elmore, and James David 

Fort Larned National Historic Site pre- 
serves original Santa Fe Trail ruts as a part 
of its cultural landscape. This 40-acre 
detached area where the ruts are located 
is also home to a colony of prairie dogs 
whose burrows are a threat to the historic 
ruts. While the park has managed the tract 
to maintain both its historic and natural 
values, its mandate places protection of 
the ruts first. 

Despite control measures in the past 
that included both poisoning and shoot- 
ing, the prairie dogs continually reestab- 
lish themselves in the historic ruts. In 


April 1992 (after viewing a news story oi 
a clever new method of control), am 
again this past May, the park used thi 
innovative, but more expensive, treatment 
The method involves using a modifiec 
sewer vacuum truck to suck the animal! 
out of their burrows. 

The contractor begins by first filling ii 
most of the burrow openings with soil ii 
order to identify the holes in use by th< 
"dogs." Holes also used by the burrowinj 
owl are left open and are not vacuumed s< 
as to minimize disturbance of the symbi 
otic birds. The following day the vacuun 
truck circulates to the burrows that ha( 
been reopened during the night by th< 
prairie dogs. The contractor inserts i 
large hose into each burrow to suction uj. 
everything close to the surface, including 
any prairie dogs. The truck is modified t< 
protect the animals as they pass from th< 

Park Scienc 

abrador Retriever Assists in Ecological Research 

By Allan F. O'Connell. Jr. 

\s part of an ongoing research project, 
eway NRA biologist Bob Cook re- 
try purchased a labrador retriever to 
in collecting box turtles. Known as 
;, the retriever locates and retrieves 
ltroduced box turtles (Terrapene 
olina) in an attempt to determine their 
/ements and survival rates. 

^ong Island, NY, was once a strong- 
1 for the box turtle, but the population 
declined due to habitat loss and urban 
elopment As part of a larger effort to 
itroduce and maintain viable popula- 
is of locally native reptiles and am- 
jians, Gateway staff have experimen- 
f reintroduced over 300 box turtles 
» Floyd Bennet Field, a grassland sec- 
i of the park. 

staff outfitted turtles with radio trans - 
ers to determine home range and move- 
its, but soon encountered problems 
eating the animals due to limited trans- 
ter range, dense vegetation, and the 
ill size of the turtles. For help, Bob 
•k contacted a colleague in Maine who 
is and trains retrievers for field trials 

Trainer Dave Mosher of Sugarfoot Kennel, 
Bumham, Maine with Gus who is holding a 
box turtle shell. 

and who, in turn, contacted Dave Mosher 
of Sugarfoot Kennel, a professional re- 
triever trainer. Cook purchased Gus from 
Mosher who owned a litter of puppies 
sired by a former national amateur field 
champion retriever. Cook then shipped to 
Maine turtle shells, as well as a live speci- 
men, and training began. (Gus is trained 
as a "non-slip" retriever, a term used to 
indicate that the dog retrieves only on 

Gus has now completed two summers 
collecting turtles and has located and re- 
trieved individuals with and without ra- 
dios. Although Gus will never compete in 
field trials and does not hunt waterfowl, 
he has contributed his share to natural 
resource management and conservation; 
he has helped staff to understand better the 
ecology of this fragile population by in- 
creasing sample size. The moral of this 
story: a dog is truly a man's best friend! 

Allan O 'Connell is a research wildlife 
biologist with the NBS and leader of the NPS 
CPSU at the University of Maine in Orono; he 
also runs retrievers in nationally sanctioned 
field trials. 

airie Dog Control (Continued) 

;e-diameter hose into the hopper where 
idded deflection screen catches them. 

n 1992, the weather was not helpful, 
d temperatures and high winds drove 
prairie dogs deep into their burrows, 
icing the effectiveness of the experi- 
tt. That year, only five prairie dogs 
appearing healthy) were captured. In 
4, 40 animals were trapped (three died), 
ource managers compared pre- and 
t-treatment counts of prairie dog rela- 
abundance and concluded that the 
it had mixed results. 

[he treatment area had been divided 
• eastern and western plots of which the 
ternsectionyieldedbetterresults. This 
because most of the burrows there had 
or more entrances and unclogged 
sageways, whereas the eastern plot 
made up ofburrows with either single 
nings or constricted subterranean pas- 
;s. Thecontractorexplainedthatvacu- 
ng is ineffective on burrows with only 
opening or blockages as only a static 
uum is created; this effect is similar to 
jging the hose on your household 
uum. Each burrow must have at least 


two entrances and clear passageways to 
obtain the air exchange necessary to gen- 
erate the high speed air flow required to 
pull prairie dogs out of their burrows. 

Before starting this project, we had no 
idea how many prairie dogs could be 
removed using this vacuuming technique. 
In the hopes of finding someone to adopt 
the animals, we had contacted numerous 
organizations before beginning the project. 
Fortunately, the Kansas Department of 
Natural Resources was able to take all the 
dogs provided and translocated them to 
Cheyenne Bottoms Wildlife Area. 

This method of capture lacks the dan- 
gers associated with poisoning and is less 
objectionable than either poisoning or 
hunting. Public support and interest even 
ran high as judged from the newspaper 
and television coverage of the initial event. 
However, our take included other nontar- 
get species (in 1994) including one bur- 
rowing owl (the first ever for this contrac- 
tor), salamanders, mice, and numerous 
beetles (all released unharmed). One un- 
expected offshoot from this project was 
interest from the NBS (Dr. Jerry Godbey 

of the Mid-continent Ecological Center in 
Fort Collins, 303/226-9460) who would 
like to survey invertebrates taken from 
prairie dog holes during the vacuuming 
process. Godbey feels that this technique 
may produce new species discoveries. 

Following two experiments with this 
method, we conclude that this procedure 
is presently expensive, averaging $30- 
$40 per prairie dog, and is only moder- 
ately effective (the contractor has had 
much better results with other clients, 
however). It can be justified only for very 
small prairie dog towns or limited remov- 
als in high visibility locations. Then, it 
will be most effective if used on burrows 
free of blockages. The technique might 
also be useful where other control meth- 
ods might be injurious to threatened and 
endangered species. 

Revello is ChiefRanger at Fort Lamed; 
Elmore is Resource Management Special- 
ist, 316/285-6911; David now is at Horse- 
shoe Bend National Military Park, Ala- 
bama, 205/234-7111. 


Captive Cougars May Aid Florida Panther Project 

The Florida panther (Felis concolor 
coryi) is one of the rarest mammals in the 
world. Less than 50 animals inhabit 1.5 
million ha of land in south Florida, the 
bulk of which includes the Big Cypress 
National Preserve (Maehr 1990). More 
than 45,000 ha of additional land will 
soon become part of the preserve and most 
of the Florida panthers at Big Cypress live 
on those additional lands. An environ- 
mental assessment for recreation access to 
the addition lands calls for monitoring and 
studies of the Florida panther, its prey, 
and human visitors. Most public use of the 
area is associated with hunting for deer 
(Odocoileous virginianus) and hog (Sus 
scrofa) since 1980. Although direct pan- 
ther mortality as a result of those hunts has 
not been documented, potential impacts 
to panthers could result from excessive 
disturbance by hunters and activities as- 
sociated with hunting, such as off-road 
vehicle use. Therefore, we initiated a study 
in 1993 to test the hypothesis that panther 
habitat preferences, activity patterns, en- 
ergy expenditure, and prey are impacted 
by public use. 

A number of panthers are currently 
being radiotracked by the Florida Game 
and Fresh Water Fish Commission to 
monitor the status of the cats (e.g., mor- 
tality, home range, reproductive status), 
but the schedule and timing is not ad- 
equate to address the objectives of our 
research. Those efforts probably are not of 
sufficient scale or intensity to detect more 
than gross shifts in home range. However, 
more subtle changes in panther behavior 
may occur due to human disturbance and 
could have a significant impact on their 
fitness. We wanted to be able to detect 
these less dramatic, yet potentially impor- 
tant changes in panther behavior, if they 
were actually occurring, and we wanted to 
look into some new techniques for doing 

We began concentrating on how we 
might obtain more detailed information 
using the telemetry collars currently worn 
by the panthers. Equipped with mercury 
tip-switches, the collars being worn by the 
panthers indicate whether the head is up 
or down by transmitting either a fast or 
slow pulse rate. However, no one has 
determined whether the tip-switches are 
accurate in characterizing cougar activ- 
ity, although analyses have been con- 
ducted for other species such as Dal 1 sheep 
(Ovis dalli) (Hansen et al. 1992), elk 
(Cervus elaphus) (Green and Bear 1990), 
black-tailed deer (O. h. columbianus) 


By Craig S. Johnson and Joseph O. Clark 
(Gillingham and Bunnell 1985), and white- 
tailed deer (Beier and McCullough 1988). 

We learned of a local Knoxville man 
with a number of captive cougars and 
faculties to enable them to move about in 
a seminatural environment We contacted 
him and were able to obtain permission to 
fit the cats with collars identical to those 
at BICY to evaluate the tip-switches for 
characterizing activity. 

To conduct the experiment, we fitted a 
radiocollar on one of two captive western 
cougars (named Marcos and Moses) and 
simultaneously recorded activity and the 
radio pulse rate. We had planned to use 
both cougars equally, but, on the first day, 
Marcos (being fully equipped with claws 
and teeth) politely informed us that he did 
not like to be collared. Therefore, in order 
to keep him happy (and Craig in posses- 
sion of all his body parts), we decided to 
use only Moses in our study. Moses and 
Craig got along great and it did not take 
long for the cougar to associate the ap- 
pearance of Craig and the radiocollar with 
"play time." 

The collar was placed on Moses so that, 
when his head was up, the collar emitted 
a signal with a fast pulse rate, and when 
his head was down, the collar emitted a 
slow signal. Movements by the cougar 
were categorized as walking, standing, 
running, sitting, or lying. 

On the first day, we noticed that certain 
movements caused a specific pulse to be 
generated most of the time. For example, 
walking caused a slow pulse signal while 
standing, sitting, and lying generally cre- 
ated a fast signal. We recorded the pulse 
signal and direct observations on 
microcassette tape and later entered the 
data into a computer spreadsheet. 

Preliminary analysis of the activity data 
is encouraging. We combined all observa- 
tions (9+ hours) and broke them into 5- 
minute intervals. Activities with similar 
energy costs were classed into two groups: 
active (walking, standing, running) and 
inactive (sitting and lying). We included 
standing in the active category, because 
time spent standing was usually an inter- 
mediate behavior between walking bouts. 
The animal spent minimal time running. 
Based on the percentage of time that the 
collar pulse indicated a head up position, 
we found that we could correctly classify 
the cougar as active (>60% walking, stand- 
ing, or running in a 5-minute time inter- 
val) 69% of the time (24 out of 35 in- 

stances). Likewise, we could classify in 
activity (>60% lying or sitting) 79% of th 
time (41 of 52). Based on these results 
and after further refinements from addi 
tional forthcoming captive cougar datt 
we can classify gross activity level of th 
Florida panthers with a good chance c 
being correct 

With this model, we are now makin 
arrangements to collect similar data o 
the wild panthers at Big Cypress to asses 
human disturbance. We have obtained 
number of portable, telescoping radio tew 
ers and a chart recorder to monitor th 
cats. With that equipment we should b 
able to obtain continuous data on activit 
for selected panthers, and the data will b 
compatible with the above model for anal) 
sis. In so doing, we can obtain activit 
data (day and night) without actually ha\ 
ing to know the exact location of th 
panthers. We can also compare data froi 
areas that are being hunted (treatmenl 
with areas that are not (control). Then, v, 
can develop a statistic to apply to oi 
study objective using the mercury tit 
switch technology. There may even b 
many ways to extrapolate this statist] 
into a crude measure of energy expend 
ture (Gessaman 1973, Ackerman 1982 
Corts and Lindzey 1984), a question w 
will investigate as our research progress© 


Ackerman, B.B. 1982. Cougar predation and ecotogc 

energetics in southern Utah. Master's thesis, Utah Sta 

University, Logan. 
Beier, P., and D.R. McCullough. 1988. Motion-sensHh 

radio collars for estimating white-tailed deer activity. 

Wildl. Manage. 52:1 1-13. 
Corts, K.E, and I.G. Lindzey. 1984. Basal metabolism ar 

energetic cost of walking in cougars. J. Wild. tAanag 

Gessaman, J.A. 1973. Ecological energetics < 

homeotherms: a view compatible with ecological mo 

eling. Monograph Series, no. 20. Logan: Utah Sta 

Univ. Press. 
Gilfingham, M.P., and F.L Bunnell. 1985. Reliability 

motion-sensitive radio collars for estimating activity 

black-tailed deer. J. Wild. Manage. 49:951-958. 
Green, RA, and GD. Bear. 1990. Seasonal cycles ai 

dairy activity patterns of Rocky Mountain elk. J. Wilt 

Manage. 54272-279. 
Hansen, M.C., GW. Gamer, and S.G Fancy. 1992. Cor 

parison of three methods for evaluating activity of Dal 

sheep. J. Wild. Manage. 56:661-668. 
Maehr, D.S. 1990. The Florida panther and private land 

Conserv. Bid. 4:167-170. 

Johnson and Clark are with the CPSU at ty 
University of Tennessee, Department ofFo\ 
estry. Wildlife, and Fisheries, 274 Ellingtc 
Plant Sciences Building, Knoxville, TN, 3790. 
1071, (615) 974-0739. 


Park Scien 

Regional Highlights 


Assisted by the NPS Mining and Min- 
is Branch, the U.S. Bureau of Mines 
DM), and regional Chief Scientist John 
rish, Friendship Hill NHS is identify- 
; and developing mitigation projects for 
treatment of acid drainage from mines 
hin the park. Although the interagency 
eement between the two agencies has 
led, BOM has continued to investigate 
chemical and biological processes in 
wetlands constructed at Friendship 
1 for the purpose of acid mine drainage 

BOM recently developed and evalu- 
i a method for comparing the abilities 
different organic additives (brewer's 
st, molasses, polylactic acid, and dairy 
zy) to stimulate sulfate reduction when 
led to wetland sediments. Bacterial 
fate reduction not only removes metals 
I sulfate from acid mine drainage, but 
) adds alkalinity. They tested both fer- 
ited and unfermented organic addi- 
:s in the experiment. 

Jsing an underground pipe system 
hi n the Friendship Hill wetlands, BOM 
aped whey into the compost of one 
land lane and within two weeks, most 
he whey had passed through the lane, 
ff sampled the wetland water each week 
four months monitoring changes in 
er quality. They found slightly lower 
ate concentrations in the treated lane 
owing the whey addition and indicat- 
that the single whey dose may have 
htly affected bacterial activity. Future 
eriments will be based on a continual 
1 system. 

* * * 

rwo visitors to Shenandoah NP re- 
ted seeing peregrine falcons on Stony 
a Mountain in late July. Park staff 
stigated and discovered an eyrie with 
ale and female chick in excellent con- 
Dn. USFWS staff banded the chicks 
secured the area from human distur- 
ce. The chicks fledged in mid-August. 

Jhenandoah's Fish In Sensitive Habi- 
(FISH), a three year research project, 
erwent its second year peer review in 
5ust. FISH will enable modeling of the 
cts of stream acidification on fish in- 
duals and populations. 

* * * 

tecently signed by the regional direc- 
Colonial NHP's Water Resources 


Management Plan will soon be ready for 
distribution. It contains an electrostati- 
cally-plotted map portfolio produced by 
the park's GIS (with the assistance of the 
North Carolina State University FTSC). 
Colonial is also continuing a fisheries 
inventory of park waters under an agree- 
ment with the USFWS Fisheries Assis- 
tance Office in White Marsh, Virginia. 

North Atlantic 

The Natural Resource Protection Pro- 
gram (NRPP)-funded study of storm breach 
threats to northern U S. national seashores 
has begun. Jim Allen (former NPS coastal 
geomorphologist and now with NBS) is 
leading a group of investigators from the 
University of Rhode Island, SUNY/Stony 
Brook, and Rutgers who are studying the 
physical impacts of storm breaching on 
barrier islands dynamics and multiple in- 
let estuarine circulation at Fire Island NS, 
Cape Cod NS, and Sandy Hook/Gateway 

The methodology uses numerical mod- 
eling calibrated by intensive field surveys 
which employ the latest technological 
developments (electronic total stations, 
kinematic GPS, remote pressure-tempera- 
ture-salinity data loggers, etc.). The re- 
search will quantify the expected physical 
changes to barrier-estuarine systems in 
order to provide a basis for ecosystem 
impact assessments and breach manage- 
ment planning in this highly developed 
coastal environment. 

Janice Minus hkin of the regional office 
visited six national natural landmarks 
(NNLs) this year in preparation of the 
annual section 8 report. She focused on 
threatened and endangered NNLs and re- 
ports that one site, Acushnet Cedar Swamp 
in New Bedford, Massachusetts, included 
in last year's report, will be removed this 
year because threats to the site have been 
mitigated by the state park that manages 
the property. 


Blue Ridge Parkway and North Caro- 
lina Wildlife Resources Commission con- 
ducted a stream restoration project on 
Little Glade Creek on the parkway in 
Allegheny County, North Carolina during 
1993 and early 1994. They improved wa- 
ter quality and trout habitat by excluding 
livestock from the riparian zone through 
installation of a fence. The project also 

aimed to increase vegetative cover and 
restore eroded stream banks. 

Stream bank restoration consisted of 
installing an erosion-resistant foundation 
of root wads, rip-rap, or logs at the base 
of eroded stream banks at water level. 
Banks were sloped to this foundation at a 
2: 1 to 3 : 1 grade, smoothed, seeded, fertil- 
ized, and mulched. Crews repaired 23 
sites totalling 292 m (950 ft.) and estab- 
lished 2 gravel livestock crossings. Project 
leader Bob Cherry estimated that more 
than 450 work-hours and $ 17,000, includ- 
ing materials and salaries, were expended 
on this project. 

Twelve Blue Ridge Parkway employ- 
ees spent four days in the hot sun in June 
planting more than 800 Heller's blazing 
stars (Liatris helleri) along the Grandfa- 
ther Mountain Corridor. Heller's blazing 
star is a federally listed plant that occurs 
on the Parkway and in only six other 
locations in the world. The plants were 
reared in a greenhouse at the University of 
Georgia at Athens from seeds collected on 
the Parkway. They were moved to the 
North Carolina Arboretum in Asheville, 
North Carolina where the plants were 
maintained by horticulturalists and green- 
house personnel. Staff will watch this 
endangered plant population closely for 
several years to determine the effective- 
ness of the restoration effort. If success- 
ful, the population will have been aug- 
mented from around 150 naturally grow- 
ing plants to more than 1,000. 

Four parks in the southeast have begun 
long-term monitoring projects of amphib- 
ians. Blue Ridge Parkway, Cumberland 
Gap NHP, and Great Smoky Mountains 
and Mammoth Cave NPs have conducted 
field surveys and selected study sites for 
pond, stream, and terrestrial-breeding frogs 
and salamanders. The parks will focus on 
two species of temporary pond breeders 
(wood frogs and spotted salamanders) and 
six species of stream breeders. The plan 
is to collect temporary pond habitat data 
on water PH, conductivity, temperature, 
pond depth, total number of egg masses 
laid, and developmental stages of eggs 
and their survival in egg masses. Sam- 
pling stream and terrestrial breeding sala- 
manders in 30 x 40m subplots, the re- 
searchers also hope to learn reproductive 
status (larva, juvenile, adult), body length, 
and distance of animals from streams. 


Regional Highlights 

Soil erosion is a major concern at Vir- 
gin Islands NP and is being studied by Dr. 
Lee MacDonald of Colorado State Uni- 
versity. Soil erosion damages the coral 
reefs and other marine ecosystems, major 
features of the park, by increasing turbid- 
ity and redepositing the fine sediment. 
Along with his master's student Don 
Anderson, MacDonald is working to un- 
derstand the erosion sources and sediment 
delivery mechanisms caused by develop- 
ment on the island of St. John in order to 
minimize the impacts on the marine re- 

The two researchers originally hypoth- 
esized that the majority of steep hillsides 
erosion is caused by overland flow and 
shallow landslides triggered by large tropi- 
cal storms such as Hurricane Hugo. A site 
visit together with Dr. Bill Dietrich from 
the University of California at Berkeley 
revealed that neither overland flow nor 
landslides presently contribute much sedi- 
ment to the process. While historic agri- 
culture may have substantially increased 
erosion rates in the 18th and 19th centu- 
ries, vegetation regrowth early this cen- 
tury (following a population decline) may 
have reduced it to only slightly higher 
than presettlement conditions. Instead, 
they found soil erosion from unpaved roads 
to be the overwhelming cause of the prob- 
lem. The researchers developed a GIS- 
based road erosion model to help predict 
the amount of sediment being generated 
and delivered for each catchment on St. 

Dr. MacDonald hopes to follow this 
initial study with more intensive work on 
road erosion processes and the relative 
amounts of sediment generated from un- 
paved road surfaces, cut banks, roadside 
ditches, sidecast material, and culvert in- 
cision. This work should provide more 
detailed guidance for planning and miti- 
gation purposes on St. John and other 
areas. A detailed article on the results of 
this initial study is planned for a future 
issue of Park Science. 

Jim Renfro, air quality program man- 
ager at Great Smoky Mountains, is cur- 
rently managing one of the NPS's most 
extensive and sophisticated air quality 
research and monitoring programs in any 
national park. Projects include monitor- 
ing ozone and assessing its effects on 
vegetation, studying visibility impairment 
from sulfate aerosols, and recording acidic 


The NPS, Tennessee Valley Authority, 
Environmental Protection Agency, and 
State of Tennessee are currently funding 
several ambient ozone monitoring sta- 
tions there. The benefits of this work will 
include a greatly improved understanding 
of the ozone exposures and precursors to 
ozone formation. The work will also pro- 
vide an enhanced database on ozone ex- 
posure that will be helpful in assessing 
impacts to sensitive plants. 

The park is also using a low cost means 
of monitoring ground-level ozone. The 
WASO air quality division funded a sum- 
mer passive ozone sampler study to im- 
prove understanding of spatial variability 
away from continuous monitoring sites 
and to improve the exposure-response 
connection of foliar injury. The measure- 
ments were made near Cove Mountain 
and in the canopy of the northern hard- 

The EPA and TVA began a three-year 
study this summer at Cove Mountain and 
Twin Creeks at the park to study the 
ambient ozone effects on mature trees 
species. This work is extremely important 
in determining the physiological effects 
of ozone on sensitive hardwood species 
growing in the park. The last two years 
have shown that nearly 80 percent of the 
tall milkweed plants were injured and 
nearly 80% of the leaves on each injured 
plant was damaged from ozone. 

The University of California at Davis 
recently reported that concentrations of 
sulfate particles worsened by 39% over 
the last 10 years in the park, more than in 
any other national park in the country. The 
park conducted an intensive visibility re- 
search study at Look Rock this summer to 
document the ammonium sulfate aerosols 
and to determine why current models, 
able to reconstruct measured light scatter- 
ing at sites in the western U.S., are unable 
to do so in the east with the same accuracy. 
This study will improve the understand- 
ing of atmospheric sulfates and their im- 
pact upon visibility. 

The Smokies have also recorded some 
of the highest sulfur and nitrogen deposi- 
tion in the country. The EPA has selected 
Clingmans Dome (elevation 6,643 ft) in 
the park as one of four acid deposition 
monitoring sites as part of their CASTNet 
(Clean Air Status and Trends Network) 
Mountain Acid Deposition Program 
(MADMP). Data collected at the dome 
will be used to determine the effective- 
ness of emissions reductions mandated by 

the 1 990 Clean Air Act amendments whii 
require a 50% reduction in sulfur dioxi< 
emissions by the year 2000. 

* * * 

Researchers from the NBS-CPSU 
the University of Tennessee were ve 
busy in August presenting papers and lea 
ing field trips at the joint Southern App 
lachian meeting of the Ecological Socie 
of America and American Institute 
Biological Sciences. Held in Knoxvill 
the symposium was attended by 3,01 
participants from the United State 
Canada, Europe, South America, Afric 
Asia, and Australia. Field trips and pi 
sentations focused on Southern Appal 
chian plant ecology, ecology ai 
hydrogeology of the Mammoth Cave Kai 
aquifer, stream acidification, and ma 

Dr. Stephen Nodvin, Research Ecol 
gist with the CPSU, and Dr. Niki Nichol 
of the Tennessee Valley Authority led 
symposium on multiple stressors to t 
high elevation spruce-fir ecosystem. 
part of the symposium, Dr. Ted Simons 
the NBS-CPSU at North Carolina Sfc 
University presented a talk entitled, " Avi 
Diversity in Managed and Unmanag 
Landscapes in the Southern Appal 
chians." The CPSU contributed many otfc 
papers and poster sessions.. 

Mammoth Cave NP and the Cave F 
search Foundation co-sponsored the Thi 
Mammoth Cave Science Conference 
July. Attended by more than 60 individ 
als, the research forum enabled in-dep 
discussion across specialty areas. The a 
nual event benefits researchers and ma 
agers alike. 

Pacific Northwest 

The general management planning pi 
cess for Mount Rainier will include a 
dressing geologic hazards associated wi 
the volcano. Members of the plannii 
team from the Denver Service Centi 
park staff, and WASO, North Cascad< 
and regional geologists met with US( 
and Washington Department of Natui 
Resources geologists at the Cascade V< 
cano Observatory to share information 
the present state of geologic knowled 
and ongoing research of Mount Rainii 
They also identified research and moi 
toring needs. 

The group devoted three days to exai 
ining facilities in the park located adj 


Regional Highlights 

t to major rivers that drain the volcano. 
ry little hydraulic, geomorphic, and 
nnel profile information exists on these 
;rs within the park. As a result, the 
file and rate of change of channel 
rphology and discharge capacity is 
irly known. River channels will be 
veyed to address geologic hazards as- 
iated with floods and debris flows which 
a threat to life and property. Other 
jntial hazards include rock falls, earth- 
kes, and processes associated with 
;anic eruptions. 

vfount Rainier is listed as a decade 
ano by the United Nations. This des- 
ition applies to a select group of active 
potentially active volcanoes around 
world that are located near large popu- 
)n regions which could be severely 
cted during an eruptive event. The 
f. identified these volcanoes during 
early 1990s as needing to be studied 
their geologic hazards in the hope of 
riding forewarning and protection to 
people living near them. Although no 
ling support is provided by the U.N. 
geologic research on decade volca- 
> in the United States (there is also one 
lawaii), designating Mount Rainier 
increased concern over the variety and 
ntial effects of geologic hazards. The 
)ming Geological Society of America 
A) Annual Meeting, to be held in 
tie in October, will give further atten- 
to this on a field trip to Mt. Rainier. 

icting regional chief scientist Kathy 
: participated in the first two biweekly 
tings of the Northwest forest ecosys- 
research and monitoring committee. 
:tions of the committee, which are 
xl for in the record of decision on the 
st Plan, include research, monitoring, 
scientific oversight of various aspects 
aplementation of the plan. This com- 
ee will provide a forum for coordinat- 
agencies' research and monitoring 
ughout the range of the northern spot- 
)wl, and will also help ensure that the 
icies are addressing the research and 
itoring needs called for in the record 

* * * 

>pe also gave a presentation to a group 
achers, consisting of two from every 
; as well as Washington, D.C., and 
to Rico, participating in a two-week 
erness workshop sponsored by the 
. While the presentation addressed 
wilderness, it also emphasized the 

need to build a sense of connection be- 
tween people and the environment, and a 
sense of personal responsibility for con- 
serving healthy ecosystems everywhere if 
the natural systems in wilderness are to 
survive for long. 

Craig Dalby coordinated the region's 
response to a request from the eastside 
ecosystem management project (EEMP) 
for data on visitation statistics, including 
spatial data for each of the eastside parks. 
As part of the EIS development for the 
Columbia Basin, the EEMP is looking at 
recreational opportunities, among other 
factors, using the Forest Service's recre- 
ational opportunity spectrum (ROS) clas- 
sification system. Where possible, Dalby 
"crosswalked" NPS management zones 
into the ROS system for each of the af- 
fected parks, creating a corresponding 
spatial data set. These data, along with 
visitation figures from the parks, were 
sent to the EEMP. 

Dalby and Marsha Davis coordinated 
the response to a second call from the 
EEMP, requesting grazing allotment data. 
The requested information included spa- 
tial data for grazing allotments at City of 
Rocks, John Day Fossil Beds, and Nez 
Perce, and attributes concerning the na- 
ture of the grazing activity for each allot- 

The Comprehensive Management Plan 
for City of Rocks is nearing completion. 
Marsha has been working with the plan- 
ning team in reviewing and editing final 
revisions to the document. This included 
participation in a meeting, held in Boise, 
with representatives of Idaho State Parks, 
City of Rocks (NPS and Idaho State), and 
the regional office to review and discuss 
the final draft version of the comprehen- 
sive management plan. 

* * * 

The Pacific Northwest Region is tenta- 
tively planning the following natural re- 
source training opportunities for FY95: 
GIS and GPS for Cultural Resource Man- 
agement, Hazard Tree Management, Land- 
scape Restoration Workshop, Planning for 
Resource Stewardship, Professional De- 
velopment in Natural Resources, Regional 
Natural Resource Refresher Workshop, 
Orientation to the Management of NPS 
Resources (Natural and Cultural), Veg- 
etation Monitoring Workshop, and nu- 

merous wilderness management corre- 
spondence courses. 

Rocky Mountain 

The wolves are coming! The way has 
been cleared for reintroduction of the gray 
wolf to the Yellowstone ecosystem and 
the USFWS has asked Canadian officials 
to provide 30 wolves this fall for reloca- 
tion to the park and central Idaho. No 
lawsuits challenging wolf reintroduction 
are expected and wildlife managers are 
proceeding with recovery plans. 

The black-footed ferret is coming, too! 
The last major hurdle to restoration of 
black-footed ferrets into Badlands NP and 
the Conata Basin in South Dakota has 
been cleared through publication of the 
special rule in the August 18 Federal 
Register establishing them as a nonessen- 
tial experimental population. The NPS, 
USFWS, and USFS have worked for six 
years to bring the ferrets to the site. This 
will be the second reintroduction for the 
ferret and the first attempted in black- 
tailed prairie dog habitat. The first ferrets 
(from captive breeding facilities) should 
arrive soon after Labor Day, with release 
expected in mid-September. 

The first of its kind in the region, a 
cooperative weed management agreement 
based on the requirements of the 1990 
amendment to the Federal Noxious Weed 
Act was developed for Devil's Tower NM 
by park and regional staff. The agreement 
facilitates a partnership between the monu- 
ment, Crook County, Wyoming, and local 
landowners for controlling noxious weeds 
on the monument and adjacent private 
lands. Under the agreement, a cooperative 
venture was initiated this year using goats 
to control leafy spurge as one part of an 
integrated program. The agreement will 
serve as a model for weed management 
partnerships at other parks. 

The NPS, the State of Montana, and the 
Department of Justice executed a reserved 
water rights compact in late January de- 
scribing the water rights of the U.S. for 
Big Hole Battlefield NHP and Glacier and 
Yellowstone NPs. The compact estab- 
lished a process for protecting water re- 
sources at the three parks. The hydrother- 
mal systems and features of Yellowstone 
will be the most protected of their kind in 



Regional Highlights 

the world. The objective is to allow no 
impact to the geysers, mudpots, steam 
vents, and hot springs within the park. 

Late last December, Colorado's water 
division #1 district court granted sum- 
mary judgment to the U. S. ' reserved water 
rights claims for national parks at Rocky 
Mountain NP. In granting these rights, the 
court said, "It appears that Congress in 
setting aside Rocky Mountain NP intended 
to reserve all of the unappropriated water 
in the park for park purposes. Only by 
doing so can the underlying purposes of 
the creation of the park be achieved." 

Great Sand Dunes NM recently com- 
pleted a prototype strategy that focuses 
resource management activities on achiev- 
ing the park's purposes a little differently 
than in most resource management plan- 
ning processes. The experimental effort 
differs in that it views park resources as 
part of a larger ecosystem and involves the 
public in learning about the park's pur- 
poses. Together, the groups defined the 
components and boundaries of the ecosys- 
tem, described the processes needed to 
understand, monitor, and manage it, and 
developed a feedback loop to evaluate the 
success of resource management actions 
on the system. The strategy also accepts 
human culture as part of the ecosystem 
and can be integrated into present re- 
source management planning processes. 
Recently signed by the regional director, 
the Great Sand Dunes resource manage- 
ment strategy is available to parks to act 
as a model in developing their own similar 

In the Next Issue. . . 

NBS researchers will share re- 
sults from both natural and social 
science projects in different areas 
of the country. Dick Hammerschlag 
will present a case study in marsh 
restoration for Kenilworth Marsh 
near Washington, D.C. Natalie Sex- 
ton plans to describe an innovative 
visitor study in Rocky Mountain 
NP that used visitor-produced pho- 
tographs to determine the most im- 
portant park attributes for the vis- 
iting public 


Meetings of Interest 



Sweeney Conference Center in Santa Fe, NM; a five day conferee 
sponsored by the NPS, NBS, BLM, USFS, USFWS, and Society 
American Foresters Wilderness Group examining the intent of t 
act, recounting accomplishments, and strategizing for the 21st cc 
tury. Research and operational issues are emphasized with partm 
ships potential and interagency management and research cons 
tency to be explored. Contact Peter Keller, NPS Park Planning a 
Protection, Rm. 3230, 1849 C. St., N.W., Washington, D.C, 202< 
or contact Alan Schmierer of the Western Regional Office at (4] 


THE 21ST CENTURY in Palm Beach Gardens, Florida; contact! 
Helfferich, South Florida Water Management District, P.O. B 
24680, West Palm Beach, FL, 33416-4680. 


MEETING in Seattle, Washington ; At the Leading Edge is the th© 
for this popular conference. Sessions and symposia will be offei 
not only on aspects of Pacific Rim and convergent margin geoloj 
but also on a variety of contemporary environmental a 
hydrogeological topics. Call (303) 447-2020 or (800) 472-1988 
program, registration, and lodging information. 

ON FOSSIL RESOURCES in Colorado Springs, Colorado; sp< 
sored by Florissant Fossil Beds NM, the conference has broader 
its scope to include fossil resources on all public lands and n 
integrates the BLM, USFS, USGS, and the Colorado State Lai 
Board as cooperators. Contact Maggie Johnston for further inforn 
tion at P.O. Box 185, Florissant, CO, 80816; or call (719) 748-32: 


CONSERVATION in Sarasota, Florida. The symposium will i 
dress canopy structure, organisms, processes, and aspects of foi 
conservation. Contact Dr. M. Lowman, Director of Research, Ma 
Selby Botanical Gardens, 811 S. Palm Ave., Sarasota, FL 342! 
(813) 366-5731. 



in Tampa, Florida at the Hilton Metro Center. The conference V 
provide a forum for prescribed fire practitioners and environmei 
regulators to discuss roles in maintaining ecosystem health, end 
gered species preservation, hazard fuels reduction, and air and wj 
quality protection. Contact Diane Ots, Environmental Regulatj 
and Prescribed Fire Conference, Center for Professional Develi 
ment and Public Service, Florida State University, Tallahassee, 
32306-2027, (904) 644-7453, fax 644-2589. 


sored by The George Wright Society; Portland, Or. Theme: 
tainable Society and Protected Areas-Challenges and Issues for 
Perpetuation of Cultural and Natural Resources." Registrat 
information available from the George Wright Society, PO Box 
Hancock, MI 49930-0065 



"he USFWS and National Marine Fish- 
; Service published several new poli- 
concerning endangered and threat- 

I species in the July 1 edition of the 
eral Register on pages 34270-34275. 

fSFWS also proposed downlisting the 
eagle from endangered to threatened, 
pt in certain areas of the Southwest, 
he five states where it is currently 
d as threatened (Oregon, Washing- 
Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan), it 
Id continue to be listed as threatened, 
iments are being received until Octo- 

II (Federal Register July 12, pages 

he USFWS ruled on a petition to list 
ioIIusc species, finding that, for some 
ies, substantial information indicat- 
hat listing is warranted was not pre- 
Id, or, for other species, that listing is 
>resently warranted. The species con- 
red are found primarily in the states of 
hington, Oregon, California, and 
o, and some are known or are be- 
d to occur on NPS lands (Federal 
ister July 11, pages 35305-35307). 

he Soil Conservation Service pub- 
d a revised listing of the soils defined 
lydric soils," which are used in delin- 
ig wetlands (Federal Register July 
>ages 35680-35695). 

he USFWS determined the water 
sllia (Howellia aquatilis), a wetlands 
t, to be a threatened species. Although 
pated from California, Oregon, and 
i sites in Washington and Idaho, this 
ies continues to exist in Montana, 
o, and Washington, primarily in con- 
lated clay and organic sediments that 
r in wetlands associated with ephem- 
?lacial pothole ponds and former river 
ws. Primary threats to the species are 
of wetlands and habitat changes due 
mber harvesting, livestock grazing, 
lential development, and competition 
ltroduced plant species such as reed 
ry grass (Federal Register July 14, 
:s 35860-35864). 

* * * 

arlier this year, IUCN, the World 
«rvation Union, relaunched PARKS, 
International Journal for Protected 
i Managers. Published in February, 
, and October each year, PARKS aims 
rengthen international collaboration 
ag protected area professionals and to 
ince their role, status, and activities, 
i issue is devoted to a theme. For 
iple, volume 4, no. 1 explored build- 
ommunity support in protected areas 
gave practical advice and instructive 
histories on working with indigenous 
Ies. The reinvigorated publication 
i £18 per year (approximately $30) 


with additional charges for postage. Con- 
tact PARKS, 36 Kingfisher Court, 
Hambridge Road, Newbury, RG14 5SJ, 
U.K., for subscription information. 

A bacterium found in the digestive 
system of the bowhead whale has been 
found to be profoundly effective in break- 
ing down key components of oil spills, 
PCBs, and other carcinogenic compounds. 
The June 9 edition of Oregon State 
University's OSU This Week describes 
the discovery by A. Morrie Craig, a pro- 
fessor of veterinary medicine. Craig said 
that despite eating a ton of polluted krill 
per day, and ingesting PCBs, oil and fuel 
residues, and acids, the whales don't get 
sick. Instead, the anaerobic microbes in 
the whale's forestomach break down an- 
thracene and naphtalene, components of 
oil spills, into harmless compounds. 

Researchers at OSU are also working 
on isolating bacteria from the stomachs of 
goats that allow them to digest tansy rag- 
wort, a plant containing toxic alkaloids. 
While the research has a long way to go 
before yielding a toxic spill engineered- 
treatment, it suggests that anaerobic bac- 
teria may one day be employed in along 
with today's surface aerobic bacteria to 
aid in toxic spill cleanups. 

The August 4 edition of the Rocky 
Mountain News summarized a shift in 
Clinton administration science policy that 
upgrades non-military research that ben- 
efits health, prosperity, and the environ- 
ment. The policy report named an 18- 
member committee to guide the federal 
science and technology expenditures. 

A British research team reported in 
both the January, 1994 issue of 
BioScience and the September 23, 1993 
edition of Nature that a method presently 
used by conservationists in selecting lands 
for the preservation of species diversity 
are flawed. Conservationists often decide 
which lands to preserve by evaluating 
species diversity and the presence of rare 
or endangered species within them. In 
using this strategy they frequently make 
the assumption that species richness for 
one group of plants or animals will be 
equally rich for another group, and that an 
area beneficial to a rare species will be a 
magnet to others. 

J.R. Prendergast of Imperial College in 
Ascot, U.K. led a research team to look 
into the question and found no evidence 
that either assumption was true. They 
mapped nearly 2,700 ten-kilometer squares 
and then examined their data for overlap- 

ping areas rich in birds, butterflies, drag- 
onflies, liverworts, and aquatic flowering 
plants. They found that only 12% of the 
dense bird and butterfly areas overlapped 
while no single square was rich in all five 
of the kinds of lifeforms. Only 26 of the 
squares were especially diverse in any 
three kinds of the taxa and 25% or more 
of the uncommon species from four of the 
groups were not found in any hot spot. 
While the authors/scientists admit that 
severe habitat fragmentation in Great 
Britain may indicate that the data would 
not also apply elsewhere, they were con- 
fident in their conclusions. 

A comprehensive study of the complex 
wanderings of Greater Yellowstone Eco- 
system (GYE) bald eagles is described in 
the spring 1994 edition of Yellowstone 
Science. Researcher Al Harmata's ac- 
count of the near 15-year project discusses 
project growth from the initial leg-band- 
ing scheme to the more effective, but 
more expensive, radio-tracking methods 
used in the mid- to late-1980s. 
Yellowstone was once thought to be a 
"black hole" for bald eagles (a location 
where their population was declining and 
even "sucking in" recruits from outside 
the Yellowstone area), but Harmata's re- 
search demonstrated just the opposite. 

Both the leg-banding and radio-track- 
ing experiments indicated that juvenile 
and immature GYE-born eagles wander 
westward (rather than the common north 
or south movements in most areas) early 
in the fall and often winter from southern 
California to Washington. The young 
birds returned to their birth nest areas in 
and around the park usually in April or 
May before they dispersed throughout the 
ecosystem, and beyond, to live their lives 
and breed. Harmata shows that the GYE 
eagle population (while perhaps low in 
productivity by some comparisons) has a 
very high survival rate for young eagles 
and that this is significant in supplying 
recruits to expanding eagle populations 
outside the GYE. 

The researchers also noticed that the 
summer wanderings of the Yellowstone 
eagles nicely delineate the boundaries of 
the GYE. As an indicator of ecosystem 
health, eagles in the GYE now appear to 
be successful and the knowledge gained 
about the biological "boundaries" of this 
ecosystem as discovered in this research 
project give an even stronger basis for the 
ecosystem's protection. 

Harmata and his colleagues conclude 
with resounding confidence that the GYE 
eagles are not disappearing in Yellowstone, 
but are rather bolstering the comeback of 
our national symbol in surrounding areas. 



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29.3/4: 15/1 


Integrating Research and Resource Management 

Volume 15 -Number 1 National Park Service • U.S. Department of the Interior Winter 1995 

The Reconstruction of Kenilworth Marsh 

The Last Tidal Marsh in Washington, D.C. 



MAR 1 1995 


By Stephen W. Syphax and Richard 
S. Hammerschlag 

acre freshwater tidal marsh 
and swamp forest located 
adjacent to the historic 
Kenilworth Aquatic Gar- 
dens along the Anacostia River in 
Washington, D.C. National Capital 
Parks-East, a unit of the National 
Capital Region of the National Park 
Service, manages the marsh. 

This marsh, along with hundreds 
Df other acres of tidal wetlands, had 
flanked the Anacostia River into the 
rwentieth Century (figure 1, page 
16). However, during the 1920s- 
10s, the U.S. Army Corps of Engi- 
leers dredged and channeled the 
Anacostia River from the Potomac 
River up to Bladensburg, Maryland 
'approximately 9 miles), to improve 
lavigation. The dredge spoil was 
ased to create upland within the ad- 
acent wetlands. Much of the newly 
created land became Anacostia and 
Cenilworth parks. In 1940, the 

narshes at Kenilworth were 

Iredged, ostensibly to create a recreational lake (figure 2, page 'Mean sea level is the average ocean surface level for all stages of the 
6). However, the lake developed into a shallow bowl, which tide over a recent 19-year period; twice daily tides range above and 
it low tide simply became an extensive unvegetated mud flat below mean sea level. 

Before (top) and after (bottom) reconstruction of 
mass fill area #1 at Kenilworth Marsh. A tidal gut, or 
channel, was also installed in the restoration effort 
and shows in the bottom image of the completed 



(-0.6 to 0.1 feet mean sea level 11 hav- 
ing minimal habitat value (figure 3, 
page 16). Wild rice {Zizania aqaat- 
icri) and other emergent plants, 
which once dominated the 
Anacostia marshes and were ma- 
jor food sources for wildlife, had 
practically disappeared. 

Recognizing Potential 

NPS documents from as early as 
1963 recognized the potential of 
Kenilworth Marsh as an important 
natural area and wildlife sanctuary. 
In 1980, the Kenilworth Park and 
Aquatic Gardens Development 
Concept Plan promoted the inter- 
pretation and study of this natural 
area (that nearly surrounds the his- 
toric gardens). For the area to meet 
interpretive objectives, improve 
water quality, and certainly to meet 
the goal of being a viable wetland 
habitat, the wetland would have to 

Continued on Page 16 


V o I u 

Integrating Research and Resource Management 

e 1 5 — Mo. 1 • Winter 1995 

Published by 

The National Park Service 

U.S. Department of the Interior 

Roger G. Kennedy 

Acting Associate Director, Natural 


Dennis B. Fenn 


Editorial Board 


Ron Hiebert 


Midwest Region 


Gary E. Davis 

Marine Research Scientist 

Channel Islands National Park 

John Dennis 

Acting Deputy Associate Director, 

Natural Resources 



Craters of the Moon National Monument 

Elizabeth Johnson 

Chief, Research and Resource Planning 

Delaware Water Gap NRA 

Regional Chief Scientists & 

Chiefs of Natural Resource Management 



Mid- Atlantic 

John Karish • Dave Reynolds 

Ron Hiebert • Steve Cinnamon 

National Capitol 

William Anderson • Einar Olson 

North Atlantic 

Mary Foley 

Pacific Northwest 


Rocky Mountain 

Bob Moon 


Suzette Kimball 


Sam Kunkle 

Bruce Kilgore 

Park Science (ISSN-0735-9462) is a quarterly science 
and resource management bulletin that reports recent 
and ongoing natural and social science research, its im- 
plications for park planning and management, and its 
application in resource management The bulletin is pub- 
lished in January, April, July, and October for distribution 
to interested parties. Please advise the editor of address 

The editor welcomes submissions of case studies and 
feature articles. See volume 14, number 4, page 13 for 
complete submission criteria or contact the editor at: 

National Park Service 

Natural Resources Publication Office 

P.O. Box 25287 (WASO-NRPO) 

Denver, CO 80225-0287 

Phone (303) 969-2147 

@ Printed on recycled paper 


Depa rtments 

• Editorial 3 

• Regional Highlights 4 

• Information Crossfile : 8 

• MAB Notes 9 

• Erratum 19 

• Book Review ■$: 26 

• New Publications 27 

• Article Indexes for Volume 14-1994 29 

• Meetings of Interest 32 

• The Reconstruction of Kenilworth Marsh 1 

• Visitor Employed Photography at Rocky Mountain 
National Park: A Valuation Technique 10 

• An Isle Royale Story 13 

• Polyurethane Foam Applications in the Closure of 
Abandoned Mine Openings 14 

• Isle Royale Loons 20 

• Geologic Features Monitoring at Craters of the Moon 
National Monument 22 

• Preparing for Dune Swale Wetland Restoration at Indiana 
Dunes National Lakeshore 23 

• In Memory of Craig Johnson and Scott Shull 24 

• Forget-Me-Not: Remembering Park Ranger and Alpine 
Botanist Carl Sharsmith 25 

In the Next Issue. . . 

Coinciding with spring migration, look for several articles 

detailing research and resource management projects on 

birds in our spring 1995 edition. We anticipate running 

stories on spruce grouse research in Acadia National Park, 

Maine, piping plover habitat protection at Cape Cod 

National Seashore, Massachusetts, and Alaskan national 

parks peregrine falcon migration tracking by satellite. Also 

expect a summary of recommendations from the Assistant 

Secretary Frampton ad committee for the future of resource 

management under the NPS reorganization plan. 

Park Science 

New Year, New Look 

inaugural issue of the fifteenth volume with a new 
appearance. Part of the transition in moving this 
publication from the Pacific Northwest to Denver has been to 
renegotiate printing and distribution contracts and to reevaluate 
the Park Science design while maintaining its always useful 

You may first notice a difference in the publication subtitle. 
Now, "Integrating Research and Resource Management," my 
hope is to portray the role of the publication more accurately by 
broadening the subtitle to include research and resource 
management, and to show at a glance the relationship between 
the two disciplines. Our focus has always been this, so why not 
say so right on the front page? 

You may also find Park Science to be a little easier to read. The 
lines of text are spaced a little broader and the pages are a little 
more open, creating a more inviting appearance. I hope that 
creative arrangement of text, graphics, and other design elements 
will delight the eye as much as the words have always delighted 
the mind. 

A new year celebration often prompts us to look at where we 
have been and plan for where we are headed . Is it any wonder 
that the indexes to volume 14, published in the last pages of this 
issue, indicate that last year a very common topic for Park Science 
articles was the National Biological Survey? We dealt with 
change on a huge and painful scale, not only in planning for our 
own reorganization, but also in mourning the loss of our 
scientists. Now we have begun to accept these realities and are 
beginning to feel more optimistic about our new relationship 
with our sister agency. Our point of view seems to be shifting 
toward one of cooperation and ingenuity in getting the work 
accomplished. To this end, plans for 1995 include publishing a 
profile of a NBS research center, along with examples of some of 
the first research products to come from our fledgling relation- 
ship. As always, I encourage contributions of all kinds for the 
coming year, but especially examples of success between us and 
the National Biological Survey and other cooperators. Our cover 
story on restoration of Kenilworth Marsh and the visitor study at 
Rocky Mountain National Park are perfect examples of the kinds 
of partnerships we are capable of forming. 

This year and in the future, we may also see continued 
growth in the number and diversity of articles dealing with 
ecosystem management or landscape ecology research. This 
edition contains a paper on breeding population dynamics of Isle 
Royale National Park loons and serves as an example of this 
important trend toward expressing research and its application 
in more holistic ways. Growth in this area has been gradual for 
more than a decade, and I expect that Park Scietice will publish 
more and more research and resource management project 
papers that link or have utility in ecologically similar parks. 

Whereas last year challenged us to come to grips with 
sweeping changes in our science program, this year will likely 
require adjustments to our internal organization. Once our 
proposed system support offices are up and running and regions 
have been replaced by the field director offices, we should be 
able to sort out any changes in our in-park resource manage- 
ment programs and make most of the necessary minor adjust- 
ments. While surprises always occur, it seems that 1995 is likely 
to be more stable and may even begin to show growth and 
continued professionalization for resource management in the 

One indicator for growth is the great progress achieved in 
garnering support for a long-term increase in resource manage- 
ment staffing as a result of recommendations from the Vail 
Agenda, the Strategic Plan for Improving the Natural Resource 
Program of the National Park Service, and the Natural Resource 
Management Assessment Program (NR-MAP). NR-MAP has 
proven to be good enough in assessing our natural resource 
operational workload that Director Kennedy, in a September 
memorandum, vowed to double park personnel involved in 
natural resource management by the year 2000! Parks have 
already begun to plan for these increases through participation in 
a fiscal year 1997 initiative to compete for the first staff increases. 

Another positive indicator will be reported next issue 
regarding the Assistant Secretary Frampton recommendations 
for strengthening resource management under the NPS 
reorganization plan. While specifics are few at this point, NPS 
participants to the Frampton ad hoc committee gathering last 
November in Washington, D.C., indicated that support for 
resource management is running high within the department. 

To check up on how well we meet your needs in communi- 
cating cutting-edge resource management activities, research, its 
application in parks, news, and other concerns, we plan to 
survey readers again in 1995. Conducted first in 1985, the reader 
survey told us about our audience and your use of the publica- 
tion. This reader survey will repeat some of the same questions 
and will give you the opportunity to identify strengths and 
weaknesses and make suggestions for improving Park Science. 
This bulletin has always been strongly rooted in serving its 
readers, and the upcoming survey should help strengthen our 
level of service and keep us pointed in the direction that is most 
useful to you. We will also update addresses of recipients to 
improve delivery. 

Much can be made out of something that has not yet 
occurred. Momentum appears to be building again, albeit slowly. 
Let us get on board and work to make the ride productive this 

Winter 1 995 

Regional Highlights 


Winter surveys from 1994 
have confirmed the presence of 
57 wolves in the Michigan Up- 
per Peninsula (up from 31 the 
previous year) with a minimum 
of 7 breeding pairs. Several 
sightings in and around Pictured 
Rocks National Lakeshore indi- 
cate occupation of the area by 
more than 1 wolf with a possi- 
bility of a breeding pair utilizing 
the area for at least part of the year. 
The Michigan Department of 
Natural Resources, U.S. Forest 
Service, U.S. Fish and Wildlife 
Service, and National Park Ser- 
vice will be working to learn more 
about the status of the wolf and 
to complete the state wolf recov- 
ery plan. 

The Pictured Rocks resource 
report series has printed another 
volume recently. "Late Wiscon- 
sin history ofPictured Rocks Na- 
tional Lakeshore and vicinity," by 
William L. Blewett of Ship- 
pensburg University, Pennsylva- 
nia, reinterprets theories of the 
origin of glacial highland features 
in the Michigan Upper Peninsula 
You can obtain copies of the re- 
port from the park. 

Researchers surveyed Pipe- 
stone National Monument, Min- 
nesota, for western prairie fringed 
orchid (Platantherapraechra) and 
found 19 flowering individuals. 
Although they made no system- 
atic effort to search for juvenile 
plants, the researchers located 2. 
Tall vegetation surrounding the 
orchids made them especially 
difficult to locate. A Minnesota 
Department ofNarural Resources 
researcher visited the site and in- 
dicated that the actual population 
(juveniles and adults) could be 
two to three times the number of 
flowering plants found in a given 

year. The fringed orchid was re- 
ported at Pipestone twice in the 
1980s, but was not confirmed by 
park staff until last year. 

Indiana Dunes National Lake- 
shore hosted the second annual 
meeting of the central states task 
force on declining amphibians on 
September 10-11. The following 
day, the National Park Service 
sponsored another gathering to 
discuss formulating a research 
design for assessing trends in am- 
phibian populations nationwide. 
Altogether, approximately 50 
people attended the presentations 
of 25 papers on subjects related 
to amphibian and reptile moni- 

One presentation discussed 
the use of a lampricide in streams 
throughout the Great Lakes re- 
gion in efforts to control sea lam- 
prey (Petromyzon marinus) by 
killing their larvae. Although 
managers have generally re- 
garded lampricide as being spe- 
cific only to lamprey larvae, 
research has shown that mud 
puppy {Necturus maadosus) popu- 
lations decline significantly fol- 
lowing a lampricide treatment In 
some cases where multiyear treat- 
ments have been made, mud 
puppies have been extirpated 
from the area A review of litera- 
ture indicates that the lampricide 
also affects some genera of may- 
flies, tadpoles, native lampreys, 
darters, suckers, and yellow wall- 

Reporting on a research effort 
in Cuyahoga Valley National Rec- 
reation Area, Ohio, a researcher 
described the use of a portable 
automated sound recording sys- 
tem to assess the population sta- 
tus of toads and frogs. This 
method matched or exceeded the 
performance of traditional sam- 
pling techniques used a decade 
ago in a multiyear study. For ap- 
proximately $2,000 in supplies, a 

researcher can build the animal 
call recording system. Gary 
Sullivan has a list of the equip- 
ment and assembly instructions. 
If interested, give him a call at 
(402) 221-3994. 

Task force members at the con- 
ference recommended a new 
book entitled, Measuring and 
Monitoring Biological Diversity, 
Standard Methods for Amphibians, 
edited by W Ronald Heyer, et al. 
In the book, nearly 50 herpetolo- 
gists recommend ten standard 
sampling procedures for measur- 
ing and monitoring amphibian 
populations. Included is a detailed 
protocol for implementing each 
procedure, a list of necessary 
equipment and personnel, and 
suggestions for analyzing the 
data. The book is published by 
the Smithsonian Institution Press 
and can be ordered from 
Smithsonian Institution Press, 
Department 900, Blue Ridge 
Summit, PA 17294-0900, tele- 
phone (800) 7824612 or (717) 
794-2148. $49.00 cloth, $17.95 

Guided by the Saint Croix 
Zebra Mussel Response Plan, staff 
at the Saint Croix National Sce- 
nic Riverway in Wisconsin con- 
tacted over 66,000 individuals 
between May 15 and October 10, 
1994, to discuss National Park 
Service efforts to slow the spread 
of the mussel to the unit Among 
those contacted were crews of 
seven vessels harbored on the 
Saint Croix River and reported 
to have been operating in zebra 
mussel-infested waters during the 
summer. No adult populations of 
zebra mussels were found on 
these vessels. 


Resource managers are devel- 
oping an integrated pest manage- 
ment (IPM) plan to control a 
black rat population on three is- 

lands at Dry Tortugas Nation; 
Park in the Gulf of Mexico, 7 
miles from Key West, Floridi 
The rats prey on sooty tern nest 
on Bush Key and are a threat 1 
this avian colony that is regarde 
as a wildlife resource of outstanc 
ing international significance Pre 
dation of loggerhead and gree 
turtle nests by the rats on Log 
gerhead Key is another concen 
Recent monitoring by snap trap 
indicates a high rat populatioi 
Furthermore, the rats appear 1 
be able to migrate across th 
channel following tern nestin 
season to Garden Key wher 
food and harborage are ampli 
Doug DeVries, IPM coordinate 
at Everglades National Park, 
seeking input from rodent expert 
and assistance (volunteers) wit 
control implementation. 

One of numerous issues bein 
addressed by resource manage 
ment personnel at Biscayne Nj 
tional Park in South Florida 
resource damage resulting fror 
boats that anchor in live coral. U 
to 1,000 boats per day utilize th 
park on weekends during pea 
season, and many of these eithe 
visit the outer reef tract or the e> 
tensive system of patch reefs. 

The park schedules anchc 
surveys during peak visitor us 
periods and conducts them wft 
a two-person crew. While on 
crew member explains to a bo£ 
captain the damage that occtu 
when boats are anchored to coi 
als, a snorkeler checks the actus 
location of the anchor. Th 
snorkeler then relays the position 
of the anchor to the partner oi 
board the boat— in sand, seagras! 
hardbottom, or live coral. If th 
anchor is found to be in coral, th 
anchor is moved to an alternat 
location, and any significant im 
pact to the resource is docu 
mented on camera 

Park Science 

Regional Highlights 

Staff have checked anchor lo- 
itions of over 400 boats and 
ive found that 26% rested in live 
)ral. With boater use of park 
aters on the rise, resource man- 
ners expect the number of an- 
lors to be placed in live coral to 
se accordingly. The cumulative 
lpacts of this practice over time 
ill result in severe degradation 
"the park coral reef resource. 

By continuing these anchor 
irveys, the resource manage- 
ent staff hope to educate the 
lblic on the damage caused by 
ichoring in coral. They also 
)pe to document and monitor 
e damage and identify areas 
iat require the installation of 
Iditional mooring buoys for re- 
iurce protection. 


The potential life span of the 
and fox (Urocyon littoralis), a 
reatened species in California, 
is been documented for the first 
ne during the past two years 
rough terrestrial monitoring at 
hannel Islands National Park 
uring pilot studies in the mid- 
>80s designed to test mark-re- 
tpture techniques, scientists on 
m Miguel Island collared these 
nail relatives of the mainland 
ay fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) 
ith individually numbered steel 
ible collars. Surprisingly, they 
captured several of the animals 
iring the summers of 1993 and 

After examining the original 
ita, which included the esti- 
ated ages of the animals at ini- 
d capture, the researchers were 
)le to determine that several are 
irrently at least nine years old. 
■eviously, the life span of island 
x had been estimated to be only 
f e or six years and was based 
l tooth wear models from gray 
x research. 

This discovery demonstrates 
e importance of monitoring not 
ily for tracking species abun- 

dance, but also for acquiring ba- 
sic information regarding the 
natural history of long-lived spe- 
cies. Staff are currently marking 
the island fox on San Miguel Is- 
land with passive integrated tran- 
sponders for continued long-term 

Mary Ann Madej of the Na- 
tional Biological Survey, and 
Vicki Ozaki, Redwood National 
Park, presented a paper at the 
annual meeting of the Geologi- 
cal Society of America in Seattle, 
Washington, in October 1994. 
Entitled, "Changes in channel 
morphology following passage of 
a sediment wave," the paper was 
part of the special session On the 
Geological Basis ofWild Salmon 
Ecology. The talk described the 
decline and partial recovery of 
pool habitat in Redwood Creek 
northern California, following a 
large flood and associated high 
erosion, and the subsequent ef 
fects of these habitat changes on 
the distribution of steelhead 


The Southwest Regional Of 
fice, in conjunction with the Uni- 
versity of Colorado and the NPS 
Water Resources Division in Fort 
Collins, Colorado, has initiated a 
water infiltration study at Carls- 
bad Caverns National Park in 
New Mexico. Several years ago, 
cave specialists became con- 
cerned about runoff from park- 
ing lots and the possibility of 
sewage leaks from park facilities. 
In fact, recent videography of ex- 
isting sewerlines indicates that the 
lines may have been leaking for 
many years. This is a servicewide 
concern, since the majority of 
NPS-administered caves, Carls- 
bad Caverns among them are so- 
lution caves. That is, they are 
formed by water dissolving away 
limestone. The geologic features, 

such as joints, bedding planes, and 
faults, which facilitated water flow 
to create these caves, can become 
the routes of travel for other pol- 
lutants, as well. 

Scientists have made several 
discoveries from the research and 
inventory trips to Carlsbad Cav- 
erns. Fecal coliforms have been 
found in an undeveloped section 
of the cavern which is associated 
with drippings from the cave ceil- 
ing. Additionally, researchers 
have noticed unusual molds and 
fungi growing on walls and ceil- 
ings of the cave in remote areas. 
The water infiltration study will 
examine the possible correlation 
of the discovery of fecal coliforms 
and the molds and fungi to these 
sewage leaks. 

After two full seasons of field- 
work the inventory phase of the 
Montezuma Castle National 
Monument, Arizona, inventory 
and monitoring project is now 
completed. This multidisciplinary 
effort of researchers from North- 
em Arizona University and the 
Colorado Plateau Research Sta- 
tion (National Biological Survey 
Cooperative Parks Studies Unit) 
has been supported by small park 
Natural Resources Preservation 
Program (NRPP) funds. Some 
important results of the inventory 
include: 1. characterization and 
mapping of the desert riparian 
and associated upland vegetation 
communities, 2. discovery of ad- 
ditional new aquatic invertebrate 
species from the unique lime- 
stone sink spring at Montezuma 
Well, 3. documentation of state 
listed sensitive fish species (desert 
sucker and Sonoran sucker) in 
stream habitats at the park 4. de- 
tailed description of the bird 
community in the area, which 
includes nesting common black- 
hawks and yellow-billed cuckoos, 
and 5. documentation of the loss 
of several native mammal species 

from the area in historic times, 
probably due to long-term habi- 
tat change. 

Montezuma Castle and the 
Western Regional Office are pro- 
viding funding to begin long-term 
monitoring, concentrating on ri- 
parian and associated habitats. 
The inventory and monitoring 
effort at the park has received the 
continued support and commit- 
ment of the superintendent and 
staff and also regional office staff 
(Southern Arizona Group, and 
the Western Regional Office). 
This sustained commitment is 
crucial to any extended project, 
and is particularly important as 
we move into the long-term 
monitoring phase which will be- 
gin in spring 1995. 

North Atlantic 

The regional office Division of 
Natural Resources and Research 
has recently published a series of 
technical reports. Those focusing 
on Acadia National Park Maine, 
include, "Acadia National Park 
geographic-based fire and natu- 
ral resource management simu- 
lation system (AGEOFRSS)," by 
S.L. Garman; "Elemental mass 
balance, and episodic and ten- 
year changes in the chemistry of 
surface waters," by R H. Heath, J. 
S. Kahl, SA Norton, and WF 
Brutsaert; and "Nutrients in 
Somes Sound and the associated 
watershed, Mount Desert Island, 
Maine," by PH. Doering and CT 
Roman. Cape Cod National Sea- 
shore, Massachusetts, reports in- 
clude, "Ecology and monitoring 
of white-tailed deer on Cape Cod 
National Seashore," by WF. Por- 
ter, D.L. Gamer, WF Seybold; 
and "Modern limnology of the 
Provincelands Ponds for com- 
parison with recent changes in 
the biota of Duck and Bennett 
Ponds adjacent to the Prov- 
incetown Municipal Landfill," by 

Continued on page 6 

Winter 1 995 

Reg i o n a l 


M.G. Winkler. Finally, two re- 
ports apply to Gateway National 
Recreation Area, New York. 
They are, "Inventory of sub- 
merged natural resources and re- 
view of key issues," by J. Muzio, 
F. Rubel; and "Seeps investigation 
at Fountain Avenue Landfill," by 
R A lert and CRugge. 

RociCY Mountain 

Last issue, we reported that 
wolf restoration in Yellowstone 
National Park (and central Idaho) 
was imminent and that no law- 
suits were expected to delay the 
carefully researched and planned 
project In late November, how- 
ever, after the Park Science fall re- 
lease, the American Farm Bureau 
Federation filed suit in U.S. Dis- 
trict Court, delaying the reintro- 
duction effort. 

The lawsuit contends, in part, 
that Yellowstone and central 
Idaho are outside the "probable 
historic range" of the Canadian 
wolves that would be introduced 
there and that translocating a spe- 
cies outside of its probable his- 
toric range is in violation of the 
Endangered Species Act. The 
lawsuit requested a temporary re- 
straining order to prevent the re- 
lease of the wolves until after the 
suit is heard. Federal officials have 
agreed not to import any wolves 
into the United States until after 
January 1, 1995. The U.S. Fish 
and Wildlife Service, however, 
can continue to capture wolves 
in Alberta, to fit them with radio 
collars (necessary for follow-up 
study after reintroduction), and to 
turn them loose for later track- 
ing. By the time this issue of Park 
Science has been circulated, the 
lawsuit will likely have been 

The Rocky Mountain Region 
established a natural resource 
management team in 1994 to fo- 
cus on field problems and needs. 
Not an advisory group, this team 
of park resource specialists and 
regional office staff will empha- 
size performing services for parks. 
Another responsibility of the 
team is to improve communica- 
tions among the natural resource 
management professionals in 
parks and the regional office. The 
team's first assignment was to re- 
view the natural resource pro- 
gram at Zion National Park Utah. 
Requested by the park resource 
management division, the in- 
depth review took place last Sep- 

Team members and leaders 
will change on a rotating basis, 
and regional office staff will not 
serve as team leaders. Working on 
the team also offers opportunities 
for professional development. 
The team presently consists of 
Cheryl Clemmensen, Grant- 
Kohrs Ranch National Historic 
Site, Montana; Chip Jenkins, 
Black Canyon of the Gunnison 
National Monument, Colorado; 
Ralph Moore, Zion; Sue Consolo 
Murphy, Yellowstone National 
Park Wyoming, Bruce Rogers, 
Canyonlands National Park, 
Utah; Jim Tilmant, Glacier Na- 
tional Park Montana; and Bob 
Moon, Monta-Glea Trebilcock 
Janet Wise, and Tom Wylie of the 
Rocky Mountain Regional Office. 

The regional office and the 
NPS Water Resources Division 
cohosted a water resource plan- 
ning workshop in Denver, Colo- 
rado, during November 1994. 
The workshop provided an over- 
view of the water resource man- 
agement planning process and 
focused on the development of 
resource management plan proj- 
ect statements, scoping docu- 

ments, and water resource man- 
agement plans. These documents 
support the decision-making pro- 
cess related to the protection use, 
and management of park water 

The group first discussed case 
studies of water resource man- 
agement programs before begin- 
ning a problem-solving session. 
Park representatives presented 
the water resource issues facing 
their parks and then received in- 
dividual technical assistance from 
staff in developing strategies and 

This was one in a series of 
workshops that have proved to 
be beneficial to participating 
parks. Park resource managers 
interested in initiating additional 
water resource planning work- 
shops should contact their re- 
spective regional water resource 

In cooperation with the Envi- 
ronmental Protection Agency 
Region 8, the Rocky Mountain 
Region is initiating a Colorado 
Plateau ecosystem partnership for 
the development of an informa- 
tion database. The focus of the 
database development, storage, 
and retrieval activities will be the 
National Biological Survey field 
unit led by Charles van Riper III 
at Northern Arizona University 
in Flagstaff Data sets will be struc- 
tured at two different scales, one 
for comprehensive plateauwide 
data, and a second providing 
more detailed data for specific 


After 18 years of concentrat- 
ing on its cultural resources, the 
Klondike Gold Rush National 
Historical Park Resource Man- 
agement Division expanded this 
year to include a natural resource 
program. First-year efforts in- 
cluded conducting a native and 

exotic plant inventory, develoj 
ing a herbarium collection, asses 
ing a campground for limits < 
acceptable change in preparatio 
for upcoming state centennial ce 
ebrations, achieving a trail surve 
and assessment, creating a wile 
life observation database, and d< 
veloping both short-term an 
long-term program goals. 

Initial surveys reveal a pai 
that, although small in size t 
Alaskan standards (approx 
mately 13,000 acres), is rich i 
biodiversity and special in ge< 
graphic character. The park lit 
in the driest and northernmo 
section of southeastern Alask 
stretches from sea level to ti 
summit of a coastal mountai 
and links the moist marine cl 
mate of the southeast to the di 
interior climate of the Yuko: 
With so much landscape an 
species diversity within such 
compact area, we anticipate ai 
other exciting season of disco 

The Alaska Region has con 
pleted a draft natural resourc 
strategic action plan that w 
serve as a regional resource mai 
agement plan and more! It shoul 
help to improve our science mai 
agement capabilities by identifj 
ing region-based needs i 
resource management 

We are planning a resourc 
management workshop for ti 
end of February in or near A 
chorage. The gathering will con 
bine a work group session wit 
an informational meeting form; 
for discussing changes. The higl 
lights of technical workshops wi 
be summarized in the next Pa 

Park Science 

Regional Highlights 

Gary Vequist attended an in- 
eragency Alaska ecosystem 
nanagement team meeting that 
night have been termed more 
ppropriately a design team. This 
> because the team designs pub- 
c involvement approaches to 
cosystem management Ecosys- 
2ms are complex and require 
lore interdisciplinary expertise, 
1 as we say in Alaska, "more 
rains per acre." This approach 
3 ecosystem management com- 
ines not only the interdiscipli- 
ary expertise of the agencies, but 
Iso that of the public and other 
rganizations. Past planning and 
ecision-making processes often 
reated adversarial relationships, 
ecause resource management 
ecisions were made/Srthe pub- 
c. Using the new ecosystem 
lanagement design, decisions 
re made along with the public. 

Several articles of relevance to 
jgional parks have been pub- 
shed during the last several 
lonths. They are: "Succession 
n regraded placer mine spoil in 
daska in relation to initial site 
haracteristics," by R.V. Dens- 
lore, 1994, and published in 
frvtic and Alpine Research 26:60- 
9; "Stream and floodplain res- 
)ration in a riparian ecosystem 
isturbed by placer mining," by 
IF. Karle and R.V. Densmore, 
994, and published in Ecological 
',ngineeri7igZ:Yl\-\'h'h\ "Stream 
nd floodplain restoration in Glen 
-reek Denali National Park and 
reserve," by K.F. Karle and R.V. 
tensmore, 1994, and published 
Technical Report NPS/ 
mWRD/NRTR-94/17, 33 pp; 
nd finally, "Functional response 
f wolves preying on barren- 
round caribou in multi-prey 
cosystems," by B. Dale (NPS), 
, Adams (NBS), and T Bowyer 

(University of Alaska), 1994, and 
published in the Journal of Ani- 
mal Ecology. 

Pacific Northwest 

Over the past two years, re- 
source managers at Craters of the 
Moon National Monument in 
Idaho developed several partner- 
ships for the purpose of rehabili- 
tating an abandoned mine site 
within park boundaries. Before 
rehabilitation, Martin Mine, a 
gold and silver mine dating from 
the 1920s, was about an acre in 
size and consisted of four tailings 
piles totaling 1,850 cubic yards 
(1,415 cubic meters) of material. 
The site was of concern, because 
it is located in the drainage of a 
creek that is the sole source of 
monument oxinking water; a pre- 
liminary baseline water quality 
study had indicated that mine tail- 
ings were impacting the stream, 
predominantly by surface erosion 
and sediment transport processes. 

The first step we took in the 
reclamation effort was to evalu- 
ate the mine under the Compre- 
hensive Environmental Response 
and Liabilities Act (CERCLA, 
also known as Superfund) pro- 
cess. A preliminary site assess- 
ment conducted by the NPS 
Water Resources Division con- 
cluded that our site was not eli- 
gible for clean up under the act 

Next, resource management 
staffsolicited technical assistance 
from the NPS Mining and Min- 
erals Branch, who agreed to de- 
velop a reclamation design and 
oversee the implementation of 
the project The selected design 
included: 1. placing the tailings 
below grade in dry, stable areas, 
2. covering the tailings with a 
minimum of 36 inches of topsoils 
salvaged from adjacent roadfill, 3. 
reconstructing the surfaces to re- 
store original contours and sur- 
face hydrology, and 4. mulching 
and seeding the area with native 
pioneering species. Mining and 

Minerals staff plan to publish a 
technical case study of this recla- 
mation effort in a future edition 
of Park Science. 

Finally, the Natural Resource 
Division of the Pacific Northwest 
Regional Office agreed to fund 
the reclamation effort In order to 
stretch funding, resource man- 
agement staff at the park ap- 
proached our neighboring 
Bureau of Land Management 
district to ask for their assistance. 
Through a contract, they pro- 
vided a bulldozer and an opera- 
tor for the work 

The park completed the proj- 
ect in late September following a 
full week ofhard work Staff from 
the Mining and Minerals Branch 
were on hand to oversee heavy 
equipment operations. An arche- 
ologist from Hagerman Fossil 
Beds National Monument Idaho, 
was also on-site to provide exper- 
tise on the protection of any cul- 
tural resources that might have 
been discovered (none were un- 
earthed). Finally, a local Boy 
Scout troop along with resource 
managers handled the reseeding 
and mulching of the site. 

The many cooperators in- 
volved in the project are to be 
commended for their efforts. 
Without them, rehabilitating this 
mine site at Craters of the Moon 
never would have occurred. 

Fossil finds, some of world- 
wide significance, continue to 
spring up all over Hagerman Fos- 
sil Beds National Monument In 
December 1993, NPS staff exca- 
vated a fossil log that was not 
mineralized. That is, the original 
wood was still present despite the 
age of the specimen. The log is 
the second oldest of its kind in 
the world (the oldest is found in 
Greenland), and more of it is still 
present in the cliff face. The re- 
mainder will be excavated when 
funds become available. 

In the spring 1994, a geology 
graduate student from Idaho 
State University discovered the 
skull of a fossil camel. What is 
really exciting about this find is 
that it was discovered in a geo- 
logic formation that had not been 
known to contain fossils, what- 
soever. The camel skull is on dis- 
play in the park visitor center. 

During the dog days this past 
summer, we excavated several 
mastodon bones from a quarry 
in a remote section of the monu- 
ment While these bones were 
not in good condition, as we were 
prospecting around the area, we 
found an articulated fossil beaver 
skeleton! We have cast this skel- 
eton in a plaster jacket for safe- 
keeping and hope that the 
National Guard will provide us 
the service of a helicopter for its 

The regional director recently 
recommended a policy of no rec- 
reational harvest of edible mush- 
rooms in Pacific Northwest parks. 
While the Code of Federal Regula- 
tions permits a superintendent to 
designate fruits, berries, nuts, and 
unoccupied seashells to be gath- 
ered for personal use, the provi- 
sion also stipulates a restriction. 
The regulation states that gath- 
ering is only allowed upon a writ- 
ten determination that the activity 
will not adversely affect wildlife, 
reproductive potential of a plant 
species, or otherwise adversely 
affect park resources. The memo 
included a summary of ecologi- 
cal considerations related to the 
harvest of mushrooms and rec- 
ommended that superintendents 
not authorize the harvesting ac- 
tivity until they can demonstrate 
that mushroom collecting is not 
detrimental to park resources. 

Continued on page 19, column 2 

Winter 1 9 9 5 


webs of interactions are 
commonly discussed in 
ecological circles; however, 
Peter Kareiva points out in three 
articles of the September 1994 
issue of Ecology (Special Feature, 
Ecology 75 (6), 1994, pp. 1527- 
1559) that this is not the focus of 
recent ecological research. 
Kareiva reviewed every paper 
published in the journal between 
January 1981 and December 
1990 and found that greater than 
60% of the papers dealt with at 
most two species and a single 
pairwise interaction. Reduction- 
ist ecologists have been so fo- 
cused on simple experiments that 
they have developed new terms 
to describe more complex situa- 
tions, such as higher order inter- 
actions. Kareiva expresses 
concern that interaction modifi- 
cations (direct interaction of two 
species altered by the presence of 
a third) are often not considered 
in much of the ecological research 
dealing with higher order inter- 
actions. Ecologists have tended 
to write papers that marvel at the 
discovery of these interactions, 
neglecting the effects of these in- 
teractions on the interpretation of 

The presence of introduced 
fish populations may substantially 
alter the community structure of 
native species within a body of 
water and complicates fisheries 
management. The widespread 
management practice of fish 
stocking has also added consid- 
erable confusion in regard to the 
distribution of native fish popu- 
lations. Consequently, a basic 
question that NPS biologists of- 
ten need to address is the native 
status offish populations. 

Similar questions are being 
asked about the status of lakes in 
Canadian national parks. A recent 
study by S. Lamontagne and 

D.W. Schindler {Canadian Jour- 
nal ofEisheries and Aquatic Sciences 
51(6), 1994, pp. 1,376-1,383) de- 
termined the historical status of 
several lake fish populations in 
Jasper National Park by interpret- 
ing the abundance of subfossil 
remains of Chaoborus spp. (a 
diptera) from sediment cores. 
Chaoborus species are sensitive to 
the presence of planktivorous fish 
with the largest of the species, 
Chaoborus atnericanus, being the 
most vulnerable and rapidly ex- 
tirpated when fish are present. 
Another related study by B. 
IVfisltimmim and D.W. Schindler 
{Canadian Journal ofEisheries and 
Aquatic Sciences 51 (4), 1994, pp. 
923-932) used sediment cores to 
reconstruct a 50-year record of 
the invertebrate community 
structure in three lake basins. This 
study was done to assess the in- 
vertebrate community response 
to past toxaphene treatments and 
subsequent trout stocking. 

Do lists of endangered, threat- 
ened, and sensitive species com- 
piled by federal and state wildlife 
agencies accurately reflect known 
or suspected population declines? 
Using federal and state lists of en- 
dangered or sensitive species, 
Jonathan Atwood, in his article, 
"Endangered small landbirds of 
the western United States" (pub- 
lished in A Century of Avifauna! 
Change in Western North America. 
Studies bi Avian Biology No. 75J.R. 
Jehljr., and N.K Johnson editors), 
compared these lists with the re- 
sults of three recent monitoring 
studies assessing regional trends 
in western bird populations. 

Of the 135 species of small 
western landbirds currently indi- 
cated as needing conservation 
concern, 78 (58%) occur either 
peripherally in the West or as pe- 
ripheral populations in those 
states where they appear on offi- 
cial lists. Of the remaining spe- 

cies, none exhibited declining 
population trends that were de- 
tected by two or more of the 
monitoring studies. Additionally, 
the monitoring studies identified 
27 species of landbirds that are 
absent from federal or state lists 
of species of conservation con- 
cern. Six of these species (band- 
tailed pigeon, olive-sided 
flycatcher, Swainson's thrush, 
Wilson's warbler, chipping spar- 
row, and black-throated sparrow) 
were found to be declining by at 
least two monitoring sources. 
Though some differences in 
Atwood's analysis may be trivial, 
merely reflecting limitations in 
population monitoring tech- 
niques, clearly they do not explain 
the failure of government agen- 
cies to incorporate results of re- 
cent scientific findings into their 
listing process. 

In conclusion, Atwood notes, 
"inconsistent and poorly defined 
terminology, failure to systemati- 
cally incorporate current scientific 
data, and overemphasis on pro- 
tection of peripheral populations 
that show no evidence of wide- 
spread declines have created a 
vague and confusing system that 
has minimal value to scientists or 
conservationists." Increasing 
threats to bird populations make 
it imperative that we improve the 
processes used to identify species 
in need of special conservation. 

The Academy of Natural Sci- 
ences of Philadelphia and the 
American Ornithologists Union 
have combined their resources to 
begin publishing an encyclope- 
dic reference series featuring ac- 
counts of the biology of each of 
the 700+ species of birds known 
to breed in North America The 
Birds of North America summa- 
rizes what is known or unknown 
about the biology and status of 
each North American bird. The 
standard profile format empha- 

sizes key aspects of ecology and 
conservation. Each profile, 
authored by a recognized expert 
or team of experts, includes in- 
formation on distribution, popu- 
lation status and trends, habitat 
needs, and management recom- 
mendations. An excellent bibli- 
ography is also included with 
each account To date, approxi- 
mately 80 species accounts have 
been published and the editors 
plan to publish an additional 80 
accounts per year over the next 
eight years. Each account costs 
approximately $7. If you have 
planned a project that involves 
specific species, this is an excel- 
lent starting point from which to 
gain reference material. For more 
information call 1-800-345-8112. 

A new quarterly journal, Ur- 
ban Ecosystems, will be launched 
at the Seventh National Urban 
Forestry Conference to be held 
in September 1995 in New York 
City. The journal will foster the 
application of ecosystem science 
principles to understanding the 
dynamics of urban systems, and 
link urban ecosystem science and 
urban ecosystem management 
The journal will primarily con- 
tain peer-reviewed investigations 
of the function and dynamics of 
urban ecosystems. A significant 
portion of the journal will also dis- 
cuss management and policy im- 1 
plications of the articles and offer 
dialogue between urban ecosys- 
tem scientists and managers. The 
journal will include an editor's 
summary, invited commentaries 
from urban ecosystem managers, 
and a letters section. For more in- 
formation, write to the Urban, 
Forestry Department American 
Forests, P.O. Box2000, Washing-; 
ton, D.C 20013. n 

Contributors included Reed 
Glesne and Bob Kuntz of 
North Cascades National Pari. 

Park Science 

MAB Notes 

By John G. Dennis 

T{ he US. Man and the 
Biosphere Program 
(MAB) of the United 
Nations Educational and Scien- 
tific Organization is alive and well, 
despite any lack of information 
about it over the past few issues 
oiPark Science. The Washington 
Office has changed, along with 
everyone else-Bill Gregg, former 
Mr. MAB in the National Park 
Service, is now Mr. MAB in the 
National Biological Survey; Nape 
Shelton, former author of MAB 
Notes, has retired and is touring 
the United States or world; and I 
have replaced Bill Gregg as the 
(acting, of course) associate 
director's (acting, of course) staff 
support for NPS MAB. 

MAB, itself has a new chair of 
the national committee. He is 
Dean Bibles, currently Staff As- 
sistant to Secretary Babbitt as di- 
rector for policy on land tenure. 
An ex-Bureau of Land Manage- 
ment state director, I believe he 
also is the first land manager to 
become national committee 
chair, an event that I think will 
greatly benefit the biosphere re- 
serve component of the MAB 
program, while not jeopardizing 
the existing strength of the re- 
search component 

These MAB Notes will report 
on some of the key events of the 
last two national committee 
meetings— the July 29 meeting of 
the U.S. National Committee for 
MAB and the November 3 meet- 
1 ing of the Executive Committee 
of the US. National Committee 
Tor MAB. 

The July meeting continued 
support for high latitude, human- 
dominated systems, tropical eco- 
systems, and temperate eco- 
; systems directorate core projects 
and initiated support for the ma- 
rine and coastal ecosystem direc- 
torate core project. While all 
directorate projects have value to 
parks and biosphere reserves in 

general, the human-dominated, 
temperate, and marine and 
coastal projects specifically relate 
to one or more park-based bio- 
sphere reserves and attempt to 
bring an integrated, natural and 
social science, focus to their ac- 
tivities. Although the human- 
dominated project includes New 
Jersey Pinelands, Virginia Coast 
Reserve, and South Florida, its fo- 
cus to date has been South 
Florida, where it is stirring the pot 
of thought by bringing together 
natural, social, economic, and le- 
gal specialists to stimulate 
new ways of thinking 
about sustaining 
both natural 
and human 
economic live- 
lihoods in 
South Florida. 
Contact Mark 

Harwell, University of Miami, 
305-361-4157 voice, 305-361- 
4077 fax, or "" on the Internet 

The temperate ecosystems 
project which involves compari- 
sons of land ownership-land use 
characteristics in the Olympic 
Peninsula of Washington and 
Southern Appalachians regions, 
discovered that it had to invest a 
great deal of time and effort in 
teaching natural scientists and 
socioeconomic scientists how to 
communicate with each other 
and learn each others' definitions 
of common words used very dif- 
ferently. Contact Bob Naiman, 
206-543-6920 voice, 206-543- 
3254 fax, "cssuw@u.washing-" for more information. 

The marine and coastal eco- 
systems project will stimulate the 
interaction of ecologists, sociolo- 
gists, economists, and resource 
managers to assess effectiveness 
of existing marine management 
systems and develop information 
useful for building partnerships 
for developing, initiating, and 
operating marine and coastal re- 

source protection in areas where 
management systems will un- 
dergo change within the next few 
years. Although the directorate 
proposed four areas, there likely 
will be only enough funding to 
focus on two, the Horida Keys 
and Channel Islands, California, 
both of which contain NPS in- 
terests. Contact Michael Crosby, 
301-713-3155 voice, 301-713- 
4011 fax. 

Of much more immediate in- 
terest to many nation park sys- 
tem areas, the July meeting broke 
new ground for the MAB pro- 
gram by adopting a strategic 
plan for the US. biosphere 
reserve program, 
by adding a bio- 
sphere reserve 
directorate chair 
to the national 
committee, and 
by allotting $120,000 of fiscal year 
1994 funds to the biosphere re- 
serve directorate. The essence of 
the strategic plan is to help ". . . 
each US. biosphere reserve . . . 
become a full partner in the pro- 
cess of integrating conservation 
and sustainable development lo- 
cally, and in sharing information 
and experience to help address 
regional and global problems." In 
putting the biosphere reserve di- 
rectorate chair onto the national 
committee, the national commit- 
tee implemented a strategic plan 
goal of integrating the biosphere 
reserve program as an essential 
component of the MAB pro- 
gram. In allocating the first for- 
mal funds to the biosphere 
reserve directorate, the national 
committee supported develop- 
ment of a biosphere reserve se- 
lection guidelines, review of the 
biosphere reserve network re- 
gional meetings of biosphere re- 
serves, development of regional 
feasibility partnerships, an annual 
managers workshop, a biosphere 

reserve brochure, and US. par- 
ticipation in a EuroMAB meet- 
ing of managers. 

The November executive 
committee adopted a new mis- 
sion statement for MAB and ap- 
proved proposed RFPs for 
biosphere reserve catalytic grants 
and the tropical ecosystems di- 
rectorate small grants program. 
They also addressed the need for 
a biosphere reserve directorate 
coordinator and how such a need 
might be filled by a detailed staff 
person from a MAB agency. Fi- 
nally, they established an ad hoc 
commission to review the struc- 
ture, orientation, and substance of 
the MAB Program, and received 
a report on the EuroMAB man- 
agers meeting. 

The new mission statement is 
short and sweet: "The mission of 
the United States Man and the 
Biosphere Program is to foster 
harmonious relationships be- 
tween humans and the biosphere 
through domestic and interna- 
tional cooperation in interdisci- 
plinary research, education, 
biosphere reserves, and informa- 
tion exchange." 

The biosphere reserve catalytic 
grants program is intended to 
support workshops and partner- 
ship-building activities. It is to be 
a competitive process that focuses 
on projects that produce short- 
term tangible results. As sched- 
uled at the meeting, it would 
require applications for available 
funds to be submitted by January 
15, 1995, and would announce 
awards in the spring 1995. 

The ad hoc commission likely 
will conduct its deliberations 
through the 1994-95 winter and 
provide a draft report to the na- 
tional committee by March 1995. 
The purpose will be to reexam- 
ine MAB in terms of the new 
context presented by both do- 
mestic and international changes 

Continued on page 31 

Winter 1 995 

Figure 1. Water 

resources proved 

among the most 

important to a positive 

visitor experience in 

Rocky Mountain 

National Park as 

evidenced by this 



Visitor Employed Photography at Rocky Mountain 
National Park: A Valuation Technique 

by Jonathan G. Taylor, Natalie R. Sexton, 
and Kenneth J. Czarnowski 

vice and the National Biological 
-Survey joined forces to clarify and 
quantify visitor values of resources in Rocky 
Mountain National Park in Colorado. Dur- 
ing the summer and fall 1993, 197 park visi- 
tors participated in a photo survey in which 
we asked them to photograph features of the 
park (figure 1). 

For this study, we were particularly inter- 
ested in the importance of water and water- 
related resources to the visitor experience. 
Researchers at the National Biological Sur- 
vey were investigating public knowledge and 
appreciation of riparian ecosystems. Rocky 
Mountain National Park resource managers 
needed to establish the importance of water 
resources to the park visitors, in part because 
of the many competing demands on park wa- 
ter. By not revealing that our primary research 
focus was the perceived values of water and 
water-related resources, we could objectively 
assess how important these resources were 
to the visitors by counting the relative fre- 
quency at which these features occurred as 
the subject of the photographs. 

Park volunteers distributed single-use cam- 
eras to park visitors (figure 2), and instructed 
them to, "photograph the 12 scenes, features, 
or situations within Rocky Mountain National 
Park that have the most important effect (ei- 
ther positive or negative) on your experience 
of the park." In addition to the cameras, visi- 
tors were given photo logs in which they re- 
corded the subject and location of each 
photograph, whether it was a positive or 
negative scene, and their reasons for taking 
the photo. 

The specific technique used in this 
study, termed visitor employed photogra- 
phy (VEP), has been utilized by other 
researchers (see, for example, Cherem 
1973, Cherem and Traweek 1977, 
Cherem and Driver 1983). The study 
technique involves distributing cameras 
to visitors to an area and asking them to 
photograph elements indicated by a spe- 
cific research objective. This allows the 
researcher to "see through the eyes of 
the beholder" (Cherem 1973). 

This technique has several advantages 
for measuring human perceptions of en- 
vironment First, visitor employed pho- 
tography captures important scenes or 
landscapes pictorially, so researchers can 
see what is valued firsthand. Second, the 

method can leave the specific research focu 
unstated, thus allowing a more objective mea 
sure of the importance of a specific resoura 
of interest Third, the results come directly 
from participants, rather than being promptec 
by the researchers. Fourth, the method is ai 
unobtrusive means of measuring elements im 
portant to a recreation experience, and fifth 
this method does not rely upon after-the-fac 
recall, which can be quite inaccurati 
(Bradburn et al. 1987). 

Figure 2. A volunteer distributes cameras ar 
questionnaires and explains the study to a 
prospective participant. 

1 O 

Park Science 

Traditionally, the National Park Service has 
lsed visitor-use surveys and observations to 
)btain visitor opinion and park-use informa- 
ion. Those surveys are primarily conducted 
is personal interviews at park entrances or 
:xits. The VEP technique is distinct from these 
urveys in both the way it is administered and 
he research objectives it is designed to 
ichieve. In visitor employed photography, we 
ire interested in measuring human percep- 
ions and preferences as they relate to critical 
tatural resources and ecosystems. The de- 
nographic data collected in the follow-up sur- 
ey is used to search for explanatory human 
haracteristics and to cross-check with other 
urveys to ensure a representative sampling 
if park visitors. 

We stratified the target sample of 200 park 
isitors to include a broad range of park us- 
rs. Half of the cameras were distributed in 
jly, during the peak summer season, and half 
i September, during the fall colors and elk 
ugling period. Cameras were distributed 
brroughout a full week during both periods. 
a addition, we split those subsamples evenly 
mong four levels of use intensity: drive- 
orough visitors, campers, day-hikers, and 
lackcountry users. From start to finish, this 
tudy was a full collaboration between re- 
ource managers and social science research- 
rs, sustained by significant volunteer 
ontributions of time, effort, and materials. 

Visitors accepted the photo challenge with 
nthusiasm. Ninety-one percent of the re- 
pondents completed the assignment and re- 
urned the cameras. We then sent each 
espondent a complimentary set of his or her 
hotographs, accompanied by a follow-up 
urvey The surveys were designed to obtain 
lemographic data, more information on each 
espondent visit, and the values they held for 
he park water and water-related resources. 
Eighty-five percent of the photo recipients 
eturned their follow-up surveys. Rates of re- 
am for the cameras and surveys are quite 
ugh pillman 1978). 


Features captured in the 2,060 resulting 
•hotographs ranged from pristine mountain 
ikes to park shuttle buses. From the photo- 
raphs, we identified 12 main categories of 
matures (figure 3). Of these, mountain vistas, 
rater bodies, wildlife, and management fea- 
ures (e.g, maintained trails, buildings, and pic- 
lic sites) were photographed most often. 
)nly a smattering of the features photo- 
raphed were reported to have had negative 




Management Features 



Geologic Formations 

Human Impacts 


Meteorologic Features 

Other Features -Si 

effects on the visitor experi- 
ence. The majority of the 
negative features were hu- 
man impacts on the park (e.g, 
crowding, litter, and horse 
manure on trails), plus a few 
management features, such as 
road closures and inadequate 

We identified several im- 
portant differences between 
user groups. Campers found 
management features to be 
more than twice as important 
as any other user category 
(figure 4), but they did not 
photograph park water fea- 
tures nearly as often. Drive- 
through and backcountry 
visitors, groups that had 
greater access to the moun- 
tainous terrain via Trail Ridge 
Road or high country trails, 
photographed mountain vis- 
tas more often than others. 
The fact that backpackers 
took proportionately fewer 
pictures of wildlife may be ex- 
plained, in part, by their get- 
ting away from heavily 
traveled areas, where wildlife 
is habituated to human pres- 

Preliminary analyses sug- 
gest that water and water-re- 
lated ecosystems are very 
important to the visitor expe- 
rience of Rocky Mountain 
National Park. Water bodies 
were the second most pho- 
tographed category in the 
park and were the main fo- 
cus of 17% of the 2,060 photographs. 
Over 75% of the respondents photo- 
graphed at least one water feature 
within the park. When asked in the 
follow-up survey how a one-third re- 
duction in water and water-dependent 
plants and animals would affect their 
experience, 82% of the respondents 
said it would negatively affect their ex- 
perience of the park On a 1 = "nega- 
tively affect" to 10 = "positively affect" 
scale (figure 5), the response mode was 
1 and the median was 2 for all three 
reductions: water, water-dependent 
plants, and water-dependent animals. Re- 
spondents also reported their willingness to 

g] Positive 
□ Negative 
■ Other' 

100 200 300 400 

Number of Photographs 


Did not answer or answered both 

Figure 3. Number of photographs taken by survey 
respondents of park features by category; participants 
indicated whether feature effect was positive or negative. 



Management Features 




Geologic Formations -SH 

Human Impacts p--'-""" 


Meteorologic Features 

Backcountry Users t 
Dayhikers Q 
Campers E3 
Drive-through Users ■ 





Percentage of total number of photographs 

Figure 4. Percentage of total number of photographs 
comprised of categorized park features photographed 
by the four user group subsamples in the study. 

Figure 5. Median rating given by respond- 
ents of the effects of reducing park water or 
water-dependent resources by one-third. 

Continued on page 12 

Winter A 9 9 5 

1 1 

Visitor photography continued 

pay to preserve the park water resources (fig- 
ure 6). Nearly two-thirds (63%) stated that 
they would pay an additional $2 or more in 
entrance fees to preserve the Rocky Moun- 
tain National Park water resources . 

$5 [35%] 

$3 [48%] 

$2 [64%] 

Figure 6. Visitor willingness (by percentage) 
to pay to protect Rocky Mountain National 
Park water resources. Numbers in brackets 
are cumulative percentages: willing to pay 
$X or more. 

An important part of the data analysis in- 
volved the use of a geographical information 
system (GIS) to record the location from 
which each photograph was taken. Volun- 
teers from the Colorado Mountain Club were 
able to determine location coordinates for al- 
most all of the photographs by reading the 
location information provided by respondents 
in the photo logs, looking at the photographs, 
and comparing this information to their de- 
tailed knowledge of the park environs. With 
the GIS coordinates in this system, it is pos- 
sible to determine locations of negative fea- 
tures, areas essential to the park visitor 
experience, water features most often photo- 
graphed, and other critical park resources. 

Management Implications 

The application of visitor employed pho- 
tography to Rocky Mountain National Park 
had practical, on-the-ground management 
utility. During the time that the survey was 
being conducted, the U.S. Department ofjus- 
tice, on behalf of Rocky Mountain National 
Park, was presenting claims for federal re- 
served water rights for the park in State Wa- 

ter Court. These claims held that all water 
unappropriated as of the date of the reserva- 
tion was necessary for maintaining the park 
in its natural condition. Park managers be- 
lieve that the many water-dependent values, 
both physical and biological, found in Rocky 
Mountain National Park, require an undeter- 
mined amount of water to prevent impair- 
ment However, until this study, the 
values of water-dependent features held 
by visitors had been largely unknown. 
Data from the study suggest that wa- 
ter and water-dependent features are 
extremely important to a visitor expe- 
rience to the park. A large majority of 
all respondents (78%) took pictures of 
water features, comprising 17% of all 
photos. Many anticipated that the re- 
sults of this study would be presented 
to the water court to help bolster the 
park claims. However, this was not nec- 
essary because of a recent favorable 
ruling by the court granting the park 
its claimed federal reserved water rights. 
In order to attach a general mon- 
etary value to water resources, the study 
asked respondents how much money 
they would be willing to pay, in the 
form of increased entrance fees, to pro- 
tect the park water resources. Over 90% 

indicated they would be willing to pay 

$1 or more to protect these resources. 
These results are important to park man- 
agers in making decisions to fund protection 
of water-related resources. Recently, Rocky 
Mountain National Park has acquired the 
right-of-way for a failed dam. This study af- 
firms that managers are allocating funds in a 
manner that is in concert with values held by 
the visiting public. Further development in 
the form of high elevation storage for irriga- 
tion, hydroelectric generation, and continued 
trans-basin diversion of water for a growing 
Front Range populace are issues facing park 
management that will require the continued 
attention of all park visitors. 

Preliminary results of the study show a gen- 
eral support for the park management poli- 
cies. In particular, the management objectives 
of protecting wetlands; preserving lakes, riv- 
ers, streams, and other water courses; and 
restoring riparian areas appear to be well jus- 
tified. The park general maintenance practices, 
the architectural style of the buildings, and 
the quality of service provided by park staff 
were the features most often praised by study 
participants. However, they identified other 
issues as negative, including wildlife feeding, 

general crowding, conflicts with horse use 
closure of certain facilities, and the lack of soli- 
tude. These results help park managers focuf 
their attention on issues of concern to the visi- 

How society values natural resources dif 
fers gready from one resource to another anc 
from one public to another; these values alsc 
change over time. Valuation research has dem 
onstrated that, quite often resource manag 
ers value the resources for which they an 
responsible in a manner different from th( 
society at large (Peterson and Lime 1973). Visi- 
tor employed photography is a potential!} 
important research tool for the study of re 
source values and environmental perception 1 
of the user-public. Results from the use of thi 
study technique can help validate, for the re 
source manager, the need for resource pro 
tection or impact mitigation. Park manager 
can use this information when making deci 
sions about resources, knowing that the viewi 
of those who use the park are included ii 
that process. Visitor employed photograph} 
helps managers to be more responsive to visi 
tors and to manage resources more effec 
tively g 

Jonatluzn Taylor is a Research Social Scientist 
with the National Biological Survey, 
Midcontinent Ecological Science Center in Fort 
Collim; Natalie Sexton is a Publications Editor 
with the National Telecommunications and 
Information Administration in Boulder, 
Kentieth Czarnowski is Park Hydrologist, 
Division of Resource Managetnent, Rock}) 
Mountain National Park-all in Colorado. 
Taylor's address is MESC/NBS, 4512 
McMurry Ave., Fort Collins, CO 80525-3400, 
phone (303) 226-9438. 


Bradburn, N.M., L.J. Rips, and S.K. Shevell. 1987. Answering 
autobiographical questions: the impact ol memory and 
inference on surveys. Science 236:157-161 . 

Cherem, G.J. 1973. Looking through the eye of the public, or 
public images as social indications of aesthetic opportunity. 
Pages 52-64 inPJ. Brown, ed. Toward a Technique tor 
Quantifying Aesthetic Quality ol Water Resources. Utah State 
University Institute Water Resources, Logan. 

Cherem, G.J. and D.E. Traweek. 1977. Visitor employed 
photography: a tool for interpretive planning on river 
environments. Pages 236-244 in USDA Forest Service GTR 
NC-28. Proceedings of River Recreation Management and 
Research Saint Paul, MN. 

Cherem, G.J. and B.L Driver. 1983. Visitor employed photography: 
a technique to measure common perceptions of natural 
environments. Journal ol Leisure Research^. 65-83. 

Dillman, D.A. 1978. Mail and Telephone Surveys: The Total Design 
Method. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 

Peterson, G.L. and D.W. Lime. 1973. Two sources of bias in 
measurement of human response to the wilderness 
environment. Journal of Leisure Research^: 66-73. 

1 2 

Park Science 

An Isle 

by Jack Oelfke 

make us pause and lead us to a 
sense that, indeed, our professional ef- 
Drts are all worthwhile. Amid the crush of 
•aperwork, reports, fieldwork, and daily cri- 
es, episodes occur that help us realize the 
pedal nature of the areas in which we work, 
have a brief story from the summer 1994 on 
sle Royale that has provided a spark of won- 
ler to keep me going. A series of events oc- 
urred that individually were significant to the 
iark but more importantly the setting in 
diich they occurred led to one of those head- 
haking, "ain't-that-amazing" feelings. 

The first event began in early May when a 
mall team of university and NPS personnel, 
vetrapping wolves on Isle Royale, accidently 
liscovered an active bald eagle nest The nest 
vas in an area of the park in which eagles 
ad not nested for decades, and it was to be- 
ome one of six active bald eagle nests for the 
ummer. Including this discovery, the nests 
iroduced the most breeding pairs of eagles 
ie park had seen in 30 years or more. Un- 
Drtunately, the new nest was located in a tall 
dike pine just 40 yards off a popular hiking 
rail. The park quickly closed the trail, recog- 
jzing that the action would disrupt visitor 
se for most of the summer season. How- 
ver, the closure was essential, and because 
f it, the adults successfully raised one eaglet, 
diich later fledged. This was the first major 
ublic use closure ever enacted by the park 
d protect resources during the summer sea- 
on, and it was a success. The public also sup- 
orted the closure. 

The next event began in late July, when a 
lunderstorm moved through the park and 
ghtning ignited a small fire by striking a large 
/hite pine. Ninety-five percent of park lands 
e in a prescribed natural fire zone, wherein a 
ehtning-caused fire can be permitted to run 
s course within certain parameters. One part 

of the process in approving a fire as a pre- 
scribed natural fire includes reviewing the na- 
tional fire situation to ensure that adequate 
resources are available to assist on the fire, 
particularly if a later suppression effort should 
be required. The national fire situation late 
last July was extreme, and we were able to 
declare the fire as an active prescribed natu- 
ral fire just one day before all new such 
fires were prohibited nationwide. 
Since adopting a new fire manage- 
ment plan in 1992, the park and its 
fire policy and response had never 
been tested by an active fire. With 
many key personnel away fighting 
fires in the West, remaining park 
staff scrambled to complete the 
myriad of administrative and 
technical tasks required to 
manage the prescribed fire. 
Rains doused the fire a few 
weeks later when it was less 
than 1 acre in size— a small 
fire by any standards— but 
the park had successfully 
dealt with its first active 
prescribed natural fire, 
under the new policy 
and with a bare-bones 

The final piece of 
the puzzle fell into 
place in late August, 
near the culmination of 
the field season for our 
rare plant inventory 
project. Dr. Emmet 
Judziewicz, under contract 
with Isle Royale, was spending the 
entire season completing an inventory 
of rare plant species along the sensi- 
tive rock shorelines and the few de- — - / y [ 
veloped areas in the park Emmet's 
enthusiasm and botanical interests led 
him to areas well beyond the require- 
ments of his contract, and by late August 
he had discovered five small, discrete 
populations of Disporum trachycarpum in 
interior locations. This member of the lily 
family had never been located in the 
United States east of the western Dako- 
tas and Nebraska, or south of the James 
Bay region of northern Ontario. This dis- 
covery highlights the unusual climate and 
remoteness of Isle Royale that permit many 
disjunct populations to survive. 

So why tell this story, for surely other parks 
experience such events each year? The kicker 
is that each event-the new eagle nest, the 
lightning-caused fire, and the rare plant popu- 
lation discovery-occurred within 50 yards 
of each other! The young eaglet sitting 
on the nest on July 24 probably got the 
surprise of its life when lightning 
blasted a tree only 40 yards away and 
in the process toppled it and burned 
several other smaller trees nearby. 
The infrequent disturbance from oc- 
casional fire monitoring by NPS 
personnel was likely of minor con- 
cern to the eaglet compared to 
what it had witnessed. As for the 
actual management of the fire, we 
consulted with the U.S. Fish and 
Wildlife Service regarding en- 
dangered species protection, 
and I am sure we were the qui- 
etest bunch of fire personnel 
on-site ever to manage a fire. 
We appropriately dubbed 
the fire the Lucky Eagle fire. 
As for the Disporum 
population, we were 
blissfully ignorant of its 
presence until after 
the fire was out and 
the eaglet had 
fledged. The possibil- 
ity that the fire could 
have easily burned a 
new eagle nest, its occu- 
pant, and a rare handful of 
Disporum plants east of the 
Great Plains, all in a matter of 
a few minutes, probably would 
have grayed me overnight 
These events provided a clear re- 
minder that no place, however nonde- 
script is unworthy of protection or careful 
review if human disturbance is planned. 
Until this summer, that little patch of 
ground was, to human eyes, truly just an- 
other spot along the trail, but it quickly 
became a powerful place of inspiration to 
all of us involved in the projects, n 

1 Jack Oeljke is a Natural Resource Specialist 
at Jsk Royale National Park His address is 
800 E. Lakeshore Drive, Houghton, 

Michigan 49931-1895. The park phone 

number is (906) 482-0986. 

Winter 19 9 5 

1 3 

Figure 1. Volunteers backpack PUF kits 

into remote installation site; Figure 2. The 

PUF kit before breaking inner bag to mix 

with contents of outer sack; Figure 3. Installer builds support for PUF plug. 

polyurethane foam applications 
in the Closure of Abandoned Mine 


By John Burghardt 

The National Park Service Es- 
tablished a servicewide Aban- 
doned Mineral Land (AML) pro- 
gram in 1984 with five major objectives 
related to mineral development sites on 
park lands: 

• inventory all AML sites within the 
national park system 

• eliminate safety and health hazards 

• eliminate or mitigate resource impacts 

• preserve culturally and historically 
significant sites 

• manage sites for special wildlife habitat 

Today, the NPS Mining and Minerals 
Branch has collected data on 2,421 aban- 
doned mine sites that include 10,692 mine 
openings. These numbers will increase 
dramatically as we inventory the numer- 
ous AML sites in the recent California 
desert additions to the national park sys- 

In realizing the objectives of the AML 
program, we have employed numerous 
methods to close and reclaim mine open- 
ings, depending on the specific conditions 
and needs at each site. Among these is the 
use of rigid polyurethane foam (PUF) for 
plugging openings where the mine does 
not provide significant wildlife habitat (in 
the case of bats, for example), where the 

objective is to reclaim the site, and where 
conditions preclude an earthen backfill. 
This article summarizes general PUF clo- 
sure concepts and various methods of ap- 
plying foam, and highlights one of those 
methods that is ideal for remote sites where 
heavy equipment access and major ground 
disturbance are not permissible. A com- 
prehensive paper on the comparative ad- 
vantages, disadvantages, and costs of 
various PUF application methods is avail- 
able through our office. A future edition of 
Park Science will carry a follow-up article 
that describes a method of preserving the 
bat habitat in mines, while closing them 
off and making them safe for people. 

Basic Application 

PUF is produced by mixing two liquid 
reagents, a resin and catalyst. This mixture 
is then poured on top of a lightweight form 
constructed near the mine entrance out of 
materials such as lumber, plastic sheeting, 
cardboard, and plywood. A rapid exother- 
mic reaction occurs generating foam that 
expands to fill all voids and cracks in the 
mine opening. Within 15-30 minutes, the 
foam hardens to create a rigid plug firmly 
bound to the rock. The last several feet of 
the opening is then backfilled 'with dirt and 

The National Park Service has tested 
four different methods of applying PUF to 
close abandoned adits and shafts (horizon- 
tal and vertical mine openings, respec- 
tively). Where vehicular access is 
permissible, a truck-mounted proportion- 
ing unit fed by 55-gallon drums of reagents 
is the easiest, most economical application 
method. Where vehicular access is not an 
option, we have employed three portable 
systems: a hand-mixed application from 
bulk product packaged in 5-gallon buck- 
ets, prepackaged units including two re- 
agent tanks with hose and nozzle 
application systems, and a hand-mixed 
application using plastic bag kits. A cubic 
yard of PUF is fairly expensive, but the cost 
is offset by the limited amount of material 
and time required to plug an opening. 

The chemistry of the reagents can be 
varied to produce different densities of 
foam. Typical foam density is about 2 
pounds per cubic foot, resulting from a 30- 
fold expansion in volume from the origi- 
nal components. This means that large 
openings can be sealed using small quan- 
tities of material, which is advantageous 
where insufficient material is available foi 
a total backfill, or where equipment access 
and ground disturbance are unacceptable 

1 4 

Park Science 

} UF, therefore, offers a good, low-impact 
fosure alternative for AML sites in sensi- 
ive, historically significant, or wilderness 
ireas typical to many units of the national 
>ark system. 

'hysical Properties of PUF 

Polyurethane foam is inert and will not 
eact with acid mine drainage common to 
nany AML sites. PUF easily cuts with a 
mfe, decays when exposed to ultraviolet 
ight, and is flammable, but the dirt and 
ock used to fill the remainder of the open- 
ng above a PUF plug protects it from van- 
lalism, sunlight, and fire. Although the 
:ompressive strength is low (typically 10- 
[5 pounds per square inch for standard 
bam), it is adequate for plugging mine 
hafts in areas where heavy vehicles will 
lot traverse the plug. One square foot of 
itandard PUF can support 1,440 pounds 
n compression. The shear strength for a 
ypical 7-foot plug covering a 5 foot by 5 
bot vertical shaft can be calculated at about 
100 tons, although its overall strength 
vould be limited to 18 tons by compres- 
;ion failure. When properly backfilled with 
iirt and rock to the surface (photo 5), how- 

Figure 4. Installer directs expanding 
PUF foam into desired areas; 
Figure 5. The completed closure 
following earthen backfill. 

ever, the compression forces 
from above are transferred to 
the walls of the shaft, effectively 
bridging the plug and enhanc- 
ing the overall strength of the 
closure. The closed-cell struc- 
ture of PUF prohibits the re- 
lease of mine gases if the plug 
achieves a good seal. Drainage 
bypass tubes are installed in clo- 
sures where water from inside 
or outside the mine could 
threaten plug integrity. Most 
PUF products require a mini- 
mum temperature of 50°F for 
proper foam generation, espe- 
cially portable systems with hose and spray 
nozzle applicators. 

Environmental and Safety 

PUF is commonly used to insulate ice 
chests, thermos jugs, refrigerators, and 
buildings. Home owners may be most fa- 
miliar with it in aerosol cans available at 
the hardware store; they use it commonly 
to seal around window casements and 
door jambs to prevent air and thermal 
leaks. PUF releases carbon monoxide and 
traces of hydrogen cyanide when burned, 
but in mine closures, backfilling with dirt 
and rock precludes combustion by isolat- 
ing the plug from an oxygen source. Some 
products used at sites where fire is a con- 
cern also contain flame retardant additives. 
Although one of the two liquid compo- 
nents used to make PUF is a toxic isocy- 
anate, neither requires Department of 
Transportation red tag identification for 
shipping. Once combined, the isocyanate 
is complexed into a stable, nontoxic form. 
The solid foam end product can be dis- 
carded in a sanitary landfill without restric- 
tions. When mixing the reagents, any liquid 

PUF that contacts skin or cloth- 
ing is nearly impossible to re- 
move. The installer requires 
adequate ventilation, a dust car- 
tridge respirator, gloves, protec- 
tive clothing, and protective 
eyewear for safety. 

Case Study: Hand 
Mixed Application from 
Plastic Bag Kits 

In July 1994, in conjunction 
with the Colorado Division of 
Minerals and Geology, we ar- 
ranged a demonstration of plastic bag PUF 
kits designed and installed by a private con- 
tractor. The test site is a patented mining 
claim with one adit and one shaft in the 
Arapaho National Forest just outside Idaho 
Springs, Colorado. Volunteers backpacked 
PUF kits one -half mile to the site over steep 
terrain (photo 1). Lightweight forms of 2 
inch by 4 inch lumber and nylon-reinforced 
utility tarp were constructed approximately 
10 feet inside both openings (photo 3). In 
this application, a lightweight plastic bag 
of catalyst is stored within a heavyweight 
plastic bag containing resin (photo 2). The 
installer ruptures the catalyst bag into the 
larger bag of resin, which remains intact. 
The two components are then mixed to- 
gether by kneading the large bag. When 
the components are thoroughly mixed, the 
entire kit is placed in the opening and the 
foam expands until the outer bag ruptures, 
releasing foam into the opening. The in- 
staller can avoid splash from the rupturing 
bag and can direct the PUF flow more pre- 
cisely by cutting the mixed bag before its 
internal pressure builds, and pouring the 
mixture where needed (photo 4). After 30 
minutes, the PUF has cured sufficiently to 
backfill with dirt and rock the remainder 
of the mine opening (photo 5). 

Foam bag kits preclude the need for 
placement equipment, and are not hin- 
dered by malfunctioning hose and nozzle 
systems encountered with other products 
that we tested. Since the reagents are 
premeasured and mixing is a simple mat- 
ter of kneading the bag, proper proportion- 
ing is virtually guaranteed. All waste 
materials may be enclosed in the foam plug 
(photo 3). This foam product is water 
based and does not contain chlorofluoro- 
carbons used in other PUF products. The 

Continued on page 28 

Winter "1995 

1 5 

Kenilworth Marsh continued 

be restored. The site also provided one of 
the last opportunities to reconstruct a wet- 
land representative of the once extensive 
Anacostia River tidal marshes. 

Investigations Begin 

Initial NPS investigations focused on 
water and sediment quality and wildlife 
feeding as factors that limited wetland plant 
growth at Kenilworth Marsh. Contami- 
nants such as heavy metals and pesticides 
are not unusual to such urban watersheds, 
but are of particular concern at this loca- 
tion, since the Kenilworth Marsh is adja- 
cent to an old sanitary landfill that was 
capped and reclaimed for recreational land 
in 1972. The potential of toxins to leach 
from the landfill established an additional 
possibility for the lack of wetland vegeta- 
tion growth in the marsh. 

During the early studies, the National 
Park Service confirmed the presence of 
toxic substances such as lead, chromium, 
copper, PCBs, and chlordane in the marsh 
sediments; however, the levels were not 
considered to be limiting plant growth. 
Moreover, the University of the District of 
Columbia conducted bioassays in which 
Asian clams {Corbicula flumined) demon- 
strated successful larval development in 
laboratory tests after having been exposed 
to the same sediments. In addition, biolo- 
gists observed that the few residual benches 
of emergent wetland vegetation at the 
marsh were growing well, apparently un- 
affected by any water or sediment quality 

In 1988, the Metropolitan Washington 
Council of Governments and the District 
of Columbia Department of Consumer and 
Regulatory Affairs joined the National Park 
Service by targeting special Chesapeake 
Bay program funds for projects in the 
Anacostia River watershed. We used the 
funds to study the potential for tidal marsh 
restoration at Kenilworth. 

In the spring and summer 1991, we 
tested the hypothesis, supported by pre- 
liminary field studies, that limited plant 
growth in the marsh was caused primarily 
by a sediment elevation that was too low 
relative to tidal inundation. Biohabitats, 
Inc., a contractor, adapted a bioengineer- 
ing technique that had been used in the 
Mississippi River Delta in which 20 foot 
by 20 foot containment cells were con- 

structed using materials such as brush 
bundles (tightly bound pine tree branches) 
or straw bales. We filled the containment 
cells to varying elevations with bottom 
sediments and planted them with 10 emer- 
gent wetland species. 

Altogether, we constructed some 30 
cells, located in two areas of Kenilworth 
Marsh; elevations ranged from near mean 
sea level to plus 2 feet. This effort deter- 
mined the sediment elevation to be near 
mean high tide for optimal plant growth, 
and helped us develop a list of native plants 
with good growth potential. This level was 
about 2.1 feet above mean sea level during 
the summer, the same elevation as that of 
the vestigial benches of wetland vegetation. 

The resulting restoration design, possi- 
bly involving redistribution of sediments 
within the marsh, had potential for creat- 
ing 15 acres of emergent marsh. While we 
considered the plan workable, funds were 
not available for its implementation. We 
also recognized that although bringing in 
external dredge material, instead of dredg- 
ing internally, would be feasible for raising 
elevations, it would likely be too expen- 

Return of the U.S. Army 
Corps of Engineers 

We were very excited to learn that the 
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers intended 
to dredge the upper Anacostia River for 
maintenance purposes and quickly recog- 

nized the potential to link the marsh re 
construction project with the dredginj 
project. Although the U.S. Army Corps o 
Engineers had already identified uplanc 
disposal sites in Maryland, staff from th< 
park and the National Capital Region am 
its Center for Urban Ecology began to ex 
plore the feasibility of using dredge mate 
rial for reconstructing portions o 
Kenilworth Marsh. If the quality of th< 
Anacostia River sediment was suitable (ii 
levels of contaminants and particle size) 
we could possibly reconstruct far mon 
than the 15 acres of wetlands detailed ii 
the initial plan. The savings derived fron 
eliminating upland disposal costs wouk 
also certainly make the project attractiv< 
to the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Fur 
thermore, they would be able to demon 
strate a beneficial use of dredge material ii 
creating new wildlife habitat in the nation': 
capital-at a location near their nationa 

The Corps accepted the proposal anc 
soon joined the Kenilworth Marsh resto 
ration team. They agreed to perform analy 
ses of the river sediments to be dredged 
produce the environmental assessment 
and fund the wetland building and plant 
ing phases. 

The Plan 

This new larger scale restoration effor 
required that we modify the methods de 
scribed in the Biohabitats, Inc., plan. W< 

1 6 

Park Science 

« -^^ — » 





Figure 4. Kenilworth Marsh Restoration Plan. 

Figure 5. The reconstructed 
marsh— Sept. 1993. Note 
greening of mass fill areas #1 
and #2 where the newly 
established marsh can be seen. 

cided to reconstruct 32 acres of emer- 
it wetland through the establishment of 

mass fill areas (#1 and #2), 10 and 15 
•es respectively, and smaller fringe areas 
3) totaling some 7 acres (figure 4). 
Our plan was to temporarily separate 
iss fill areas #1 and #2 from the tidal 
irsh (and river) using large water tube 
yices. Once positioned, the water tubes 
re pumped full with marsh water. When 
1, the tubes proved effective at damming 

placement areas and containing sedi- 
:nts released during the filling operations, 
nilarly, we established fringe marsh ar- 
» using the straw bale containment pe- 
leter approach. Straw bales were also 
tailed to protect the few remnant emer- 
nt wetland areas that were adjacent to 

1 mass fill sites. We had learned from the 
monstration phase that building the 
ish bundles was too labor-intensive, and 
: energy regime of the marsh did not 
juire them. 

In October 1992, we installed a floating 
om with an attached sediment curtain 
the marsh inlet-outlet, and the hydrau- 
dredge barge Blue Ridge (owned and 
erated by Cottrell Engineering Corpo- 
ion) began removing sediment from the 
per Anacostia riverbed. Through a sys- 
n of 12-inch diameter pipes, the dredge 
iterial was pumped to selected areas of 
i Kenilworth Marsh. Areas of coarse 
idy material in the river, which had been 

identified during preliminary sampling, 
were dredged first and used as a founda- 
tion for the water tubes. 

Once the water tubes were stable, we 
filled the selected restoration areas to the 
approximate target elevations. The intent 
was for roughly two-thirds of recon- 
structed marsh to be mid-marsh (with el- 
evations approximately 2.1-2.4 feet above 
mean sea level). We placed additional ma- 
terial around the perimeter of mass fill #1 
and #2 such that the elevations would be 
slightly (several inches) higher to create a 
high-marsh zone (elevations about 2.5-2.8 
feet above mean sea level). A D-4 track 
bulldozer graded the perimeter edge fill 
areas, and we surveyed the sites to record 
initial sediment placement elevations. 

We determined that further dewatering 
(draining) and consolidating would result 
in the target elevations of about 2.5 feet 
above mean sea level for high-marsh and 
2.1 feet for mid-marsh. A low-marsh zone, 
planted with spatterdock (Nupharadvend), 
was planned to provide the transition and 
stabilization between the mass fill areas and 
the adjacent unfilled areas of Kenilworth 
Marsh. These elevations reflect the mean 
high tide levels during the summer, which 
average some 6 inches higher than winter, 
due to solar gravitation. We knew the el- 
evations would change from subsidence 
during dewatering and from displacement 
and compaction of unconsolidated sedi- 
ments. We used calculations based on sedi- 

ment characteristics performed by the 
Army Corps of Engineers to achieve the 
final target elevations. 

The mass fill areas were allowed to de- 
water, settle, and consolidate from Janu- 
ary 1993, to the time planting began in May 
1993. We achieved dewatering by con- 
structing adjustable outlet weirs on one side 
of each of the two main water tubes. 

Planting Begins 

On May 17, 1993, work crews from Eco- 
logical Restoration and Management, Inc. 
(a subcontractor to the Army Corps) be- 
gan planting mass fill #1 with 16 native 
and local species (table 1, page 18). 

Even before planting, the fill areas were 
being colonized by several volunteer plant 
species (table 2, page 19), particularly mass 
fill #1. Many of these species were 6 inches 
tall and had carpeted the area by the time 
planting began. These plants, however, did 
not colonize depressions, or low spots in the 
mass fill areas that contained a residual inch 
or two of pond water as rapidly as the higher, 
drier areas. We did not expect the magnitude 
of volunteer plant growth to be so high, but 
welcomed it overall. The volunteer vegeta- 
tion also absorbed some of the feeding pres- 
sure from Canada geese and ducks. 

We performed planting by creating patches 
of plant species on 2-foot centers; the num- 
ber of plants in a flat (about 40) controlled 

Cotitinued on Page 18 

W INTER 1995 

1 7 

Kenilworth Marsh continued 

the patch size. Placement of plant species was 
often arbitrary, although we directed high- 
marsh species to the higher elevation areas. 
Following planting, an 8-inch hydraulic 
dredge barge with a 10-foot wide cutter head, 
known as a Versi-Dredge Model 308, re-cre- 
ated tidal channels in the two mass fill areas. 
The channels had been staked previously and 
were not planted. The new 
channels were cut approxi- 
mately 3 feet deep and 10 feet 
wide and their locations ap- 
proximated those of the origi- 
nal tidal channels. The 
sediment cut out of the chan- 
nel was used to raise the re- 
maining low areas (bottom 
photograph, front page). 

Mass fill #1 

Mass fill #1 averaged 2.5 
feet above mean sea level in 
elevation and was the first 
area to be planted. Volunteer 
plants colonized this fill area 
more quickly than mass fill 
#2, presumably because we 
planted it earlier and it was 
higher in elevation. Subse- 
quently, mass fill #1 con- 
tained more undesirable 
plants, as well (species on 
table 2 marked with an aster- 

Rice cutgrass (Leersia 
oryzoides) dominated mass fill 
#1 with dense growth. Be- 
cause of its potential to out-compete other 
wetland plants, purple loosestrife {Lythrum 
salicarid) was a particular concern. Of similar 
regard were a few small clumps of the ag- 
gressive phragmites {Phragmitesaustralus). Be- 
tween the fall 1993 and winter 1994, we made 
attempts to manually eradicate both species, 
and we will continue to suppress these two 
potential pests. 

A primary observation on the revegetation 
process was that depressions, or low spots 
containing a residual inch or two of water, 
did not green up like the other portions of 
this area. Apparently, the seeds of potential 
volunteer species were not nearly as likely to 
germinate in the puddles as opposed to the 
drier areas. Perhaps oxygen availability is a 
controlling factor. 

Mass fill #2 

We began planting mass fill #2 in earlyjune. 
Although later in the season, volunteer plants 
had not invaded to the same degree as they 
had at mass fill #1. Mass fill #2 supported a 
diversity of mid-marsh species. Presumably, 
this is due to the elevational differences, aver- 
aging approximately 2.1 feet mean sea level 
in mass fill #2-some 4 inches lower than mass 

Table 1. Species 

Planted in the Kenilworth 

Marsh Reconstruction 

Scientific Name 

Common Name 


High Marsh 

Cephalanthus occidentalis 



Hibiscus mosheutos 

marsh hibiscus 


Leersia oryzoides 

rice cutgrass 


Saururus cernuus 

lizard tail 



Alisma plantago-aquatic 

water plantain 



tussock sedge 


Iris versicolor 

blue flag 


Peltandra virginica 

arrow arum 


Polygonum sp. 



Pontedaria cordata 



Sagittaria latifolia 

duck potato 


Scirpus americanus 

common three-square 


Scirpus validus 

soft stem bulrush 


Sparganium americanum 

lesser bur-reed 


Sparganium eurycarpum 

giant bur-reed 



Nuphar advena 



The volunteer plants appeared only at the 
higher areas near the perimeters where wa- 
ter did not pond significantly. Volunteer plants 
seemed to become more prevalent when 
standing water was reduced. A noticeable 
green up occurred when the water tube was 
removed and tidal channels were cut Addi- 
tionally, volunteer plant growth occurred dur- 
ing June and July when growing conditions 
were optimal. 

Fringe Areas 

We planted fringe areas as we had the oth- 
ers, except that we used only mid-marsh spe- 
cies. The plan was to create fringe elevations 
that matched those of mass fill #2. However, 
after the dredge material was in place, the fi- 
nal elevations of the fringe areas were lower 
than those in both mass fill #1 and #2. As a 

result, the fringe areas supported volunte 
plant growth only minimally. Similar! 
planted species did not establish themselv 
nearly as vigorously in the fringe areas as thi 
did in mass fill #2. 


Overall, Kenilworth Marsh revegetated e 
tensively and vigorously. During the first ye 
at least 90% of mass fill areas #1 and #2 w 
covered with dense pla 
growth averaging several ft 
in height (bottom phot 
graph, front page and figu 
5, page 17). This may be ; 
tributable to several facto 
the surrounding berms ai 
islands protected the veget 
tion from fetch, volunte 
plants established themselv 
prevalently, the newly depc 
ited sediments provided d 
solved oxygen and nutrien 
sediment levels were ne 
and just above the high ti 
elevation, wildlife feeding w 
limited, we planted nati 
species, and we timed plai 
ing to coincide with optin 
growing conditions. 


As a prototype, tl 
Kenilworth Marsh restoi 
tion project pioneer* 
methods that may be us 
fill in restoring other fres 
water tidal wetlan 
(including others within the Anacost 
watershed such as Kingman Lake). T 
project also raised numerous questio 
concerning the quality and impacts of tl 
wetlands being produced. Consequent 
the agencies involved in restoring tl 
marsh (National Park Service, U.S. Am 
Corps of Engineers, Metropolitan Was 
ington Council of Governments, Distr 
of Columbia Department of Consumer a! 
Regulatory Affairs, Environmental Prote 
tion Agency, U.S. Fish and Wildlife St 
vice, the University of the District ! 
Columbia, and the Interstate Commissi^ 
on the Potomac River Basin) felt stronj 
that the project be monitored for seve 
years to determine its degree of succt 
Together, we formed the Kenilwoi 
Marsh monitoring committee for the p 

1 8 

Park S c 

e n c e 

le 2. Volunteer Plants 

ntific Name 

Common Name 

r ubrum 

red maple 





Wis sp. 

spike rush* 

'a oryzoides 

rice cutgrass 

im salicaria 

purple loosestrife* 

mites australus 


onum sp. 


us deltoides 


3ria lati folia 

duck potato 




narrow-leaved cattail 


broad-leaved cattail 

a aquatica 

wild rice 

itial pest species 

«e of identifying, promoting, sponsor- 
y, and conducting monitoring studies to 
cument the results of the project. 
The studies have examined the project 
im its first year, 1993, and will continue 

• many years to come. They will assess 
'els of toxicants, such as chlordane, in 
iiments, pore water, and the biotic food 
ain of the marsh. They will also moni- 
■ the effectiveness of wetland vegetation 
establishment; the productivity of wild- 
: habitat and habitat use (including graz- 
l) by wildlife; the stability of sediment 
d development of soil, and hydrologic 
tterns; and water quality. Finally, they 
11 inventory plankton, aquatic macro- 
vertebrates, mammals, birds, and fish. We 
ve assembled a report for 1993 consist- 

* of several data sets and anticipate writ- 
j annual reports and preparing a synoptic 
x>rt after five years, n 

>phen W Syphox is the Resource 
anagement Specialist for National Capital 
rks-East. His address is 1900 Anacostia 
roe, S.E., Washington, D.C. 20020, and 
can be reached by telephone at (202) 

RichardS. Hammerschlag is the Chief of 
' Center for Urban Ecology, National 
ological Survey. His address is 4598 
acArthur Blvd., N.W., Washington, D.C 
] 007, and he can reached by telephone at 
02) 432-1443. 

Regional Highlights continued 

Presently, too little is known about the 
ecological effects of mushroom harvest- 
ing to suggest that no ecological effects 
occur from the activity. To the contrary, 
scientific evidence indicates that repeti- 
tive mushroom harvesting and certain 
collecting practices can damage the soil. 

The National Marine Fisheries Service 
has received three petitions to list several 
populations of salmon comprising four 
biological species of Pacific salmon from 
Puget Sound and the Olympic Peninsula, 
and to designate critical habitat under the 
Endangered Species Act of 1973. The 
agency found that the petitions present 
substantial scientific information indicat- 
ing that the listings may be warranted. 
Therefore, they began conducting a status 
review on these stocks this fall to determine if 
listing is, indeed, warranted. At the same time, 
they started comprehensive status reviews for 
populations of Pacific salmon and anadro- 
mous trout not presently undergoing status 
reviews in Washington, Oregon, Idaho, and 
California These species are pink salmon, 
sockeye salmon, chum salmon, chinook 
salmon, and sea-run cutthrout trout 

The report of the National Performance 
Review (the Vice President Gore reinventing 
government report, 1993) contains recom- 
mendations for a series of environmental ac- 
tions concerning "environmentally and 
economically beneficial practices on federal 
landscaped grounds," as entered recently into 
the Federal Register. One action is to increase 
environmentally and economically beneficial 
landscaping practices at federal facilities and 
federally funded projects. The recommenda- 
tions, to be incorporated into our landscap- 
ing programs and practices by February 1996, 
specify that agencies should use regionally 
native plants while employing landscaping 
practices that conserve water, reduce energy 
consumption and the use of pesticides, and 
prevent pollution. 

Biological control agents that have passed 
the pesticide review process outlined in NPS- 
77 (Natural Resources Management Guide- 
line) may be used in parks as part of an 
Integrated Pest Management Program. The 
review process usually involves quarantine, 

lab or field tests, and receipt of a permit from 
the U.S. Department of Agriculture Animal 
and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) 
indicating release of the agent 

However, park managers should be aware 
that APHIS currently has no process to regu- 
late the quality of producers and distributors 
ofbiocontrol agents. A private distributor can, 
for example, import agents directly from the 
International Biocontrol Institute in Switzer- 
land and sell them to parks without APHIS 
approval. Until a revised approval process is 
adopted that also examines more carefully the 
production and distribution of the agents, 
NPS managers should proceed cautiously. 
When biocontrol agents are to be integrated 
into a park pest management regime, it is pru- 
dent to first ensure that the distributors and 
producers are reputable. You can do this by 
contacting your state plant protection and 
quarantine officer, APHIS, the U.S. Depart- 
ment of Agriculture (USDA), or by purchas- 
ing biocontrol agents only through APHIS. 

NPS IPM program leaders, along with the 
USDA and the International Biocontrol In- 
stitute, are also working toward resolving the 
following additional concerns regarding 
biocontrol agents: effects of the biocontrol 
agent on nontarget species and biodiversity, 
adherence to the National Environmental 
Policy Act process, and long-term monitor- 
ing issues, n 


In our last issue, the Jean Matthews cover 
article on the Sequoia Pulse Study (page 5, 
third paragraph, last sentence) reported a 
newly discovered depth of 500 centimeters 
(16.5 feet) for some roots of the giant sequoia 
tree that was in error. Researcher Pat Halpin 
of the University ofVirginia clarifies this point 
by saying that he has found soil exceeding 
400 centimeters (13 feet) in depth around the 
big trees. Halpin's soil depth measurements 
are, however, much deeper than the previ- 
ous soil survey depth estimates of around 150 
centimeters (5 feet) in this particular grove of 
giant sequoias. While this discovery is im- 
portant in itself for the enhanced water stor- 
age capability of soils near the big trees to 
offset effects of drought (as reported by 
Matthews), Halpin did not measure root 
depths. Finally, he points out that the rela- 
tionship of deep soils to root depths may not 
be direct but deep soils at those sites demon- 
strate that the trees are not impaired from tap- 
ping deeper layers if they are physiologically 
able. Q 

Winter 1 995 

1 9 


A multiyear landscape 

ecology research project 

begins to answer basic 

population ecology 

questions of this 

wilderness bird 

Bois Is 

Caribou Island 

Approximate Scale 
5 miles 


Figure 1. Territories of the common loon at Isle Royale National Park (eastern one- 
third of island). 

By David C. Evers 

and gray wolf (Cams lupis) are sym- 
bolic wilderness creatures of Isle 
Royale National Park, Michigan. This Lake 
Superior island is well-known for its 
moose-caribou studies, but also happens 
to be an ideal site to investigate loon popu- 
lation ecology and contaminant param- 

Investigators first surveyed Isle Royale 
loons in 1985 and again in 1990 in order 
to monitor loon breeding populations ev- 
ery five years. The 1990 numbers indicated 
that nesting pairs producing young had 
declined from 1985. These initial results, 
combined with complexities of the nest- 
ing population on the shores of Lake Su- 
perior, prompted us to complete annual 
loon censuses since then to detect changes. 
Loons are well-known as residents of 
large water bodies, but because frequent 
and intense wave action reduces the al- 
ready limited suitable nesting habitat, few 
areas in the Great Lakes can physically 
support successful breeding. The few ar- 
eas with nesting pairs are rarely occupied 
long-term. If loon nests are spared by 
storm-produced waves, seiches (periodic 
surface fluctuations unrelated to storms) of 
up to 6 feet (2 meters) usually severely re- 
duce hatching success rates. 

Isle Royale is unusual, for it harbors pro- 
tected coves, some of which are 5 miles (8 
kilometers) long. Although infrequent se- 
iches are enhanced within these coves, 
these waters are calm enough to allow 

around 20 territorial pairs (figure 1) to regu- 
larly produce young. Surveys of these Lake 
Superior loon territories show that there 
is not a short-term decline and that pro- 
ductivity is normal, annually varying 
around one chick per pair. 

Since 1990, we have accomplished more 
than surveys. We participated in a regional 
biomonitoring project that started in 1989 
and also began to identify individuals 
through vocal-tagging in 1990. This voice 
recognition technique uses recordings of 
elicited loon yodels to identify individuals 
(see photo). Only male loons produce this 
distinctive territorial song known as a yo- 
del, and studies indicate that the yodel of 
each bird is unique and constant over time. 

In 1991, we expanded this passive mark- 
ing program to include capturing and 
color-banding adults and juveniles. Al- 
though vocal-tagging provided informa- 
tion on the return rates of males to their 
territories, the technique was limited in its 
ability to help us determine other factors 
related to population dynamics. For ex- 
ample, we were unable to sample females, 
whatsoever. By color-marking loons with 
unique combinations of leg bands, we 
could monitor individuals over time, and 
could gather information on pair bond 
types, site faithfulness, turnover rates, re- 
cruitment, seasonal and daily movements, 
and wintering locations. Also, while in 
hand, we could take blood and feather 
samples to investigate contaminant loads, 
genetic makeup, and physiological param- 

Results and Discussion 

Since 1991, we have captured and color- 
marked with leg bands 22 adults and 2( 
juveniles. The ensuing 82% annual rate o 
return for the adults (27 of 33 return possi- 
bilities) is higher than the 75% Great Lake 
average. Nearly all of the returnees have 
appeared back at the territory where w< 
originally captured them, exhibiting a high 
level of philopatry. Actually, within the 
Great Lakes study area, only six cases o 
individuals switching territories have beer 
documented. Since adults are rarely cap- 
tured unless accompanied by chicks, nearl) 
all of these cases represent successful breed- 
ing pairs for the prior year. 

We are now beginning to gather new 
and interesting population ecology infor- 
mation that indicates a higher incidence 
of territory switching. Five pairs of loon; 
occupy territories in Tobin Harbor (figure 
1). In 1994, the female from the Moose 
Point territory (banded in 1991) switchec 
to the adjacent Emerson Island territor) 
and paired with that male (also banded ir 
1991). Both these loons produced chicks 
in 1991 and 1992 in the territories where 
they were originally captured and marked 
In 1993, the banded female from Moose 
Point was displaced by an unhanded fe- 
male. The banded female was observec 
once on May 22 on a nearby bay but dis- 
appeared for the remainder of the year. The 
new Moose Point female (unhanded) sue 
cessfully produced young with the bandec 
Moose Point male. The Emerson Islanq 
banded pair also produced chicks in 1993 


Park Science 

Switching mates among successful ter- 
ories would seem inefficient for a popu- 
:ion-optimal reproduction rate. The risk 

abandonment and the disruption of a 
eviously proven pair relationship seems 

outweigh any short-term reproductive 
vantages of developing a new pair bond, 
awever, genetic variability, competition 
r highest quality habitats, and al- 
native breeding strategies may 

long-term issues that are of 
*her importance for these long- 
ed birds. In our example, the 
oose Point pair produced one 
ick while the Emerson Island 
ir nest failed. Interestingly, the 
nale that produced chicks with 
e Emerson Island male from 
91-93 was found in her territory 
late May, but was not observed 
th the territorial male. 
Two other cases of within-year 
ite switching at Isle Royale are 
:orded. These and observations 
im other sites researched in the 
3j'ect have shown that the com- 
jn loon is not lifetime monoga- 
3us and, although strongly 
thful to a territory, both sexes do 
ange breeding areas, even after 
>roductive year. 

Documenting the return of banded 
>ns gives us an understanding of the turn- 
er and recruitment dynamics. However, 
; yearly result of returning adults is not 
eflection of the mortality rate. In many 
ses, including one on Isle Royale, adult 
>ns disappeared for an entire breeding 
ison and then reappeared as territory 

The recruitment dynamics of loons 
nded as chicks remains unclear. A small 
nple at the Seney National Wildlife Ref- 
e, Michigan, and the Turtle-Flambeau 
)wage, Wisconsin, shows some natal site 
elity. In 1994, however, we did not ob- 
ve on the island any of the loons banded 
juveniles in 1991 (n=8). Since young 
his acquire their breeding plumage af- 

their third winter and only return at 
it time to the breeding grounds (the first 
j years are spent on the ocean for over 
% of this cohort), following their move- 
nts is difficult. Add to this their late 
abable first-breeding age of six to seven 
ars and the need to study loons over the 
lg-term becomes clear. 

Loon banding also provides information 
on their seasonal movements. Two Isle 
Royale loons have been recovered outside 
of the Great Lakes. An individual banded 
as a juvenile on August 3, 1991, on Five 
Finger Bay was found dead on March 15, 
1993, at Surf City, North Carolina. Other 
records of Great Lakes subadults that 

Project assistant Dan Cristol (right) and NPS resource 
manager Steve Fettig record loon yodels using a parabolic 
microphone. The recordings are used later to identify 
individual loons for subsequent field study. 

oversummer in this region also exist. The 
other, an adult female from the Duncan 
Bay- west territory, was banded on July 1, 
1993, and was found dead on March 29, 
1994 at Englewood Beach, Florida. 

Other recoveries indicate a west-to-east 
migration of upper Great Lakes loons 
through the Finger Lakes region of New 
York to the Chesapeake Bay by mid-No- 
vember. By early December, most of the 
adult loons will have probably arrived on 
their wintering grounds in North Carolina 
continuing south, along the Florida Coast, 
and into the Gulf of Mexico to the Texas- 
Mexico border. In mid-to-late March, the 
birds begin their northward spring migra- 
tion; most Great Lakes loons probably 
leave the northern Gulf of Mexico and ar- 
rive on their northern Michigan territories 
immediately after the ice melts in mid-to- 
late April. 

Another important component of the 
Isle Royale common loon monitoring pro- 
gram is tissue (blood and feather) sampling 
for contaminant and genetic analysis. Pre- 
liminary analyses show feather mercury 
(Hg) levels ranging from 5.7 to 26.4 parts 

per million-ppm-(n=5), with correspond- 
ing selenium (Se) values of 4.46 to 4.93 ppm 
for Isle Royale loons. Since selenium off- 
sets the toxicity of mercury in a bird's sys- 
tem, it is the mercury-selenium ratio 
(molecular ratio is 2.54) that is most in- 
dicative of the bird's health. One adult male 
from Rock Harbor-Lorelei Lane territory 
had a ratio of 5.69 (26.4 ppm 
of Hg/4.64 ppm of Se), over 
double the mitigating impact 
of the selenium. Many trace 
elements (n=22) are being 
analyzed from the feather and 
blood samples. We are cur- 
rently emphasizing mercury, 
although we are closely moni- 
toring the levels of other non- 
essential heavy metals that 
probably have an anthropo- 
genic origin, like lead and cad- 
mium. We will soon learn the 
impacts of organochlorines 
and PCBs. 

This biomonitoring project 
will need to continue on a 
long-term basis to provide 
specific answers on the health 
of the common loon popula- 
tion and on the quality of the 
environs within Isle Royale 
National Park Plans for the next three years 
include continuing this biomonitoring 
scheme, and investigating water quality, 
prey base, and other piscivores in Isle 
Royale, Pictured Rocks, and Apostle Is- 
lands national lakeshores. n 

Evers is a conservation biology Ph.D. student 
with the University of Minnesota, 
Department of Fisheries and Wildlife and is 
a visiting researcher at Isle Royale working 
on population ecology of the common loon. 
Isle Royale is but one of his many study sites, 
which also include areas in Minnesota 
(Voyageurs National Park), Wisconsin, New 
Hampshire, Maine, Alaska, and, in winter, 
Florida. He is part of a large, interagency, 
landscape ecology project that is being 
supported by federal, state, private, and 
nonprofit funds. He can be reached at 200 
Hodson Hall, Saint Paul, MN 55108, (612) 
624-3600 (until mid-March) and (906) 
492-3359 (from mid-March through 
August), then back at the first number in 

Winter 1995 


Geologic Features Monitoring 

Begins at Craters of the Moon 

National Monument 

By Kathryn A. Diestler 

ism along the Great Rift of the Snake 
River Plain in Idaho produced a spectacular 
landscape of cinder cones, spatter cones, lava 
rivers, lava tubes, and tree molds that are now 
preserved within Craters of the Moon Na- 
tional Monument. Since establishment in 
1924, managers have been concerned with 
visitor impacts to these volcanic features. Over 
the years, collecting, vandalism, and offtrail 
hiking have led to damage in many of the 
high use areas. The once black glassy crust 
of the lava flows now appears red and bro- 
ken in many places, and bombs that once lit- 
tered the cinder cones are now scarce (the 
watermark depicts a bomb). Lava Snake, a 
35-foot long lava tube at Devil's Sewer, was 
completely destroyed by collection and van- 
dalism. Unfortunately, only another eruption 
can replenish these otherwise nonrenewable 

In order to recognize persistent impacts and 
threats to the volcanic features before dam- 
age occurs, the monument initiated a geo- 
logic monitoring program in July 1994. Its 
purpose is to gain a better understanding of 
visitor impacts to the features, which will aid 
us in their protection in the future. 

While we have not neglected monitoring 
the features in the past, visitation increases 
and time have been required to disprove a 
misconception that rocks are indestructible. 
Also, the monitoring itself ran into problems, 
because of the difficulty in trying to use quan- 
titative techniques. For example, we were 
unsuccessful in measuring the rapid rate at 
which a trail leading up a cinder cones was 

widening (photograph). In 1985, we placed 
wooden stakes on the trail; the next year, un- 
fortunately, all of the stakes were missing, ei- 
ther lost within the loose cinders or taken by 
visitors. Staff then planted metal stakes and 
later used a metal detector to relocate them, 
but this was also unsuccessful. We realized 
that the predominantly loose and irregularly 
shaped volcanic features present a problem 
in designing a stationary measuring technique 
and also affect the accuracy of the measure- 
ments. We recognized from these experiences 
that we needed a more comprehensive and 
consistent method of monitoring impacts. 

As a first step, we evaluated the volcanic 
features in order to determine which ones to 
monitor. We selected those features that met 
high visitor use and significance criteria Sig- 
nificance was based on integrity (most of the 
feature still in existence), rarity, and suscepti- 
bility to damage. Next, we established photo- 
monitoring points and took photographs of 
the selected features. We plan to rephotograph 
the features on a periodic basis in the future 
to document evidence of accelerated erosion 
in high visitor use areas. 

We selected the photo-monitoring tech- 
nique for a number of reasons, one of which 
was strictly aolministrative. The resource man- 
agement division at Craters of the Moon has 
only two permanent employees. Since both 
our budget and staff are small, the monitor- 
ing program needs to be simple enough that 
any available help can follow the procedures 
and produce accurate results. Additionally, a 
simple geologic monitoring process has a 
greater chance ofbeing continued. Other rea- 
sons include universal application of the 

The study area at Crater's of the Moot 
includes ever-widening trails to popula 
sites such as cinder cones. The 
illustration depicts a once common, 
often collected lava feature known as 
bomb. Monitoring will lead 
to improved protection 
of these resources. 

method to all the features in the 
program, the ease with which the data c 
be analyzed and impacts identified, and 
flexibility. Furthermore, we can add a varie 
of other components to supplement the pr 
gram as it evolves over time. 

We had hoped to compare these phot 
graphs with similar ones taken early in mon 
ment history so that we could assess impa< 
over time. Unfortunately, only a few early p 
tures exist depicting significant features tr 
we can use as a baseline. In the future, wh 
time and money allow, we will attempt 
track down other early photographs fro 
other collections that could pertain to tl 
project Until then, the baseline for many ft 
tures will have to be current conditions. 

Resources cannot be protected unk 
threats to them can be recognized. We b 
lieve this program will help us recogni 
threats and enable us to take action to pi 
tect these resources. Without such an eai 
warning system, the opportunity to I 
proactive does not exist Additionally, we c 
use the monitoring program to assess the i 
fectiveness of our mitigation measures, pi 
viding us with a tool to evaluate our suca 
in protecting our geologic resources. We i 
alize this program will not prevent dama 
to these resources, but recognize that it is 
step in the right direction, n 

Geologist Kathryn A. Diestler developed the 
monitoring program for the park over a 14-wt 
period last summer. Diestler is a graduate of 
Washington State University and had learned 
about die opportunity through the 
Environmental Careers Organization, a firm 
tiiat places entry level professionals in 
environmentally orimted positions widifedera 
state, and 'local governments. Craters of die 
Moon hired her specifically to develop the 
monitoring project, because they do not have a 
staff geologist. Chief of Resource Management 
Vicki ' Stutzler-Neek has further details of the 
project and can be reached at (208) 527-325', 


Park Science 

d reparing for dune swale wetland restoration at 
Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore 

' Eddie L. Childers, Charlotte P. Wolfe, 
d Greg A. Olyphant 


_>interdunal swales in the Calumet region 
northern Indiana, on the southern shore 
Lake Michigan. The Great Marsh within 
sent-day Indiana Dunes National Lake- 
jre is a good example of this distinctive 
jsystem type 

During the late 1800s, the Great Marsh was 
lined, filled, dredged, and then dissected 
railways, highways, and industrial and mu- 
ipal development Originally stretching 34 
les (55 kilometers) with a total area of 1,336 
es (3,300 hectares), the wedand has been 
luced to 607 acres (1,500 hectares). Never- 
Jess, it is an outstanding natural area and 
>vides an opportunity for NPS and NBS 
(Fto test a landscape-based restoration . 
The Great Marsh is made up of several 
tinct watersheds that drain into Lake 
chigan: one containing the natural Dunes 
eek, and two containing constructed 
:hes (Derby Ditch, and Kintzele Ditch) that 
: through sand dunes. High fecal colifbrm 
els in all three drainages have caused the 
■k to close intermittently several popular 
imming beaches. Research on wedands 
> shown that increased water retention in 
tland areas decreases bacteria levels that 
iv out of the system. Restoration of a more 
ural hydrologic regime would increase the 
le it takes for bacteria-laden waters to flow 
ough the Great Marsh into Lake Michi- 
l, theoretically allowing the bacteria to de- 
npose before reaching swimming beaches. 
Iditionally, changes in the hydrologic re- 
ne, fire frequency, and water quality in dis- 
hed areas of the Great Marsh have caused 
placement of native sedges and bluejoint 
iss by cattails and woody shrubs. 
Dunes Creek is the least impacted of the 
eat Marsh watersheds, although minor 
ching has occurred in some sections of its 
linage. Still, it contains a state nature pre- 
ve with an extremely diverse array of plant 
mmunities and is the best available model 
restoration of the marsh within the Derby 
d Kintzele Ditch watersheds. 
The park has targeted the Derby Ditch 
itershed for wetland restoration first In as- 
ising impacts of the restoration, national 

This scene west of Derby Ditch exhibits typical present-day conditions within the 
Great Marsh. The predominance of cattails indicates that water levels are below 
the historic target levels sought in the restoration effort at nearby Derby Ditch. 

lakeshore staffare monitoring hydrology and 
vegetation here. This enables us to determine 
the variance of present conditions at Derby 
Ditch from the target conditions at Dunes 
Creek that we hope to emulate. 

We also want to determine the impacts of 
water level changes on roads and structures. 
We estimated these impacts using the GIS at 
the national lakeshore. We noted that a 1- 
foot water level increase above the present 
Great Marsh water level, as simulated using 
digital elevation models, resulted in minimal 
detrimental consequences to roads, houses, 
and national lakeshore property. 

After one year of premanipulation moni- 
toring, we plan to install a water control struc- 
ture on Derby Ditch or one of its tributaries. 
This structure will enable us to gradually raise 
water levels while monitoring hydrologic and 
vegetative changes and impacts to roads. We 
hope to accomplish the hydrologic monitor- 
ing through the use of automated water level 
recorders and soil moisture sensors. 

We will use the results of this experiment 
to calibrate a predictive computer model for 
the response of the entire Great Marsh eco- 
system to hydrologic changes. The model will 
allow simulation ofboth short- and long-term 
land use and weather-climate scenarios that 
would result in specific water levels, allowing 
us to predict the effects of these conditions 
on the biological communities. The model 
will do this by providing estimates of the 
amount of time that parts of the watershed 
are saturated. 

The model will be flexible and interactive 
and will be interfaced with the park GIS. The 
eventual goal is direct communication be- 
tween the GIS and the monitoring network 
via telephone modem connections. The 
model will be capable of operating on a real- 
time basis; given current initial conditions (as 
indicated by the monitoring network), we will 
be able to predict the hydrologic response to 
forecasted weather conditions. The hydro- 
logic response to storms could be monitored 
from the research station as it occurs in the 
field sites. This capability will allow us to avoid 
impacts to roads and private property. 

In addition to computer modeling, GIS 
analyses, and vegetation and hydrology moni- 
toring in the present-day Great Marsh, we 
are interpreting aerial photographs and other 
historical information to provide an early pic- 
ture of the Great Marsh. Examining past and 
present environmental conditions will enable 
better estimation of the hydrologic and other 
management conditions necessary to achieve 
the desired plant communities and reduce 
bacteria discharges. By restoring the Great 
Marsh, we hope that Indiana Dunes National 
Lakeshore will support safer swimming op- 
portunities for the public while increasing the 
size, quality, and biological diversity of a sig- 
nificant wetland ecosystem, n 

Childers is the GIS Specialist at bidiana Dunes, 
phone (219) 926-7561, ext. 331. Wolfe is an 
Ecvlogist at the park, ext 332. Olyp/iant is 
Associate Professor of Geological Sciences and 
Geography at bidiana University in 
Bloomington, bidiana, (812) 855-5154. 

Winter 1995 • 23 

In Memory of. . . 

Craig S. Johnson, 1971-1994 

Scott D. Shull, 1968-1994 

Craig Johnson 

Johnson, and I published an article entitled, "Captive Cou- 
gars May Aid Florida Panther Project." It is my sad duty to 
report the tragic deaths of Craig, technician Scott Shull, and 
pilot Jonathan Saunders 
while radio-tracking pan- 
thers in Big Cypress National 
Preserve, Florida. Craig, 
Scott, and Jonathan were 
collecting radio-telemetry 
data on Saturday, October 8 
when, at about 10:30 a.m., 
their Cessna 172 went down 
about 4 miles north of High- 
way 41 at Big Cypress in an 
area of pine and cypress 
trees. All three were killed in- 

As we explained in our 

article, the telemetry work 

was part of a four-year effort to determine the effects of public 
use at the preserve on the endangered cats. Craig and Scott 
were flying nearly every day to obtain intensive data on loca- 
tion of the panthers and to collect activity data for those analy- 

The wildlife profession has lost two 
very bright, promising young men. 
Craig had graduated cum laude with 
a B.S. degree in wildlife and fisheries 
science from Tennessee Tech Univer- 
sity. While at Tennessee Tech, he was 
president of his fraternity, president of 
the student chapter of The Wildlife So- 
ciety, and was the recipient of the 
National Elk Foundation Award. I had 
advertised nationally for a M.S. candi- 
date and was deluged with applica- 
tions from all over the world. It was 
only a coincidence that Craig comes 

from east Tennessee (Greeneville); he 

was clearly the most outstanding prospect among all the ap- 

Craig was a quiet, motivated student who got along well 
with people and who had the ability to acquire and assimilate 
information at a rapid rate. I was amazed at his ability to tackle 
complex problems and process the information into simple, 
comprehensible terms. The work that he was doing with the 
captive cats in Knoxville was truly innovative and should prove 

Scott Shull (holding black bear) 

to be extremely beneficial; it has dispelled many of the my 
commonly held concerning tip-switch activity sensors. Cr 
was a good friend and he will be missed. 

I first met Scott Shull in 1989. We had hired him as a tech 
cian on a bear project in the Ozark Mounta 
of western Arkansas. Scott was from Pop 
Bluff, Missouri, and had received a B.S. deg 
from Southwest Missouri State. Scott was 
able field technician and demonstrated c< 
siderable talent and dedication while trappi 
immobilizing, and radio-tracking bears. His 
forts paid off and he was offered a M.S. as 
tantship at the University of Arkansas to lc 
at the effects of mark and release on nuisai 
bears. During that project, Scott developed 
excellent rapport with state game officials, 
public, and the academic community al 
thanks to his calm demeanor and amiable p 
sonality. Scott completed his thesis in 199 

had hired him for the panther project in 1 

gust because he was a capable field technician and had ac 
mulated considerable experience with aerial radioteleme 
Scott was a great person to be with in the field. He was 
tremely capable, had good woods sense, and his wit and hun 

made the time spent there a real j 
Scott was a close friend of mini 
will take with me many fond men 
ries of him crawling into bear de 
staying up all night radio-track 
bears, and our many lighthearted < 

I take great comfort in know 
that Craig and Scott loved what tl 
were doing and were extremely cc 
mitted to the work in South Flori 
They had made many friends th 
and, both being mountain boys, w 
beginning to appreciate the bea 
and vulnerability of the South Flor 

ecosystem. My plans are to contii 

our research there; I think that is how Scott and Craig wo 
have wanted it. 

Joseph D. Clark 

University of Tennessee Field Station 
National Biological Survey 
October 31, 1994 g 


Park Science 

ND . . 

Forget-Me-Not: Remembering Park Ranger and 
Alpine Botanist Carl Sharsmtth 

By Laura J. Sefchik 


ist, died peacefully in bed in his San Jose, California, 
winter home on October 14, 1994, at the age of 91. As 

angel chorus sang to welcome Carl into paradise on that 
>rning, the heavens were sending snow down on his be- 
ed Tuolumne Meadows, furnishing a blanket for his alpine 
nts. The flowers rest early this year. 
I!arl may be remembered as 
I oldest and longest serving 
ional park ranger, as an expert 
ine botanist, as professor 
eritus of botany at San Jose 
te University, as discoverer of 
viously unclassified wildflow- 
, or for establishing the her- 
ium at the university, which 
n bears his name, but he will 
best remembered as 
alomne Meadows' best-loved 
uralist. Carl was an inspiration 
all and has influenced thou- 
ds of children and adult visi- 
s to Yosemite. I am one of 
ise, having first met Carl on his 
adow walk in June 1987. He 

s magical and delightful while encouraging all of us to de- 
op a greater appreciation for wilderness. Carl's love for the 
vers and the mountains defined his life, which he joyfully 
ired with all park visitors and friends. 

tVallace Stegner, Pulitzer prize-winning author, once said, 
place is not fully a place until it has had its poet. Yosemite 
1 the Sierra Nevada have had two great poets, Muir and 
ams." The third great poet of Yosemite is Carl Sharsmith. 

looked on Tuolomne Meadows and its high country peaks 
h reverence and had been delighted with the white blos- 
ns of sweet cassiope, and exhilarated by continually learn- 

nature's secrets. 

tuolomne Meadows in Yosemite National Park had been 
rl's summer home since 1931. He was its first ranger-natu- 
st and its best friend since John Muir. Carl was greatly influ- 
:ed by Muir having first discovered his writings as a boy. 
rl noted, "I always knew about Yosemite because I knew the 
itings of John Muir by heart; and I was all prepared to see 
at I saw. Studying at the Yosemite Field School in 1930 was 
t the most wonderful thing I could do; and it led to an invi- 
ion to become a ranger-naturalist." 

Ranger Carl Sharsmith, 1903-1994 

For decades, Carl led park visitors on ranger programs that 
engendered love for these mountain places. Consequently, he 
gained a good following to help protect park resources. He 
also understood what motivates people to learn, saying, "I find 
people are not interested in facts. The greater appeal is to the 
heart." In the Robert Redford film, "Yosemite: The Fate of 
Heaven," we can see Carl's playfulness, his romance with na- 
ture, his wisdom, and his 
heartfelt desire that, "we 
bring back the primitive, pri- 
meval condition that for- 
merly existed in the park." 
Carl's nature writings from 
1931-1978, to be published 
soon in the book, "A Natu- 
ralist in Yosemite," encour- 
age us to experience the joy 
of observation and investiga- 
tion into nature's beauty in 
much the same way his na- 
ture walks delighted us. 

Like Muir and Adams, 
Carl will have a peak named 
for him soon, perhaps the 
Tuolomne Meadows region 
peak, Peak 12,002', his "sundial." He already has several wild- 
flowers named for him. One is the beautiful forget-me-not 
flower, Hackelia sharsmithii, which grows only in the shadow 
of the rocks in the Mt. Whitney area. But Carl, the poet, and 
venerable ranger-naturalist who obtained extreme delight in 
explaining the life of the meadows, would want us to honor 
him by having each one of us develop a greater appreciation of 
the wilderness to which he had dedicated his life. 

Working in Tuolomne Meadows is how Carl spent his last 
summer. "What else would I do? Tuolomne Meadows is home 
to me, so to speak. It is the happiest place in the mountains. 
God blessed this place. This is the place that holds; this is the 
place that charms," he said. He told me that in Tuolomne Mead- 
ows, his spirit had found its home, n 

Laura J. Sefchik lives in Yosemite and works for the Sierra Club 
Le Conte Memorial in Yosemite Valley. She leads children and their 
parents on nature hikes and presents evening slide programs. She 
plans to publish Sharsmith 's nature writings this spring. Her phone 
number is (209) 372-4101. 

Winter 1995 


Book Review 

A Society of Wolves: National Parks and theBattl 
Over the Wolf, by Rick McIntyre 

Reviewed by Timmothy J. Kaminski 

the imagination and atten- 
tion of peoples of many cul- 
tures. Fear and admiration are com- 
monly cited from within the many 
treatises about wolves, stemming from 
human-wolf encounters that include 
the past and present. That there is re- 
alism in each of these human emotions 
contributes to the rich literature that 
spans the experiences of people and 
wolves. A Society of Wolves: National 
Parks and the Battle Over the Wolf 'by 
Rick McIntyre is among the most re- 
cent additions to a long list of techni- 
cal, historical, and personal accounts. 
A Society of Wolves is introduced 
with commentary by Senator Ben 
Nighthorse Campbell of Colorado, a 
Native American Indian, and by Jay D. 
Hair, President, National Wildlife Fed- 
eration. The book is laced with out- 
standing photographs that portray 
wolves in their natural environment, 
many of which appear to be from 
Alaska. Book chapters are organized to 
assist the reader in understanding ba- 
sic life history and ecology of the wolf; 
their relation to Old and New World 
peoples, beliefs, and settlements; per- 
secution of wolves by European arriv- 
als to North America; and finally their 
current status and the ongoing efforts 
to restore this native carnivore to por- 
tions of its former range. 

At a glance, this book appears to be 
similar to the many coffee table books 
designed for the casual or moderately 
interested reader in the behavior and 
ecology of gray wolves throughout 
North America. The focus of recent 
books, like this one, addresses the sta- 
tus and recovery of gray wolves in na- 
tional parks of the Rocky Mountains 
and particularly, Yellowstone National 
Park. Among the features that set this 

Wild Alaskan wolf belonging to the East Fork pack, the same pack biologist Adolp 
studied in the 1930s-40s. 

book apart are that it is well-re- 
searched, and that it is written as a 
tome of personal experience. McIntyre 
has succeeded in producing a well- 
written account that will be of value to 
any with interest in the evolution of our 
thinking about the role of carnivores 
and their importance to national park 

This book is easy to read, draws con- 
siderably from the many experts in the 
field, pans beautifully a broad spectrum 
of wolves in their natural surroundings, 
and captures the reader's interest 
through personal accounts by the au- 
thor. McIntyre supplies a section 
(called Season of the Wolf) that is an 
accurate, if general, account of our col- 
lective knowledge of the ecology, be- 
havior, and threats to long-term 
conservation of the species. The text is 
seldom leading and is carefully written 
to emphasize the dynamic nature of 
what has been learned over better than 

30 years of wolf research and its inti 
pretation by experts. McIntyre has al 
made a considerable effort to incorp 
rate information from historical i 
counts through investigations of l 
own, and has condensed what alrea 
was written into an easy-to-read-an 
understand documentary. He giv 
credit to others where appropriate, a: 
acknowledges the many field biologi: 
that he learned from and with whc 
he spent time. Many of the experienc 
gleaned while with these experts 2 
described throughout the text. 

The organization of the book is 
weakness, however, and is at tim 
choppy enough to be annoying, pi 
ticularly for a reader perusing the cha 
ters from beginning to end. An add 
shortcoming is that sections on the si 
tus of recovery efforts in the natior 
parks (for example, Great Smoi 
Mountains, Yellowstone, Glacier) ai 
areas where wolves are returning i 


Park Science 

:ir own are overly condensed. In fair- 
ss, the book contains inserts or 
ebars that concisely summarize re- 
fery efforts and may be entirely ap- 
>priate for the coffee table reviewer; 
wever, they could still have been im- 
»ved upon by adding detail and al- 
ing their placement in the text, 
vlclntyre has carefully watched and 
>erienced wolves in their natural en- 
3nments, a complement to his writ- 
style that adds greatly to the appeal 
his book. Among the 
st appealing portions 

his own experiences 
I his recounting of them, 
file interpretations in a 
I instances are anthro- 
norphic and subject to 
jstion (for example, 
idication" by the wolf 
*s the Digger), his intro- 
;tion, the account of Bill 
/wood versus the wolf 
£s the Digger, his por- 
yal of the East Fork 
iklat River) alpha male 
Alaska (a return to 
rie's time observing the 
it Fork den about which 
trie also wrote in his 
4 account of the Wolves 

Mt. McKinley-now 
nali), his epilogue to the 
rit of the wolf, and fi- 
ly his revisit to Colo- 
o bring these expen- 
ds to life for the reader. 
/Iclntyre's time spent as a natural- 
particularly his years in Alaska and 
3ther parks, serves as the basis for 
3 account, more personal than a 
'rough documentary of the long- 
lding efforts dedicated to returning 
y wolves to North America, espe- 
lly select national parks of the 
ited States. His insights and photos 
i to an accurate and positive image 
the wolf and its rightful place in 
se remaining vestiges of available 

t is not a shortcoming of this book 
t the story of the tremendously 
tly and highly political efforts to 
uscate the return of wolves to our 
ional parks has been waged for 
irly two decades, and still has not 
:n told. Few would understand from 

The book is 







It contains 





2 $2995 

his account, for example, that efforts 
formally began in 1975 to restore 
wolves in Yellowstone, that the recov- 
ery plan, approved in 1987, sat on a 
bureaucrat's desk for more than two 
years following completion by a group 
of dedicated scientists in 1984, or that 
a 70-year old visionary played a tre- 
mendous role in commencing efforts 
underway today; the American public 
is deserving of a more full account. To 
this end, A Society of Wolves, like other 
books that will follow, is an 
important volume that will 
extend an important dia- 
logue on the ecological 
role of large predators not 
readily gleaned from scien- 
tific publications. This 
book stands out among 
those that similarly de- 
scribe the plight of wolves 
in our national parks. 
Mclntyre is to be com- 
mended for a fine effort and 
a valuable contribution to 
the general public and 
those interested in learning 
more about wolves in our 
past and we hope, our fu- 
ture. Q 

Titntn Kaminski produced a 
M.S. thesis on the wolves of 
central Idaho in the early 
1980s. He is presently a 
Wildlife Biologist for the 
Targhee National Forest. His address is 
P.O. Box 208, Saint Anthony, ID 
83445, (208) 624-3151. 

Author Rick Mclntyre is working his 
thirty-sixth season with the National Park 
Service this winter as a Park Ranger 
(naturalist) at Big Bend National Park, 
Texas. In 20 years with the agency, he has 
served in Glacier, Death Valley, Joshua 
Tree, and Denali, among other units. This 
past summer, Mclntyre specialized in 
interpreting wolves and the reintroduction 
effort at Yellowstone where he also raised 
all the finding for his own position. His 
second book on wolves, The War Against 
the Wolf: America's Campaign to 
Exterminate the Wolf (Voyageur Press), 
is due in March. This book is a 500-page 
anthology documenting the evolution of 
American attitudes toward the wolf. 

New Publications 

The following natural resource pub- 
lications are available from the Natural Re- 
sources Publications Office: 

1. Mammals of the Indiana Dunes National 
Lakeshore. J.O. Whitaker, Jr., J. Gibble, 
and E. Kjellmark NRSM-94/24. 

2. Mountain goats in Olympic National Park: 
biology and management of an introduced 
ungulate. D. Houston, E. Schreiner, and B. 
Moorhead. NRSM-94/25. 

3. 1993 Highlights of natural resources 
management. L. Fox, ed. NRR-94/13. 

4. Proceedings of the third conference on fos- 
sil resources in the National Park Service. 
R. Benton and A Elder, eds. NRR-9 4/14. 

5. An introduction to selected laws impor- 
tant for resources management in the 
National Park Service. N. Shelton and 
L. Fox. NRR-94/15. . 

6. 1993 inventory of research in the national 
parks (by region and park (NRSR-94/10) 
or by field of study (NRSR-94/11)). 

Submit order to Publications Coordina- 
tor, National Park Service, Natural Re- 
sources Publication Office, P.O. Box 25287 
(WASO-NRPO), Denver, CO 80225-0287. 

The National Register of Historic Places 
Office of the National Park Service has ar- 
ranged with the U.S. Government Print- 
ing Office to sell reprints of the popular 
book Presenting Nature: the Historic Land- 
scape Design of the National Park Service, 
1916-1942. In this 314-page study, author 
Linda Flint McClelland documents the 
rich legacy of scenic roads, trails, pictur- 
esque park villages, campgrounds, picnic 
areas, and scenic overlooks built by crafts- 
men in the national parks using naturalis- 
tic design techniques. She describes a 
wonderful period in NPS history when 
park designers met the challenge of devel- 
oping parks for visitor enjoyment while 
ensuring resource preservation through the 
evolution of a naturalistic ethic. She also 
examines the master planning process of 
the era. The book is available at a cost of 
$20 from the Superintendent of Docu- 
ments, P.O. Box 371954, Pittsburgh, PA 
15250-7954, (stock number 024-005- 
01140-4). q 

Winter 1 995 


morristown to assess water 

Quality and Threats Through 

National Partnership 

By Bob Masson 

Morristown National Historical 
Park is a 1,685-acre park located 
largely within the upper reaches of the 
Great Swamp watershed in north-cen- 
tral New Jersey. During two critical win- 
ters— 1777 and 1779-80— the area served 
as quarters for the Continental Army. 
The National Park Service manages both 
the 1,320-acre Jockey Hollow Encamp- 
ment Area and 32 1-acre New Jersey Bri- 
gade Encampment Area of the park to 
maintain not only the historic context 
of the scene, but also to protect the natu- 
ral characteristics, including the existing 
high water quality. 

A year-and-a-half ago, we became 
partners with the U.S. Geological Sur- 
vey to protect national water resources 
through our participation in their Na- 
tional Water Quality Assessment Pro- 
gram. Known as NAWQA, this program 
documents the quality of national sur- 
face and groundwater resources and 
defines current trends in the quality of 
these waters in order to produce long- 
term, consistent water quality informa- 
tion that will be useful to managers and 
policy makers at national, state, and lo- 
cal levels. 

In assessing national water quality, the 
U.S. Geological Survey has divided the 
country into 60 study units that include 
most of the major rivers and aquifers in 
the nation. Morristown National His- 
torical Park is in the Long Island-New 
Jersey coastal drainage system study unit. 

We participate in the process by at- 
tending study unit meetings that are held 
every six months over an eight-to-ten- 
year period. At the first of two meetings 
held thus far, we determined and pri- 
oritized surface, groundwater, and 
aquatic ecology issues within the study 
unit. At the second meeting, we defined 
available water quality data and dis- 
cussed how agencies will map water 
quality study areas. Plans for the future 
include compiling and analyzing avail- 

able data, designing study approaches, 
conducting intensive sampling for a 
wide array of physical, chemical, and 
biological characteristics, beginning low- 
level sampling, and completing reports 
on the intensive sampling data. The 
NAWQA program is proving to be a 
useful approach for us to monitor our 
water resources at Morristown. 

While planning to continue with 
NAWQA, we also hope to take advan- 
tage of a recently completed memoran- 
dum of understanding between the 
National Park Service and the U.S. Geo- 
logical Survey to locate sampling sites 
within national park system units if the 
sites will be useful to the study of water 
quality. Through our participation in 
NAWQA and the possible location of a 
sampling site within the park, we hope 
to enhance our ability to monitor long- 
term water quality trends in the park n 

Bob Masson is a Resource Management 
Specialist at the historical park. He 
learned about the NAWQA program 
through a water resource scoping report 
written for the park by the NPS Water 
Resources Division in Fort Collins, 
Colorado. Masson recognized that the 
park really did not know much about its 
water quality and that it would 
probably not be able to investigate 
properly water quality questions on its 
own. The NAWQA program and the 
interagency agreement to locate study 
sites in parks are proving to be good, 
inexpensive solutions. Masson 's phone 
number is (201) 539-2016. 

The natio?ial liaison for the NPS- 
USGS memorandum of understanding is 
Bill Walker of the Water Resources 
Division, (202) 219-3386. Barry Long 
and Gary Rosenlieb of that office 
provide technical assistance in 
implementing the cooperative NPS- 
NAWQA studies. They can be reached 
at (303) 225-3518. 

PoJyurethane foam continued 

different chemical composition enab 
the installer to use this product at mi 
lower temperatures than other PI 
products, which is helpful in north 
latitudes or at high altitudes wh 
temperatures fluctuate greatly throuj 
out the day and warm seasons 

This kit produces rigid foam tha 
more granular and less resilient tl 
the other PUF products we tested, ' 
is thoroughly capable of supporting 
loads anticipated over a mine openi 
A 22-pound bag generates 11 cubic 1 
of foam. The bags are convenier 
sized and are easily carried in a q 
ventional backpack (photo 1). I 
placement for the shaft closure \ 
much easier than for the adit, howei 
and the installer got fairly covered v\ 
PUF on the adit closure, emphasiz 
the need for protective clothing j 
gloves. We recommend rubber glo 
duct taped to a Level D disposa 
Tyvek* hazmat suit. With more pr 
tice and experience, the installer n 
have fewer problems. Each 22-poi 
bag kit is available for $130, wh 
amounts to approximately $350 
cubic yard of foam generated. E 
counts are available for bulk orders 


Each application of PUF has mei 
and choosing which method or pr> 
uct to use must be based on factors 
site accessibility, availability of pr 
ucts and contractors, cost, and job s 
PUF has proven to be a useful mj 
rial for closing mines especially in 
mote areas, at sites with access i 
disturbance restrictions, or where 
equate backfill material is not availal 
For the detailed paper summarizing 
four PUF applications tested, pie 
contact the National Park Service M 
ing and Minerals Branch at (303) 9 
2092. q 

John Burghardt is a Geologist with tl 
NPS Mining and Minerals Branch in 
Lakewood, Colorado. His phone numi 
is (303) 969-2099. 


Park Science 

.rticle Indexes for 
Volume 14-1994 

Listed by keyword 

3l photography 

How to prepare vegetation overlays as accomplished at 
Harpers Ferry." 1994, 14(2):8-9. 

jnized honeybees 

Jattling bees here." 1994, 14(1):13. 

, James K. 

ookf'Fire ecology of Pacific Northwest forests," by 
James K Agee. 1994, 14(3):26. 

Leopold Wilderness Institute 
'arsons named director of Wilderness Institute." 
1994, 14(3):25. 


Conservation biologists conduct study of alien 
species in Hawaiian rainforests." 1994, 14(3):29. 

al diseases 

Animal disease issues in the national park system 
clarified by nationwide survey." 1994, 14(3):14-15. 

e submission 

Changes bring greater opportunities for resource 

managers to write for Park Science." 1994, 

Contributing to Park Science: case study and feature 

article submission criteria." 1994, 14(4)1 3. 


\sh yellows and defoliating insects related to decline 

of velvet ash in Zion National Park." 1 994, 


itt, Bruce 

jitorial. 1994, 14(1)2. 

:ountry recreation management 
'rail conditions and management practice in the 
National Park Service." 1994, 14(2)16-17. 


'otential beaver recolonization at Indiana Dunes being 
evaluated by means of GIS analysis." 1994, 

tattling bees here." 1994, 14(1):13. 


Jap analysis and national parks: adding the 

socioeconomic dimension." 1994, 14(1 ):6-1 0. 
lap analysis: another look." 1994, 14(3)24-25. 
'he ecology of coexistence: Species diversity in 

ecological communities, reviewed by James H. 

Brown in Science, Feb. 18, 1994." 1994, 14(3):26. 

ihere reserves 

AB notes. 1994, 14(1)30. 

AB notes. 1994, 14(2)14. 

Dok review: "The visitor's guide to the birds of the 

eastern national parks: United States and Canada, 

by Roland H.Wauer." 1994, 14(2):28. 
30k review: "The visitor's guide to the birds of the 

Rocky Mountain national parks: U.S. & Canada, by 

Roland H. Wauer." 1994, 14(2)28. 
Jeotropical migratory bird workshop and research." 

1994, 14(3):1,3-5. 

ling Bird Survey 

Jeotropical migratory bird workshop and research." 

n, William E. 
iill Brown-Denali NP make a prize package." 1994, 


'ing capacity 

Jetting a handle on visitor carrying capacity — a pilot 

project at Arches National Park." 1994, 14(1)11- 



"Notes from abroad. 1994, 14(2)10-11. 


Notes from abroad. 1994, 14(2)10-11. 

Climate change 

"Cooperative research on glacier-climate relationships 
begins in the Pacific Northwest." 1994, 14(4):9. 

Climatological data 

"Reconstructing climate data in parallel watersheds 
provides useful data on Muir Woods." 1994, 

Colorado Plateau 

"CPSU hosts 2nd Biennial Conference on Colorado 
Plateau Research." 1994, 14(2):30. 


Book review: "Beginning again: People and nature in 

the new millennium, by David Ehrenfeld." 1994, 

Book review: "Leadership and the new science, by 

Margaret Wheatley." 1994, 14(2):27-28. 
Book review: "Origins of order: self organization and 

selection in evolution, by Stuart A. Kauffman." 

1994, 14(2):27-28. 


"Jacksonville science conference proceedings now 

available." 1994, 14(1)13. 
"CPSU hosts 2nd Biennial Conference on Colorado 

Plateau Research." 1994, 14(2):30. 

Conservation biology 

"Conservation biologists conduct study of alien 
species in Hawaiian rainforests." 1994, 14(3):29. 


"Captive cougars may aid Florida panther project." 

1994, 14(4):26. 
"Captive cougars may aid Florida panther project." 
Crater Lake 

"10-year study of Crater Lake underscores need for 
long-term monitoring program." 1994, 14(1)1,28- 


"Latest research at El Malpais reveals dating errors." 


"Dinosaur blood: warm or cold?." 1994, 14(3):31. 

Director's Natural Resource Awards 

"Mihalic, Johnson and Loope win 1 993 Natural 
ResourceAwards." 1994, 14(3):25. 


"Labrador retriever assists in ecological research." 
1994, 14(4)25. 


"The ecology of coexistence: Species diversity in 
ecological communities, reviewed by James H. 
Brown in Science, Feb. 18, 1994." 1994, 14(3)26. 


"Gap analysis: another look." 1994, 14(3)24-25. 

Ehrenfeld, David 

Book review: "Beginning again: People and nature in 
the new millennium, by David Ehrenfeld." 1994, 


"Water quality litigation: an update from the 
Everglades." 1994, 14(1)29. 

Feral horses 

"Assateague Island mares 'shot' with contraceptives." 

Fire ecology 

Book review: "Fire ecology of Pacific Northwest forests, 
by James K. Agee." 1994, 14(3)26. 

Fire management 

"Prescribed fire: current status and future directions." 


"Yellowstone fires of 1988 told in new book: A 
bibliography and directory of the Yellowstone fires 
of 1988." 1994, 14(3):7. 

Forest health 

"Cooperative efforts improve forest health at Coulee 
Dam." 1994,14(2)21. 

Forest research 

"Sequoia National Park hosts 'Pulse II' and the beat 

goes on." 1994, 14(4)1,3-6. 
"Project diversification a positive sign for Pulse future." 

1994, 14(4):7. 
"Dave Parsons' farewell." 1994, 14(4):8. 
"Delineation of old-growth oak and eastern hemlock in 

Great Smoky Mountains National Park." 1994, 


Fossil insects 

"Creepy-crawlys of Florissant's Eocene time." 1994, 

Fossil research 

"NPS paleontologists present papers at GSA 
conference." 1994, 14(3)20-21. 

Fossil snails 

"Changing diversity of mollusks in Zion Canyon: is this 
fauna recovering from a prehistoric flood?" 1994, 


"High tech meets old bones: accurate location of fossil 
resources at Hagerman Fossil Beds." 1994, 

Gap analysis 

"Gap analysis and national parks: adding the 

socioeconomic dimension." 1994, 1 4(1 ):6-1 
"Gap analysis: another look." 1994, 14(3)24-25. 

Geological Society of America 

"NPS paleontologists present papers at GSA 
conference." 1994, 14(3)20-21. 


"How to prepare vegetation overlays as accomplished at 

Harpers Ferry." 1994, 14(2):8-9. 
"Potential beaver recolonization at Indiana Dunes being 

evaluated by means of GIS analysis." 1994, 

"Conservation biologists conduct study of alien 

species in Hawaiian rainforests." 1994, 14(3)29. 


"Winter mass balance measurements on Teton Glacier 

begin to build basis for predicting seasonal melt 

and runoff." 1994, 14(3)11-13. 
"Cooperative research on glacier-climate relationships 

begins in the Pacific Northwest." 1994, 14(4):9. 

Global change 

"Oregon lecture series addresses global change." 1994, 

"Winter mass balance measurements on Teton Glacier 

begin to build basis for predicting seasonal melt 

and runoff." 1994, 14(3)11-13. 

Haskell, David A. 

"Haskell explores NPS "commitment" in FORUM 
essay." 1994, 14(1)27. 


"Conservation biologists conduct study of alien 
species in Hawaiian rainforests." 1994, 14(3)29. 


"Delineation of old-growth oak and eastern hemlock in 
Great Smoky Mountains National Park." 1994, 


"Creepy-crawlys of Florissant's Eocene time." 1 994, 

Inventory and monitoring 

"NPS Inventory and Monitoring Program emerges from 
l&M Task Force." 1994, 14(1)2-5. 

Continued on page 30 

Winter 1 995 


Article index continued 

"Prototype programs selected." 1 994, 1 4(1 ):5. 

Johnson, Beth 

"Mihalic, Johnson, and Loopewin 1993 Natural 
ResourceAwards.: 1994, 14(3):25. 


Notes from abroad. 1994, 14(2):10-11 

Kauffman, Stuart A. 

Book review: "Origins of order: self organization and 
selection in evolution, by Stuart A. Kauffman." 
1994, 14(2):27-28. 

Larson, Jim 

"Jim Larson retires as PNR Chief Scientist." 1994, 


"10-year study of Crater Lake underscores need for 
long-term monitoring program." 1994, 14(1 ):1 ,28- 

Loope, Lloyd 

"Mihalic, Johnson and Loope win 1993 Natural 
ResourceAwards." 1994, 14(3):25. 

Mass balance 

"Winter mass balance measurements on Teton Glacier 
begin to build basis for predicting seasonal melt 
and runoff." 1994, 14(3):1 1-1 3. 
Matthews, Jean 

"Jeff Selleck succeeds Jean Matthews as Park Science 
editor." 1994, 14(3):16. 

Migratory birds 

"Neotropical migratory bird workshop and research." 
1994, 14(3):1,3-5. 

Mihalic, Dave 

"Mihalic, Johnson and Loope win 1993 Natural 
ResourceAwards." 1994, 14(3)25. 

MLO infection 

"Ash yellows and defoliating insects related to decline 
of velvet ash in Zion National Park." 1994, 


"Changing diversity of mollusks in Zion Canyon: is this 
fauna recovering from a prehistoric flood?." 1994, 


"Long-term monitoring on a shoestring at Apostle 
Islands." 1994, 14(3)17 


"Isle Royale wolf/moose update." 1994, 14(2):11. 

Mountain goats 

"Study documents mountain goat impacts at Olympic 
National Park." 1 994, 14(2):23-25. 

Mountain lions 

"Western park personnel meet on mountain lion-human 
encounters." 1994, 14(4):20-21. 

National Academy of Sciences 

"NAS report cites urgent need for National Biological 
Survey." 1994, 14(1):32. 

National Biological Survey 
Editorial. 1994, 14(1):2. 
"NBS signs contract with Nature Conservancy." 1994, 

NAS report cites urgent need for National Biological 

Survey." 1994, 14(1 ):32. 
"Partnerships: NBS and the states." 1994, 14(2):22. 
"The National Biological Survey: a perspective from the 

past." 1994, 14(3):21. 
"ft Ronald Pulliam named to direct NBS." 1994, 

"Dave Parsons' farewell." 1994, 14(4):8. 
"NBS editor Pulliam to address problems faced by 

former NPS scientists." 1994, 14(4):8. 

National park research 

"Research exhibit available." 1994, 14(2):22. 
"Sequoia National Park hosts 'Pulse II' and the beat 
goes on." 1994, 14(4):1,3-6. 

Natural Resources Publication Program 

"Natural resource publications: a resource of products 
and people." 1994, 14(4):10-11. 

Nature Conservancy 

"NBS signs contract with Nature Conservancy." 1994, 

Noncompliant visitor behavior 

"Minor violations, major damage: a survey of 

noncompliant visitor behavior and managerial 

practices." 1994, 14(3):6-7. 
"Preventing visitor-caused damage to national park 

resources: what do we know? what should be 

done?." 1994, 14(3):8-10. 
"Keeping visitors on the right track: sign and barrier 

research at Mount Rainier." 1994, 14(4)17-19. 


"Delineation of old-growth oak and eastern hemlock in 
Great Smoky Mountains National Park." 1994, 

Offtrail hiking 

"Keeping visitors on the right track: sign and barrier 
research at Mount Rainier." 1994, 14(4)17-19. 

Old-growth forests 

"Delineation of old-growth oak and eastern hemlock in 
Great Smoky Mountains National Park." 1994, 


"NPS paleontologists present papers at GSA 
conference." 1994, 14(3):20-21. 


"Captive cougars may aid Florida panther project." 
1994, 14(4):26. 

Park management 

"Beyond the mission: an essay on NPS management." 
1994, 14(1 ):26-27. 

Park Science 

"Jeff Selleck succeeds Jean Matthews as Park Science 
editor." 1994, 14(3)16. 

Editorial." 1994, 14(4):2,32. 

"Changes bring greater opportunities for resource 

managers to write for Park Science. 1994, 14(4)12. 
"Contributing to Park Science: case study and feature 

article submission criteria." 1994, 14(4)13. 

Parsons, David J. 

"Parsons named director of Wilderness Institute." 
1994, 14(3) 25. 

Piping Plover 

"Piping Plover protections wins Cape Cod NS 
worldwide recognition." 1994, 14(1 ):25. 


Letters. 1994, 14(1):23. 

Prairie dogs 

"Prairie dog control at Fort lamed, Kansas." 1994, 

Prescribed fire 

"Prescribed fire: current status and future directions." 
1994, 14(2):26. 


"Jacksonville science conference proceedings now 

available." 1994, 14(1)13. 
Information crossfile. 1994,14(1)19-22. 
"Thirteen new titles available." 1994, 14(1):22. 
Regional highlights. 1994, 14(1):24-25. 
Regional highlights. 1994. 14(2):12-14. 
Information crossfile. 1994, 14(2)18-19. 
"Yellowstone fires of 1988 told in new book: A 

bibliography and directory of the "Yellowstone fires 

of 1988." 1994, 14(3):7. 
Information crossfile. 1994, 14(3):30-32. 
"Natural resource publications: a resource of products 

and people." 1994, 14(4)10-11 
Information crossfile. 1994, 14(4):31. 

Pulliam, H.Ronald 

"H. Ronald Pulliam named to direct NBS." 1994, 

Pulse studies 

"Sequoia National Park hosts 'Pulse II' and the bea 

goes on." 1994, 14(4)1,3-6. 
"Project diversification a positive sign for Pulse tut 

1994, 14(4):7. 
"Dave Parsons' farewell." 1994, 14(4) 8. 

Resource management 
Letters. 1994, 14(1 ):23. 

"Beyond the mission: an essay on NPS manageme 
1994. 14(1)26-27. 

"Haskell explores NPS "commitment" in FORUM 

essay." 1994,1 4(1 ):27. 
"Changes bring greater opportunities for resource 

managers to write for Park Science." 1994, 



"Abandoned road restoration methods tested at Gr; 

Tetons National Park." 1994, 14(2):4-5. 
"Public education pays off at Great Smokies in smi 

sailing for red wolf releases." 1994, 14(3)18-1 


"Abandoned road restoration methods tested at Gr, 

Tetons National Park." 1994, 14(2):4-5. 
"Glacier National Park undertakes revegetation 

monitoring." 1994, 14(2):6-7. 
"Olympic revegetation efforts continue to evolve." 

1994, 14(2):7. 

Rio Grande 

"User study contributes to Rio Grande managemer 

River use 

"User study contributes to Rio Grande managemer 

Selleck, Jeff 

"Jeff Selleck succeeds Jean Matthews as Park Sen 
editor." 1994, 14(3)16. 


"Changing diversity of mollusks in Zion Canyon: i 
fauna recovering from a prehistoric flood?." 19 


"Gap analysis and national parks: adding the 
socioeconomic dimension." 1994, 14(1):6-10. 


"Captive cougars may aid Florida panther project.' 
1994, 14(4):26. 


"Trail conditions and management practice in the 
National Park Service." 1994, 14(2)16-17. 


"Labrador retriever assists in ecological research." 
1994, 14(4):25. 


"Vail work plan reinvigorated." 1994, 14(1 ):5. 

Van Riper, Charles 

"NBS director Pulliam to address problems faced 
former NPS scientists " 1994, 14(4):8. 

Vegetation overlays 

"How to prepare vegetation overlays as accomplisl 
Harpers Ferry." 1994, 14(2)8-9. 

Velvet ash 

"Ash yellows and defoliating insects related to dec 
of velvet ash in Zion National Park." 1994, 

Visitor management 

"Minor violations, major damage: a survey of 
noncompliant visitor behavior and managerial 
practices." 1994, 14(3)6-7. 

"Preventing visitor-caused damage to national par 
resources: what do we know? what should be 
done?." 1994, 14(3):8-10. 

"Keeping visitors on the right track: sign and barri 
research at Mount Rainier." 1994, 14(4)17-19 

Visitor surveys 

"User study contributes to Rio Grande managemer 


Park Science 


Setting a handle on visitor carrying capacity — a pilot 

project at Arches National Park." 1 994, 1 4(1 ):1 1 - 


nic activity 

atest research at El Malpais reveals dating errors." 
1994, 14(2):29-30. 


0-year study of Crater Lake underscores need for 
long-term monitoring program." 1994, 14(1 ):1 ,28- 


i/ater quality litigation: an update from the 
Everglades." 1994, 14(1):29. 

r, Roland H. 

iok review: "The visitor's guide to the birds of the 

eastern national parks: United States and Canada, 

by Roland H.Wauer." 1994, 14(2):28. 

tley, Margaret J. 

iok review: "Leadership and the new science, by 
Margaret Wheatley." 1994, 14(2)27-28. 

fe viewing 

/atchable Wildlife conference shows strength in 
diversity." 1994,1 4(1 ):10. 


/orking with Williams in WASO." 1994, 14(2):19. 


;le Royale wolf/moose update." 1994, 14(2):11. 
ublic education pays off at Great Smokies in smooth 
sailing for red wolf releases." 1994, 14(3) 18-1 9. 

Listed by Park Code 

-Apostle Islands National Lakeshore, Wisconsin 
ong-term monitoring on a shoestring at Apostle 
Islands." 1994, 14(3):17. 

— Arches National Park, Utah 

etting a handle on visitor carrying capacity— a pilot 

project at Arches National Park." 1994, 1 4(1 ):1 1- 


-Assateague Island National Seashore, Maryland 
ssateague Island mares 'shot' with contraceptives." 
1994, 14(3):15. 

-Big Bend National Park, Texas 
ser study contributes to Rio Grande management." 

-Big Cypress National Preserve, Florida 
aptive cougars may aid Florida panther project." 
1994, 14(4):26. 

i— Cape Cod National Seashore, Massachusetts 
iping Plover protections wins Cape Cod NS 
worldwide recognition." 1994, 14(1):25. 

r-Coulee Dam National Recreation Area, Washington 
ooperative efforts improve forest health at Coulee 
Dam." 1994, 14(2):31. 

-Crater Lake National Park, Oregon 

0-year study of Crater Lake underscores need for 

long-term monitoring program." 1994, 14(1 ):1 ,28- 


— Denali National Park and Preserve, Alaska 
ill Brown-Denali NP make a prize package." 1994, 

-El Malpais National Monument, New Mexico 
atest research at El Malpais reveals dating errors." 
1994, 14(2):29-30. 

-Everglades National Park, Florida 
/ater quality litigation: an update from the 
Everglades." 1994, 14(1 ):29. 

-Florissant Fossil Beds National Monument, 

Teepy-crawlys of Florissant's Eocene time." 1994, 
14(1) 14 

— Fort Larned National Historic Site, Kansas 
rairie dog control at Fort Larned, Kansas." 1994, 

GLAC— Glacier National Park, Montana 

"Glacier National Park undertakes revegetation 
monitoring." 1994, 14(2):6-7. 

GRSM— Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Tennessee 
and North Carolina 
"Public education pays off at Great Smokies in smooth 

sailing for red wolf releases." 1994, 14(3):18-19. 
"Delineation of old-growth oak and eastern hemlock in 

Great Smoky Mountains National Park." 1994, 


GRTE-Grant Teton National Park, Wyoming 

"Abandoned road restoration methods tested at Grand 

Tetons National Park." 1994, 14(2):4-5. 
"Winter mass balance measurements on Teton Glacier 
begin to build basis for predicting seasonal melt 
and runoff." 1994, 14(3):11-13. 

HAFE— Harpers Ferry National Historical Park, West 
Virginia, Virginia, and Maryland 
"How to prepare vegetation overlays as accomplished at 
Harpers Ferry." 1994, 14(2):8-9. 

HAFO-Hagerman Fossil Beds National Monument, Idaho 
"High tech meets old bones: accurate location of fossil 
resources at Hagerman Fossil Beds." 1994, 

INDU-lndiana Dunes National Lakeshore, Indiana 
"Potential beaver recolonization at Indiana Dunes being 
evaluated by means of GIS analysis." 1994, 

ISRO — Isle Royale National Park, Michigan 

"Isle Royale wolf/moose update." 1994, 1 4(2):1 1 

MORA-Mount Rainier National Park, Washington 
"Keeping visitors on the right track: sign and barrier 
research at Mount Rainier." 1994, 14(4)17-19. 

MUWO-Muir Woods National Monument, California 
"Reconstructing climate data in parallel watersheds 
provides useful data on Muir Woods." 1994, 

OLYM— Olympic National Park, Washington 

"Olympic revegetation efforts continue to evolve." 
1994, 14(2):7. 

Study documents mountain goat impacts at Olympic 
National Park." 1994, 14(2):23-25. 

SEKI-Sequoia-Kings Canyon National Parks, California 
"Prescribed fire: current status and future directions." 

1994, 14(2):26. 
"Sequoia National Park hosts 'Pulse II' and the beat 

goes on." 1994, 14(4)1,3-6. 
"Project diversification a positive sign for Pulse future." 

1994, 14(4):7. 
"Dave Parsons' farewell." 1994, 14(4):8. 

YELL- Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming 
"Yellowstone fires of 1988 told in new book: A 

bibliography and directory of the "Yellowstone fires 

of 1988." 1994, 14(3):7. 
ZION-Zion National Park, Utah 

"Ash yellows and defoliating insects related to decline 

of velvet ash in Zion National Park." 1994, 

"Changing diversity of mollusks in Zion Canyon: is this 

fauna recovering from a prehistoric flood?." 1994, 

14(4):22-24. n 

MAB Notes continued 

that have occurred. These changes in- 
clude complexities of managing large- 
scale landscapes through ecosystem 
management principles, acceptance of 
scientific evidence of environmental is- 
sues, and pressures for government rein- 
vention and interagency cooperation. 
The informally constituted commission 
will be asked to review the progress of 
past U.S. MAB efforts, assess the capa- 
bilities of the present organization to con- 
tribute in the future, suggest what to keep 
and what to change, and propose new 
program areas that should be pursued. 

The U.S. delegation to the Euro-MAB 
managers meeting provided a good cross 
section of the U.S. biosphere reserve pro- 
gram. The delegation participated in dis- 
cussions on the challenges and 
opportunities marine areas provide to the 
MAB program and developed recom- 
mendations for making EuroMAB bio- 
sphere reserves more effective partners. 

These notes obviously touch on only 
some of the highlights of the MAB pro- 
gram. I will be glad to help as I can with 
specific questions or collaborations, and 
I encourage all of you who participate in 
biosphere reserves or other MAB activi- 
ties to share information about your ac- 
tivities as much as possible, and to look 
ahead to participating in biosphere re- 
serve managers meetings as they are con- 
vened, fi 

Department contributor John Dennis is 
presently serving as the Acting Deputy 
Associate Director, Natural Resources. You 
can reach him at (202) 208-5193, (202) 
208-4620 fax, or cc:Mail-WASO DAD/ 
Natural Resources. 

Winter 1995 


March 15-17 

March 24-29 

April 3-7 

April 1 1 

April 1 7-2 1 
(Earth Week) 

April 24-27 

August 12-16 

Meetings of Interest 

The national conference on Environmental Regulation and Prescribed Fire: Legal and Social 
Challenges will be held in Tampa, Florida. The gathering will provide a forum for prescribed fire 
practitioners and environmental regulators to discuss their respective roles in maintaining ecosys 
tern health, preserving endangered species, reducing hazardous fuels, and protecting air and wat< 
quality. Contact Diane Ots, Environmental Regulation and Prescribed Fire Conference, Center fc 
Professional Development and Public Service, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306- 
2027, (904) 644-7543 or fax (904) 644-2589, for details. 

The North American Wildlife and Natural Resources Conference will be held in Minneapolis, 
Minnesota. For more information contact Lonnie L. Williamson, Wildlife Management Institute, 
1 101 14th Street N.W., Suite 801, Washington, D.C. 20005, (202) 371-1808. 

The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers is sponsoring the National Interagency Workshop on Wet- 
lands: Technology Advances for Wetlands Science in New Orleans, Louisiana. For more informa 
tion contact the U.S. Army Engineer, Waterways Experiment Station, Wetland Research and 
Technology Center, Attention: CEWES-EP-W, 3900 Halls Ferry Road, Vicksburg, MS 39180- 
6199, (601) 634-2569. 

Get in touch with Richard L. Knight, Department of Fishery and Wildlife Biology, Colorado Sta 
University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, (303) 491-6714 to learn more about the symposium, Para- 
digms in Transition: Natural Resource Management in the New Century, to be held in Fort 
Collins, Colorado. 

Sponsored by the George Wright Society, the Eighth Conference on Research and Resource 
Management in Parks and on Public Lands will be held this spring in Portland, Oregon. This 
premier interdisciplinary conference on protected lands will focus on the theme, Sustainable 
Society and Protected Areas, Challenges and Issues for the Perpetuation of Cultural and Natural 
Resources. Presentations will include integration of natural and cultural resources in landscape 
management, the role of inventory and monitoring in resource management planning, the status 
of ecosystem management, and theory and practice in landscape restoration, among others. To 
register, contact The George Wright Society at P.O. Box 65, Hancock, MI 49930-0065, fax (906) 

The Western Society of Weed Science will hold its Noxious Weed Management Short Course in 
Bozeman, Montana, for the cost of $350. Register by February 15 by contacting Celestine Dunca 
(406) 443-1469. The course will cover weed identification, biological control methods, herbicide 
computer use in weed science, noxious weed management on range and pasture, weed invento- 
ries and planning, safe handling of pesticides, and use of application equipment. 

The Second International Maries Symposium will be held at the University of Alberta, Edmonto 
this summer to explore integrating this genus, which includes weasels and skunks, into forest 
management. The deadline for abstracts is January 31, 1995. Call Dr. Paul Woodward at (403) 
492-4413 or Dr. Gilbert Proulx at (403) 464-5228 for further information. 



C# inBvillm Rnwdinl ft 

National Park Service 
Natural Resources Publication Office 
12795 Ml. Alameda Parkway 
P.O. Bux 25287 (WASO-NRPO) 
Denver, CO 80225 0287 



O.S. Department of the In 

Permit No. G 83 

4: 15/2 


Integrating Research and Resource Management 

ilume 15-Number2 National Park Service • U.S. Department of the Interior Spring 1995 

Reopening a Niche at Badlands National Park: 

the Black-footed Ferret 

Prairie dog conservation, not complex biology, h olds the key 

"public documents 

to recovering this Great Plains predator 


Glenn E. Plumb, Bruce 



■ when your sci- 
M ence teacher 
i ^^ brought out the 
ystery" box, the one with 
hole in the side, and asked 
l to stick your hand inside 
1 identify an item only by 
ich? You had no idea what 
?ht be encountered. Yet, 
:e you grasped the object, 
lr curiosity peaked and the 
illenge became an exciting 
Dortunity! Likewise, biolo- 
:s and resource managers 
Badlands National Park, 
uth Dakota, had been 
•ping for years to find a 
y to restore one of North 
lerica's most endangered 
restrial mammals to its 
irie habitat. Finally, after 6 
irs of preparing for reintro- 
:tion, our moment of dis- 
'ery and triumph came last 
with the arrival of the first 

Figure 1. The first black- footed ferret to be set free in the 
1994 Badlands National Park reintroduction eyes the open 
door of its release cage moments before leaving to freedom. 


OCT 4 1995 


ck-footed ferrets (Mustek mgripes) to be seen in the park in ' species and in 1978 as a South 
-r 25 years (fig. 1). 


The black-footed ferret's 
nocturnal habits do not lend 
the species to ready study. For 
an animal first described in 
1851 by Audubon and Bach- 
man, and which once ranged 
from southern Saskatchewan 
to northern Mexico, practi- 
cally all ecological informa- 
tion comes from two small 
populations in South Dakota 
and Wyoming that went lo- 
cally extinct after intense, but 
limited, study. This animal is 
a highly specialized predator 
that depends on a single type 
of habitat-prairie dog (Cy- 
nomys ludovicianus) colonies. 
A member of the Mustelid 
family, the black-footed fer- 
ret uses prairie dog burrows 
for shelter, family rearing, es- 
cape from predators, and ac- 
cess to its primary prey, the 
prairie dog. 

The ferret was listed in 

1967 as a federal endangered 

Dakota endangered species. The 

Continued on Page 16 


Integrating Research and Resource Management 

Volume 1 5 — No. 2 • Spring 1995 

f Published by 

The National Park Service 
U.S. Department of the Interior 


Roger G. Kennedy 

Associate Director, Natural Resources 

Michael Soukup 



Editorial Board 


Ron Hiebert 


Midwest Region 


Gary E. Davis 

NBS Marine Research Scientist 

Channel Islands National Park 

John Dennis 

Acting Deputy Associate Director, 

Natural Resources 



Wrangell-Saint Elias National Park and Preserve 

Elizabeth Johnson 

Chief, Research and Resource Planning 

Delaware Water Gap NRA 

Regional Chief Scientists & 

Chiefs of Natural Resource Management 




John Karish • Dave Reynolds 

Ron Hiebert • Steve Cinnamon 

National Capitol 

William Anderson • Einar Olson 

North Atlantic 

Mary Foley 

Pacific Northwest 

Kathy Jope 

Rocky Mountain 

Bob Moon 


Suzette Kimball 


Sam Kunkle 


Bruce Kilgore • Mietek Kolipinski 

Park Science (ISSN-0735-9462) is a quarterly science 
and resource management bulletin that reports recent 
and ongoing natural and social science research, its im- 
plications for park planning and management, and its 
application in resource management The bulletin is pub- 
lished in January, April, July, and October for distribution 
to interested parties. Please advise the editor of address 

The editor welcomes submissions of case studies, fea- 
ture articles, and regional highlights. See Park Science 
14(4) :13 for submission criteria or contact the editor at: 

National Park Service 

Natural Resources Publication Office 

P.O. Box 25287 (WASO-NRPO) 

Denver, CO 80225-0287 

Phone (303) 969-2147 

E-mail: "" & NPS cc:Mail 

@ Printed on recycled paper 


• Editorial 3 

• Regional Highlights 4 

• Information Crossfile 7 

• Meetings of Interest 32 

Reopening a Niche at Badlands National Park: the Black- 
footed Ferret 1 

Yellowstone Computerizes Rare Animal Report System 3 

Report on the Ad Hoc Task Force on the Future of Natural 

Resource Management in the National Park Service 8 

Late Triassic Dinosaur Tracks Reinterpreted at Gettysburg 

National Military Park 9 

Capulin Volcano is Approximately 59,100 Years Old 10 

Pecos National Historical Park Mammal Survey Data Help 

Solve Hantavirus Mystery 12 

Do Wetlands Regulations Help Protect Park Resources? 14 

Developing Natural Resource Bibliographies: a Servicewide 

Project 19 

Satellite Radiotelemetry and Bird Studies in National Parks 

and Preserves 20 

The Hawksbill Turtles of Buck Island Reef National Monu- 
ment: a Shared Resource 25 

An Investigation of Sediment Sources Affecting Marine 

Resources at Virgin Islands National Park 26 

NBS Science Centers: Networking a Key for Technical 
Assistance 29 

In the Next Issue. . . 1 

As fire season begins, look for an article on prescribed natural fire management 

in Glacier National Park and a fire history reconstruction study near Bandelier 

National Monument. We will also delve into the crossover area between natural 

and cultural resource management with an article that details the associations 

between rising and falling levels of Yellowstone Lake and Paleo-lndians. The 

second in our series on NBS science centers is presented next time and will be a 

profile on the Midcontinent Ecological Science Center in Fort Collins, Colorado. 

Also, vegetation mapping on a landscape scale in the Pacific Northwest, grouse 

in Acadia National Park, MAB notes, and a book review by Gerry Wright. 

Park Science 

Backyard and Beyond 

sampling research and resource management projects from Alaska, 
the Great Plains, the Virgin Islands, and Gulf Coast, to the eastern 
piedmont, the desert southwest, and the Rocky Mountains. In 
several instances the articles point to research applicability beyond the 
>arks or demonstrate the strides we have made in forming partnerships beyond 
>ur own agency. For example, satellite radiotelemetry studies (described on page 
!0) revealed the impressive long-distance falcon migration link between Alaska, 
lussia, and Argentina. The research technique has worldwide utility and 
lemonstrates the added complexity of preserving certain bird species that are 
hared international resources. The story on migratorial hawksbill sea turtles at 
Suck Island Reef National Monument in the Caribbean used similar research 
echniques, also relied on interagency cooperation, and makes very similar 
onclusions to the falcon story. 

The lead article on ferret reintroduction to Badlands National Park can be 
iewed as a triumph in wildlife management where legislators, biologists and 
dministrators from several state and federal agencies, and private conservation 
oncerns rallied to return this Great Plains predator to the wild. But it also 
toints out that, while varied, recovering species often has as much to do with 
ringing people together as using complex biological techniques. 

Like the ferret article, others describe resource impacts and solutions that are 
ied to sources outside park boundaries. Water Resources Division Wetlands 
Yogram Leader Joel Wagner describes that at times external threats to water 
esources can be challenged by legislation designed to help us carry out our 
nission. Virgin Islands soil erosion and subsequent coral reef impacts are 
ireventable, as researchers Lee MacDonald and Donald Anderson explain, but 
inly with the involvement of islanders living outside the park. In each of these 
ases, research provides some answers, and the course to be taken in implement- 
ig the recommendations requires management skill. 

On my mind is seeing the National Biological Service (NBS) succeed in 
providing us with high quality service. To this end, we begin a series of articles 
o help us understand how the NBS is organized and how to go about 
equesting technical assistance. This issue's introductory piece describing science 
enters in general will be followed next time, and every so often over the next 
ouple of years, by individual science center profiles. The profiles will show the 
inds of skills and park-relevant research conducted by the NBS and should help 
s make the appropriate new contacts for assistance. As a starting point, the 
cience center list on page 31 may prove to be a useful reference in getting to 
now the available NBS products and services. 

Rounding out the selections, paleontologist Vince Santucci sets the record 
traight on Gettysburg dinosaur tracks, a natural resource that has been 
reinterpreted for decades. Finally, while research is usually conducted in 
esponse to a particular need, its use is sometimes far greater than we could ever 
Tiagine. University of New Mexico Biologist Bob Parmenter relates a fascinating 
tory about a connection between his baseline resource study data collected at 
'ecos National Historical Park and the recent hantavirus epidemic. What begins 
i parks to find answers to management questions often takes us elsewhere. 


Computerizes Rare 

Animal Report 


By Mark Johnson 

tional Park visitors, staff and research- 
ers recorded rare animal observations pri- 
marily in journals, Army scout diaries, 
Army station records, and administrative 
reports. During the 1930s, the agency be- 
gan a more systematic system, with wild- 
life observations being recorded on wildlife 
observation cards. The system was further 
refined in 1986 with the implementation 
of the rare animal sighting form. 

Though these observations contained 
very important information, the system 
made data analysis, sorting, retrieval, and 
summaries very tedious and time-consum- 
ing. In an effort to make data analysis more 
efficient, the Yellowstone Center for Re- 
sources updated and computerized the rare 
animal sighting report system in 1993. 

The new computer database breaks 
down each sighting into 56 information 
fields that can be quickly sorted and re- 
trieved. It can also be used in conjunction 
with the park GIS and is compatible with 
the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service wolf re- 
porting system and the National Heritage 
Project conservation data system. 

The new program will make the sight- 
ing reports much more usable for research 
and management biologists, resource man- 
agement coordinators, visitors, and con- 
tract researchers. For example, the U.S. Fish 
and Wildlife Service can use the new sys- 
tem as a tool to help determine if and when 
wolf packs become established in the 
Yellowstone ecosystem. 

The new database consists of more than 
1,000 records from 1986-95, ranging from 
species as small as amphibians and flying 
squirrels to as large as gray wolves and 
mountain goats. Wildlife observation 
records before 1986 will still be available 
for use manually, through the earlier wild- 
life observation card system. 


Mark Johnson is a Wildlife Veterinarian 
with the Yellowstone Center for Resources. 

Spring 1 995 

Regional Highlights 

North Atlantic 

Morristown National Histori- 
cal Park, Newjersey, is the recipi- 
ent of a $10,000 grant from the 
National Park Foundation. The 
park will use the money to con- 
duct its first herbaceous plant sur- 
vey. Working under a principal 
investigator contracted through 
Rutgers University, Garden Club 
of America volunteers will under- 
take a systematic inventory of all 
herbaceous species found in the 
park. The information acquired 
from the inventory will assist the 
park in determining the effect that 
deer browsing and the spread of 
exotic species are having on its 
herbaceous plant population. 


The West Branch Wapsinonoc 
Creek, which flows through 
Herbert Hoover National His- 
toric Site in West Branch, Iowa, 
overflowed its banks several times 
during 1993. On August 16, the 
tributary damaged NPS facilities 
and property in one last, severe 
flood. At NPS request, the Iowa 
District of the U.S. Geological 
Survey (USGS) Water Resources 
Division conducted a flood risk 
analysis for the tributary through 
the historic site. 

The analysis confirmed park 
vulnerability to periodic flooding. 
On August 16, 1993, the worst 
day of flooding, the tributary 
flowed at a peak of 1,650 cfs (cu- 
bic feet per second), whereas the 
capacity of the tributary in the 
park is limited to 650 cfs. The 
reading corresponds to a flood 
frequency discharge of a 25- to 
50- year event Several structures 
are at risk of flooding, especially 
the maintenance building, which 
could be flooded as often as ev- 
ery 10 years. Fortunately, the 
main floor elevations of the 
Hoover Library and birthplace 

cottage are above the 100-year 
flood elevations, although only by 
less than a foot 

This flood analysis demon- 
strates that the USGS is respon- 
sive to short-notice management 
needs for information that can be 
used in making informed man- 
agement decisions. We hope that 
others will explore using their ser- 
vices in this capacity. 


Einhellig, RE. 1994. Flood analysis, West 
Branch Wapsinonoc Creek tributary, 
Herbert Hoover National Historic Site, 
West Branch, Iowa. U.S. Geological 
Survey-Iowa District, Water Resources 

• • • 

Bald eagles symbolize not only 
the United States of America, but 
also American environmental 
quality. Researchers recently de- 
veloped a protocol for using the 
bald eagle as a Great Lakes air 
quality indicator species (Bow- 
erman et al.). The Great Lakes 
Protection Fund provided grants 
to develop a protocol through 
two coordinated research and 
management studies: a broad, 
Great Lakes Basin study, and an 
intensive, localized study of 
northern Wisconsin. 

The basinwide project as- 
sessed habitat quality, the role of 
environmental contaminants, 
and population dynamics of nest- 
ing bald eagles across the Great 
Lakes Basin. Researchers deter- 
mined that bald eagles build nests 
primarily in white pines, except 
around Lake Erie where they use 
cottonwoods. Although potential 
nesting habitat exists along the 
shorelines of all the Great Lakes, 
it primarily exists along lakes 
Huron and Superior. Habitat 
availability, however, may limit 
the Lake Erie subpopulation, 
which has little unoccupied habi- 
tat and a high density of nesting 
eagles. Concentrations of p,p'- 
DDE or PCBs (polychlorinated 
biphenyls), but not mercury or se- 

lenium, were significantly (and in- 
versely) correlated with regional 
reproduction and success rates. 
Concentrations of organochlo- 
rine compounds primarily regu- 
late bald eagle reproduction levels 
along Great Lakes shorelines, 
whereas bird density-dependent 
factors regulate productivity in 
the relatively uncontaminated 
interior areas. 

The intensive local study in 
northern Wisconsin assessed the 
role of food availability, weather, 
and contaminants on bald eagle 
productivity. Bald eagles nesting 
on the Lake Superior shoreline 
in Wisconsin experience signifi- 
cantly lower reproductive rates 
than those nesting more than 8 
km (4.9 mi) inland bom the Wis- 
consin lakeshore. The weight of 
evidence suggests that the most 
likely cause of lesser productivity 
on the Wisconsin Lake Superior 
shoreline is low food availability, 
with greatest effects measured in 
bald eagle pairs with two young; 
however, DDE remains a pos- 
sible contributing factor. 

The bald eagle biosentinel pro- 
tocol appears to have great util- 
ity for organizations that wish to 
monitor ecosystem components, 
such as water quality. The state 
ofMichigan has formally adopted 
the protocol to assess Great 
Lakes water quality. Later this 
year, the National Park Service 
and other federal agencies may 
adopt the protocol, too. 


Bowerman, W.W., M.W. Meyer, and J. P. 
Giesy. 1994. Use of bald eagles as 
ecosystem monitors of Great Lakes 
water quality: development of a 
biosentinel protocol. A companion 
report to Great Lakes Protection Fund 
Final Reports for Grants # RE792- 
3092-1 and # RE792-3092-2. 


Staff from the regional office 
and Redwood National Park pre- 
sented a paper at the annual 
American Geophysical Union 

meeting held in San Francis 
The paper, "Pool developm 
and sediment loads, Redwc 
Creek, California," describe! 
sequence of pool destruction i 
partial recovery in a river folic 
ing catastrophic flooding a 
sedimentation. Pools are an i 
portant rearing and hiding hi 
tat for salmonids, and populat 
densities are associated with p 
availability. This study dot 
mented the recovery of po 
over several parts of the wal 
shed for a 20-year period. 


Both Gettysburg Natio 
Military Park (NMP) and Eis 
hower National Historic 5 
(NHS) were established to hoi 
and preserve significant histc 
events. Visitors have the opp 
tunity to learn about these eve: 
in part, due to management 
jectives adopted to maintain 
historic landscapes of each ai 
However, staff now experiei 
difficulty maintaining the agrk 
tural character of these parks, 
cause of significant a 
sometimes total crop los 
caused by white-tailed deer fe 
ing. In addition, deer browse 
tree seedlings, which threat 
the perpetuation of the histc 

Addressing these problei 
park and regional staff release 
draft environmental impact ste 
ment late last November prop 
ing white-tailed di 
management The draft was cc 
pleted after research documen 
the effects of deer browsing 
the historical resources of i 
parks. According to the A] 
1994 mean population estim 
853 deer occupied the 1 1-squa 
mile study area The preferred 
ternative described in t 
environmental impact statem 
proposes reducing deer numb 
to 80 by increasing hunting < 
portunities outside the parks 2 

Park S c 

e n c e 

Regional Highlights 

lorizing agents to shoot deer 
le parks. The deer population 
dd be maintained at or near 
density by these methods, 
reductive intervention (i.e., 
traception), when approved 
leer population management, 
d also be used in the mainte- 
ze phase. The final statement, 
:h should be completed this 
tmer, will respond to any 
lments received. Manage- 
it action could occur as early 
>ctober 1995. 

.ssateague Island National 
shore, Maryland, has com- 
xl a draft environmental as- 
nent that evaluates the effects 
nplementing a program to 
iage the size of the feral horse 
ulation there. Feral horses 
act park natural resources. 
National Park Service pro- 
s to implement a fertility con- 
program that uses porcine 
i pellucida immunocontra- 
ion. The horse population 
dd be reduced to approxi- 
dy 150 animals and would 
naintained at these levels, 
iments will be considered to 
rmine whether to proceed 
i the proposed management 
native or prepare an environ- 
ital impact statement 

. set of three technical reports 
irginia Tech investigators are 
lable from Richmond Na- 
al Battlefield Park, Virginia 
hnical Report NPS/ 
History and Fuel Loads of 
>er Coastal Plain Forests, pre- 
s the results of a study that 
arched the history and influ- 
: of fire on the park, deter- 
ed the loading of dead and 
ti forest fuels in six forest 
;r types, and examined rela- 
ships between the fuels and 
vegetation to create fuel load 

prediction equations. The park 
forest cover types are described 
in Technical Report NPS/ 
Included in this report are discus- 
sions of specific vegetation man- 
agement recommendations for 
meeting park management objec- 
tives. The form and function of 
park forested wedands are the 
subject of the third report, Tech- 
nical Report NPS/MARRICH/ 
NRTR-94/061. During 1992, re- 
searchers conducted an inventory 
to determine the extent of juris- 
dictional wetlands within the 
park. They mapped each wet- 
land, inventoried its vegetation, 
described sod features, and mea- 
sured average monthly water 
table depth. 

The species composition and 
structure of plant communities for 
two forested areas in Hopewell 
Furnace National Historic Site, 
Pennsylvania, are described in 
Technical Report NPS/ 
Scientists measured trees, shrubs, 
seedlings, and ground cover from 
1991-92 using 30 sampled 20 x 
20 m (65.6 x 65.6 ft) plots in each 
historic stand. Fifteen of each set 
of 30 plots contain a central 
fenced 2 x 2 m (6.6 x 6.6 ft) sub- 
plot The results of this study pro- 
vide a profile of current conditions 
and background data for future 
long-term monitoring to deter- 
mine the effects of feeding by 
white-tailed deer on forest regen- 
eration. Similar plot systems are 
also in place at Gettysburg NMP 
and Valley Forge National His- 
torical Park. 

From 1984-86, researchers de- 
veloped a multiparameter moni- 
toring system emphasizing 
measurements, as opposed to rat- 
ings, and employed it in docu- 
menting and evaluating changes 
in resource conditions on 179 
river campsites within Delaware 
Water Gap National Recreation 
Area, Pennsylvania. Findings 

from this survey revealed some 
problems and resulted in a num- 
ber of management recommen- 
dations with respect to 
minimizing resource impacts be- 
ing offered and implemented. Re- 
search staff refined monitoring 
procedures through additional 
research and reapplied them in 
1991. Jeffrey L. Marion presents 
results in Technical Report NPS/ 
that show a substantial reduction 
in all resource impacts assessed 
by the campsite monitoring pro- 
grams. In particular, the total area 
disturbed by camping declined 
50% from 1986-91. The report 
offers additional recommenda- 
tions and options for manage- 
ment consideration. 

Natural Resources Report 
NPS/MAR/NRR-94/003 de- 
scribes a case study of public in- 
volvement in scoping for 
environmental impact assess- 
ment. The report presents the 
process used by Gettysburg 
NMP and Eisenhower NHS to 
obtain public comment regard- 
ing the intent to manage the 
white-tailed deer population in 
the parks. Managers chose to in- 
volve the public and obtain in- 
put in a number of ways, 
including the use of an informa- 
tional meeting and a public meet- 
ing where they followed the 
nominal group process as op- 
posed to the formal hearing for- 
mat The nominal group process 
involved soliciting comments 
from citizens using a structured 
small group technique in which 
participants of each group re- 
sponded to a predefined nomi- 
nal question. The result of the 
nominal group meetings was a 
series of prioritized lists of con- 


Accelerated erosion, sedimen- 
tation, and associated water qual- 
ity impacts are ongoing processes 

at Colonial National Historical 
Park, Virginia, that affect natural 
and cultural resources. Addition- 
ally, stormwater management 
problems result in concentrated 
runoff from parking lots and road- 
ways in and near the park and 
cause very high rates of channel 
erosion in gullies and streams 
along the James and York Rivers. 
To study these problems, the park 
recently arranged for North Caro- 
lina State University School of 
Forest Resources to begin an ero- 
sion and sedimentation study. 
Under the cooperative agree- 
ment the investigators will de- 
velop a methodology for erosion 
and sedimentation management 
using GIS, to be tested at Colo- 
nial and later applied at several 
other national park system areas. 
The study should identify area 
sediment sources, assess erosion 
severity, and lead to reduction of 
both sedimentation and erosion 
in and near the park. 

Rocky Mountain 

The Environmental Protec- 
tion Agency (EPA) has initiated 
a new program to help prevent 
pollution from occurring in large 
geographic areas. A twist on the 
earlier agency focus of cleaning 
up polluted sites, the new pro- 
gram emphasizes prevention and 
is geared to foster healthy habi- 
tats and encourage ecosystem 
management The new program 
led EPA staffin Denver to explore 
new ways of doing business with 
its partners on the Colorado Pla- 

More than a year ago, the Den- 
ver EPA office, which was work- 
ing in national parks teaching 
pollution prevention techniques, 
suggested that we take a broader 
approach on the Colorado Pla- 
teau. Subsequently, the NPS 
Rocky Mountain Region and 
EPA Region 8 negotiated an in- 

Continued on page 6 

Spring "1995 

Regional Highlights 


teragency agreement that encour- 
ages a broader approach for de- 
fining and managing healthy, 
sustainable ecosystems. We 
signed the Colorado Plateau Eco- 
system Partnership Project agree- 
ment in August 1994. 

Plateau residents are con- 
cerned about socioeconomic 
changes occurring in their neigh- 
borhoods. Newcomers seeking 
alternative lifestyles have shifted 
demographic trends, and basic 
economic activities have shifted 
to service the increasing number 
of tourists and recreationists. The 
growth of small plateau commu- 
nities has placed demands on the 
ecosystem that may alter its 
health. Ironically, the exquisite 
landscape may be harmed by the 
very people who have come to 
enjoy it 

Recently joining the NPS- 
EPA effort are the NBS 
Midcontinent Ecological Science 
Center in Fort Collins, Colorado, 
and the NBS Field Research Sta- 
tion in Flagstaff, Arizona Both 
organizations bring special exper- 
tise in helping to understand the 
dynamics of the Colorado Pla- 
teau As part of the partnership, 
they will provide a clearinghouse 
function on existing data and con- 
duct original research. 

The Flagstaff personnel will 
help establish a framework to 
gather and disseminate data and 
information of use to all plateau 
researchers, residents, and man- 
agers. The clearinghouse function 
is needed because several plateau 
studies and inventories are under- 
way simultaneously, often with 
groups unaware of near-duplicate 
efforts. Transferring data and shar- 
ing research findings is also an 
important component of the 
project. Staff will contact federal 
agency researchers and land man- 
agers, researchers in the academic 

community, tribes, communities, 
and individuals with plateau 
knowledge or project interest 

The staff in Fort Collins will 
gather information and develop 
models to help understand 
changing demographics, political 
culture, institutional frameworks, 
and economics. Understanding 
how we interact and make deci- 
sions is critical in finding the best 
means to sustain an ecosystem 
and the local social and economic 

A third effort is underway to- 
ward that understanding. The 
Colorado Plateau Forum is a ges- 
tating effort to locate a nongov- 
ernmental or special interest voice 
to represent the whole Colorado 
Plateau. The forum was initiated 
by the Western Area Power Au- 
thority and quickly joined by rep- 
resentatives of the Grand Canyon 
Trust Bureau of Land Manage- 
ment US. Forest Service, tribes, 
local communities and govern- 
ments, Northern Arizona Univer- 
sity, the National Park Service, 
and the Environmental Protec- 
tion Agency. 

The organization held a town 
hall meeting, endorsed and par- 
tially supported by the Colorado 
Plateau Ecosystem Partnership, in 
early March in Moab, Utah. Par- 
ticipants discussed regional com- 
monalities, landscape changes, 
and the future of the Colorado 

The partnership continues to 
seek collaborators in the expand- 
ing effort to find broad solutions 
to what may seem like local prob- 
lems. But as scientists have been 
saying since at least the 1930s, we 
must act locally while thinking 
globally in our efforts to under- 
stand nature's interconnections. 

For more information on the 
Colorado Plateau Ecosystem 
Partnership Project contact Peggy 
Lipson or Bob Spude at the Of- 
fice of Ecosystem and Strategic 
Management Rocky Mountain 

Region, National Park Service, 
12795 W Alameda Parkway, 
Denver, CO 80225. 

Yellowstone National Park in 
cooperation with the Montana 
Air Quality Bureau and the NPS 
Air Quality Division recently in- 
stalled air monitoring equipment 
at the West Yellowstone park en- 
trance station and in the neigh- 
boring town ofWest Yellowstone. 
The equipment helped to quan- 
tify air pollutant concentrations 
in these areas. Dispersion mod- 
eling using snowmobile exhaust 
emissions estimates and local 
weather conditions showed the 
potential for exceedances of the 
National Ambient Air Quality 
Standard (NAAQS) for carbon 
monoxide (CO) near the park 
entrance and along park road- 
ways during periods of high 
snowmobile traffic. The NAAQS 
for CO is 35 parts per million 
(ppm) for a 1-hour average or 9 
ppm for an 8-hour average. 

Air Quality Division staff in- 
stalled CO and particulate moni- 
toring equipment in mid January 
and ran the tests through Febru- 
ary 20 (for CO) and March 7 (for 
particulates), respectively. Data 
collected east of the park entrance 
showed air quality concentrations 
well below national standards for 
both CO and particulate matter. 
The maximum 1-hour CO con- 
centrations through that period 
were less than 10 ppm. However, 
the worst case conditions (high 
snowmobile traffic with stable 
weather conditions) were not ob- 
served during the study period. 
Certainly, the potential for high 
carbon monoxide concentrations 
does exist near the entrance and 
along park roadways during high 
traffic periods (more than 300 
snowmobiles per hour). 

Most of the pollution mea- 
sured at the west entrance station 
is directly attributed to snowmo- 

bile activity. Concentrations w 
highest in the mornings betw 
8 A.M. and noon when snowr 
biles entered the park and in 
late afternoon between 4-6 ] 
when snowmobiles returned 
town. During other times, 
pollutant concentrations w 
very low. 

Although the measureme 
were legally acceptable, the p 
took actions this winter to red 
air pollution from snowmol 
emissions. For example, the p 
opened an express lane at 
west entrance during peak vis 
tion periods. Staff also reques 
snowmobile operators to rurr 
their engines to reduce exhj 
emissions while idling near 
Madison Junction warming 1 
Finally, the park encouraged 
erators to keep their snowmot 
in proper working order to m 
mize pollution. The park also j 
entrance passes in advance to t 
groups to minimize delays ; 
to reduce emissions near the 
trance station. 

Pacific Northwest 

As indispensable as GISs 
for resource management ap 
cations, they can create probk 
for regional applications wl 
similar data types are coded 
ferendy in different parks. For 
ample, Mount Rainier, No 
Cascades, and Olympic Natic 
Parks use different conventi 
for coding trail data, and Cn 
Lake plans to develop this c 
layer in the future. Some amo 
of standardization would be 
sirable, especially when data 
consolidated for regional use 

Park and regional GIS spec 
ists recently met to discuss st 
dards for data theme names ; 
attribute definitions. The vari 
methods for coding the same c 
result from user needs at the v 
ous parks. If needs are diffen 

Continued on pagt 

Park Science 


\new publication on Mi- 
gratory shore and upland 
.game bird (MSUGB) 
lagement is available, free of 
rge, to wildlife managers and 
archers. The International As- 
iation of Fish and Wildlife 
:ncies has recently published 
rratory Shore and Upland 
ne Bird Management in 
th America. This book is an 
ated version of their 1977 pub- 
ion entitled, Management of 
jratory Shore and Upland 
ne Birds in North America. 
: 1977 version was updated 
luse substantial changes had 
irred in the status of several 
UGB species and important 
I published literature had be- 
le available since 1977. For 
ie NPS units that manage one 
nore of these species, this 
k can provide a wealth of 
erial. The book covers 14 spe- 
: mourning dove, white- 
ged dove, white-tipped dove, 
d-tailed pigeon, sandhill 
ie, American woodcock, 
imon snipe, American coot, 
imon moorhen, purple gall- 
e, clapper rail, king rail, Vir- 
a rail, and sora 
lach chapter covers a single 
.ies and is written by one or 
e authors having years of ex- 
ence studying that particular 
.ies. Chapters are, for the most 
, similarly organized. As an 
nple, chapter seven discusses 
biology and management of 
American woodcock Scolo- 
minor. This chapter begins 
i a description of the species 
provides methods for aging 
rules and adults. It continues 
l life history information on 
ng migration, courtship, nest- 
fall migration, and winter sur- 
J. Discussions on breeding 
winter habitat use, distribu- 
and abundance, harvest data, 
management and research 
ds round out the chapter. The 
rest drawback with this new 

publication is the decision to ex- 
clude nonhunted species. This 
means that none of our 40 or 
more migratory, breeding, non- 
game species are included. 

If interested in obtaining a copy 
of this book send requests to 
MSUGB Book Caesar Kleberg 
Wildlife Research Institute, Texas 
A&M University-Kingsville, 
Campus Box 218, Kingsville, 
Texas 78363. 

Results of published studies 
vary on which live traps are most 
effective in capturing small mam- 
mals. An unpublished M.S. the- 
sis by Sonia Najera of New 
Mexico State University com- 
pared the effectiveness of 
Havahart and Sherman live traps 
in capturing lightweight rodents. 
Using 7.5 x 9.0 x 23 cm Sherman 
live traps (2.9 x 3.5 x 9.0 in) and 
7.6 x 7.6 x 25.4 cm Havahart live 
traps (3.0 x 3.0 x 9.9 in), New 
Mexico biologists set traps in al- 
ternating sequence in 50-trap 
grids or transects. Traps were 
spaced 5 m apart (16.4 ft) and 
placed in moist-soil impound- 
ments, sloughs, croplands, and 
along canals and ditch banks. The 
biologists set all the traps so that 
a minimum amount of pressure 
on the treadle would trigger the 
release mechanism allowing cap- 
ture of lighter weight rodents. 
After 600 trap nights, they moved 
the traps. 

The authors trapped 4,889 ro- 
dents (including individuals of 
nine species) during 29,259 trap 
nights. The most common spe- 
cies captured (including recap- 
tures) were white-footed mouse 
(Peromyscus leuwpus-2,\^\), cot- 
ton rat (Sigmodon hisptdus-2,127), 
western harvest mouse 
{Reithrodontomys megalotis-267), 
and meadow jumping mouse 
(Zapus hudsonius-\b<\). Havahart 
live traps caught more mice 
weighing under 30 grams (1 oz). 

Conversely, Sherman traps cap- 
tured more cotton rats, whose 
weights ranged from 70-200 
grams (2.5-70 oz). Based on these 
results, the authors believe 
Havahart live traps are more ef 
fective in capturing lighter weight 
rodents, whereas Sherman live 
traps are more effective in cap- 
turing heavy rodents. However, 
Havahart traps comprised 85% of 
the 2,834 traps that malfunc- 
tioned (most were sprung, but 
empty). Sherman live traps could 
greatly reduce the time required 
to run trap grids and trap lines 
(they require less resetting due to 
malfunctions and collapse, mak- 
ing them easier to move). 


Najera, S.R. 1994. Meadow jumping mice habitat 
affinities and capture success in two trap 
types at Bosque del Apache National Wildlife 
Refuge. Unpublished M.S. thesis. New 
Mexico State University. Las Cruces, New 
Mexico. 86 pp. 

• • • 

Biologists have often had 
trouble determining the causes 
for variations in wildlife popula- 
tions and plant abundance and 
their interrelationships. In the 
wild, food chains prevail and 
transfer nutrients from the sun to 
plants, from plants to herbivores, 
and from herbivores to carni- 
vores. A classic ecological chicken 
or egg question has always been 
whether plant abundance deter- 
mines herbivore (and later carni- 
vore) populations, or vice versa 
A problem in finding the answer 
to this question is the difficulty in 
first finding an intact food chain 
that has a large predator, like the 

Wildlife ecologist Rolf O. 
Peterson of the Michigan Tech- 
nological University at Hought- 
on, Michigan, and a research 
partner reported in the Decem- 
ber 4 issue of Science (as ex- 
cerpted from Science News) that 
they may have found an answer. 
Studying the interrelationships of 

moose and wolves at Isle Royale 
National Park for the past 35 
years, biologists have learned 
much about the interactions of 
predator and prey. Recently, 
Peterson research team member 
Brian McLaren began to add veg- 
etation to the analysis. 

Specifically, McLaren noticed 
that balsam fir (a primary food of 
moose) growth rings narrowed 
periodically, indicating cycles of 
low growth that corresponded to 
high moose numbers. After 
graphing the suppressed tree 
growth periods with both wolf 
and moose population fluctua- 
tions, the scientists found an in- 
teresting correlation. Tree rings 
appear to narrow only after 
wolves decline and moose in- 
crease. More importantly, a 1-2 
yr time lag occurs between a de- 
cline in wolves, an increase in 
moose, and suppressed growth 
in the balsam firs. In the early 
1980s, Isle Royale wolves de- 
clined markedly, probably due to 
disease. After a few years, the 
moose population increased and 
browsed more heavily on the 
trees. A year or two later, the trees 
showed signs of stress. 

Accordingly, the researchers 
have ruled out the idea that veg- 
etation availability regulates 
moose on the island. Rather, they 
have subscribed to the notion of 
top-down regulation. Of course, 
the study requires more data, but 
Peterson commented that the 
study illustrates the broad "reper- 
cussions of a few top-level carni- 
vores in an ecosystem." 

Editor's note: It will be 
interesting to watch for changes 
in the Yellowstone aspen groves 
(commonly browsed by elk) 
following wolf release 
there, m 

Spring 19 9 5 

Figure 1. Assistant 

Secretary for Fish and 

Wildlife and Parks 

George Frampton 

(right), former Acting 

Associate Director, 

NPS Natural 

Resources, Denny 

Fenn (middle), and 

Shenandoah Center 

for Resources Leader 

Bob Krumenaker at the 

initial ad hoc working 

group gathering in 


Report on the Ad Hoc Task Force on 
the Future of Natural Resource 
Management in the National Park 


By Bob Krumenaker 

NPS natural resource management has 
received lots of rhetorical support but 
not much else— the establishment of the 
NBS took away the momentum we had 
slowly and painstakingly gathered to 
strengthen our programs, and then restruc- 
turing plans appeared ready to sap us fur- 
ther. So when I read the Assistant Secretary 
George Frampton memo to the Director 
last fall approving restructuring only if we 
strengthened natural resources, I eagerly 
volunteered to be part of the ad hoc group 
he was forming to make it happen. This 
appeared to me to be the best— and possi- 
bly only— opportunity we would have for 
a long while to make major changes in the 
culture of the agency, to (in Frampton's 
words) make natural resources "flourish." 
The ad hoc group convened in Wash- 
ington last October, with high expecta- 
tions. Sixteen of us, plus four assistants who 
became integral participants, attended. 
Denny Fenn, then Acting Associate Direc- 
tor for Natural Resources, chaired the 
panel. We came from parks, regions, the 
Washington Office, and the NBS. We were 
resource managers, scientists, park man- 
agers, planners, and policy people. Direc- 

Park Science 

tor Kennedy and Assistant Secretary 
Frampton gave us our charge that Mon- 
day morning to: 

• Redefine natural resource management 
in the NBS era 

• Suggest changes to the restructuring plan 
as needed to make natural resource man- 
agement "flourish" 

• Define the role of research in a post-NBS, 
restructured NPS, and suggest enhance- 
ments to the NPS-NBS relationship to 
help assure that our biological research 
needs are met, and 

• Update the 1992 servicewide natural re- 
sources strategic plan 

Frampton made it clear that he wanted 
specifics that could be implemented im- 
mediately, not a long and bureaucratic re- 
port. His enthusiasm and willingness to 
upset the status quo were infectious, 
though I think we were nonplussed by the 
enormity of the changes we were being 
asked to recommend and the sheer im- 
probability of this opportunity. 

Drafting the report required many re- 
writes before we were satisfied that we had 
found the right combination of substance, 
tone, and length to be most effective. Re- 
leased in late January, this report: 

• Articulates guiding p 
ciples for an enhanced n 
ral resource managen 

• Outlines a core prograr 
natural resource man; 
ment services 

• Enhances the visibilit 
natural resources at the 
director level 

• Clarifies the role of the ( 
scientists in the new org 
zation, and 

• Recommends reenginee 
a number of natural reso 
management processes 

More specifically, the ad 
report recommends: 

• Fully supporting, thrc 
the budget process, 
Stewardship Today 
Parks tomorrow goa 
double resource man; 
ment staff by the year j 
and fully implementing 
approved Inventory 
Monitoring Program 

Using incentives to assure that nal 
resource expertise and consideration 
part of major park decisions 
Increasing natural resource support 
for clusters to at least 11 FTEs (full- 
equivalent positions) and establishii 
research advisor and natural reso 
management associate director at < 
field director office 
Strengthening the highly specializec 
pertise of the National Natural Reso 
Center (NNRC-presently the Wash 
ton Office Natural Resource Divisioi 

Accelerating natural resource profess 
alization in parks 

Preparing managerially skilled reso 
managers for career advancement 
Creating a national chief scientist [ 
tion to act as liaison between us and 
NBS, USGS, and other agencies ' 
conduct research on our behalf, and 
ordinate all remaining natural reso 
research activities conducted intern; 
Providing research liaisons to NBS 
gional offices through field directoi 
fice research advisors 

Continued on pa^ 

Late Triassic Dinosaur 

Tracks Reinterpreted at 

Gettysburg National 

Military Park 


and confederate soldiers traversed 
'south-central Pennsylvania, early di- 
urs left their footprints in ancient mud. 
ilized tracks preserve evidence that di- 
urs existed in the Gettysburg area over 
million years ago during a time pe- 
called the Triassic. The tracks also il- 
ate another example of a NPS unit, 
arily focused on cultural resources, 
must face the challenges of managing 
nterpreting paleontological resources, 
le dinosaur tracks are preserved in 
Its of mudstone that were quarried 
i an area outside park boundaries, 
'ever, the quarried blocks were trans- 
id to the park and used in the con- 
tion of stone bridges during the 1930s. 
'37, over 50 additional tracks were dis- 
red in blocks from another nearby 
ry within Adams County. The park 
rintendent at that time was especially 
ested in the fossils and placed some 
isplay within the park He encouraged 
pretation of the tracks and unofficially 
dinated distribution of some speci- 
s to the Smithsonian Institution, 
legie Museum of Natural History in 
Durgh, and the State Museum of Penn- 
inia in Harrisburg. Today, the tracks 
tiformally monitored by park rangers 
are interpreted by rangers and 
essioners alike. 

(together, tracks are known from two 
ities in Gettysburg Basin, the Trostle 
rry in Adams County, and a smaller 
ry near Goldsboro in York County. All 
: discovered in the Late Triassic 
ysburg Shale, a rock formation that 
occurs within the park These depos- 
ere laid down in a gradually deepen- 
rough of sediments that comprise the 
ark Supergroup. 

le park files at Gettysburg National 
:ary Park identify these fossil tracks as 
llator and Anchisauripus. However, 
z identifications are based upon inter- 

pretations recognized in the 
1930s. Research into fossil tracks 
has advanced significantly over 
the past two decades and we are 
now able to offer a different in- 
terpretation of the Gettysburg 
tracks. The fossil tracks repre- 
sent the ichnogenus Atreipus 
which was first described by 
Olsen and Baird in 1986. The 
tracks can be further identified 
to the ichnospecies A. mil- 

Atreipus milfordensis repre- 
sents, as of yet, an undescribed 
dinosaur that exhibits a thero- 
podlike pes (foot) in combina- 
tion with a short-clawed and 

functionally tridactyl (three-toed) manus 
(hand). The track pattern indicates that this 
dinosaur habitually used all four limbs in 
locomotion. The manus track is incompat- 
ible with any known theropod (carnivo- 
rous, upright dinosaurs like Tyranosaurs, 
that usually have small forelimbs). Thero- 
pods have large trenchant manus claws 
that are designed for grasping, not walk- 
ing. This pattern of manus and pes tracks 
is unusual and a condition not exhibited 
in any other described dinosaur tracks. 

The tracks are recognized as dinosau- 
rian because of the birdlike tridactyl pat- 
tern of the pes track (fig.l). This pattern, 
represented in the foot skeleton, is a de- 
rived character for dinosaurs. Olsen and 
Baird (1986) suggest that Atreipus may 
represent the track of a very early ornithis- 
chian (bird-hipped) dinosaur. 

Late Triassic tracks are also known from 
Dinosaur National Monument and Petri- 
fied Forest National Park (Santucci & Hunt 
1993). The Late Triassic was the phase of 
vertebrate history in which the dinosaurs 
first originated. Research investigations 
regarding fossil tracks provide information 
not available solely through the study of 
fossil bones and teeth. Tracks and track- 
ways can yield information about behav- 

Figure 1. Fossil manus and pes tracks of Atreipus 
milfordensis from atop a stone bridge at Gettysburg 
National Military Park, Pennsylvania. 

ior, locomotion, and paleoecology. Addi- 
tionally, as with the Gettysburg fossils, 
tracks can yield information about animals 
that are not yet known from skeletal ma- 
terial. The presence of early dinosaur tracks 
at Gettysburg provides park rangers with 
the opportunity to interpret the local his- 
tory well before the fateful days in July 


Literature Cited 

Olsen, P.E., and D. Baird. 1986. The ichnogenus Atreipus 
and its significance for Triassic biostratigraphy. Pages 
61-87 in K. Padian, editor. The beginning of the age of 
dinosaurs. Cambridge University Press, New York. 

Santucci, V.L., and A.P Hunt. 1993. Late Triassic vertebrate 
tracks discovered at Petrified Forest National Park. Park 
Science 13(4):14. 

Vince Santucci is a former NPS Park 
Ranger and resource manager now 
teaching parks & recreation management, 
interpretive methods, law enforcement, and 
general resource management in the 
Department of Parks and Recreation at 
Slippery Rock University, Slippery Rock, 
PA 16047. Adrian Hunt is a Vertebrate 
Paleontologist in the Department of 
Geology, University of Colorado at 
Denver, Denver, CO 80217. 

Spring "1995 

Figure 1. Capulin 
Volcano National 
Monument in 
New Mexico 
preserves this 
classic cinder 
cone volcano, 
now thought to 
be much older 
than before. 

Capulin Volcano is 
Approximately 59,100 Years Old 

Cosmogenic helium aging technique key to clearing up 

age old question 

By William O. Sayre, Michael H. Ort, and 
David Graham 

Capuun Volcano National Monument 
(fig. 1), located in northeastern New 
Mexico, preserves a small portion of 
the Raton-Clayton Volcanic Field. This 
field contains a surprisingly wide variety 
of volcanic rock types (Gust 1990). It is the 
easternmost Cenozoic volcanic field in 
North America, and is located near the in- 
tersection of the Rio Grande Rift and the 
Jemez Lineament, two zones of crustal 
weakness. These characteristics make 
Capulin Volcano an interesting subject for 
geologic research. Under a cooperative 
agreement between the park, the NPS 
Southwest Region, and the College of 
Santa Fe, we began a geologic research 
project two years ago. Park staff have been 
closely involved with the project and Mr. 
John Morrow and his family have provided 
access to their ranchlands for mapping lava 
flows. This report focuses on one facet of 
the research: the age of the volcano. 

Volcanism in the Raton-Clayton Volca- 
nic Field began about 8.2 million years ago 
and continued until Capulin Volcano 
erupted (Stormer 1972), the time of inter- 
est in our study. Previous attempts at de- 
termining the age of Capulin Volcano have 
focused on its relationship with the nearby 
Folsom Man site. 

Age of the Folsom Man site 

Archeologists excavated The Folsom 
Man site, located about 10 mi (16.1 km) 
from Capulin Volcano, in 1926. It is famous 
because the excavators found projectile 
points in direct association with the re- 
mains of an extinct bison (Bison antiquus 
taylori), indicating that humans were in this 
region much earlier than had been previ- 
ously thought (National Park Service 
1994). The find is in stream deposits (or 
alluvia) laid down by the Dry Cimarron 
River and its tributaries. Haynes et al. 
(1992) dated a composite sample of five 
discrete lumps of charcoal from this hori- 
zon (the sedimentary layer corresponding 
to human occupation) using accelerator 
mass spectrometry, and reported an age of 
10,890 ± 50 years before present (B.P.). An 
earlier carbon 14 ( 14 C) determination on 
other charcoal yielded a date of 10,000 
years B.P (Muehlberger 1955), and the bi- 
son bones revealed a 14 C date of 10,260 
years B.P. (Anderson and Haynes 1978). 

Bryan (1937) was the first to study the 
geology of the Folsom site, and he identi- 
fied two alluvial sequences, the lower of 
which is the Folsom occupation horizon. 
Charcoal from the upper one, also alluvial 
in origin, has a 14 C date of 4,350 years B.P. 
(Muehlberger 1955). 

Nine miles down the Dry Cimarron 
from the Folsom site, Muehlberger (1955) 
identified Capulin Volcano basalt flows 

sandwiched between w 
he interpreted as Bry; 
two alluvial depos 
Hence, the Capulin er 
tion was assigned an 
range of between 10,1 
and 4,350 years B.P S 
correlation of stream 
posits is very difficult, h< 
ever, due to discontinu 
outcrops, and the date 
never been considered 

Subsequent work sh< 
ed that this is indeed the case. Ander 
and Haynes (1978) identified several 
tinct alluvial deposits at the Folsom I\ 
site, and they concluded that the basalt f 
in the Dry Cimarron Valley overlies ar 
luvial sequence older than the Folsom 
cupation horizon. They also made a 
age determination that confirms this; 
age of a baked organic soil from this ol 
unit yields a date of 22,360 ± 1,160 y< 
B.P. That was a minimum age; the ac 
age could have been older due to conta 
nation of the sample by modern pi 

Altogether, these studies indicated ) 
the eruption of Capulin Volcano took pi 
before 22,000 years B.P, and Folsom hi 
ers probably did not observe the erupt 
However, these previous studies did 
date Capulin Volcano directly. 

New age determination 

In the most recent study, we determi 
the age of a sample of Capulin basalt us 
the cosmogenic helium technique. C 
mogenic helium dates provide informal 
on how long a particular rock sample 
been within about 1 m (3.2 ft) of ear 
surface (Ceding 1990). Cosmic rays f 
duced by the sun and other stars ei 
earth's atmosphere and travel througl 
Some of the rays are slowed and stop] 
due to interaction with the atmosphere, 
most make it to earth surface. These c 
mic rays spall heavier atoms in the re 
splitting them into smaller atoms, es 
cially helium 3 ( 3 He). The cosmic ray I 
is relatively constant, and its small va 
tions have been documented in del 
Therefore, the production oPHe, norm 
a very scarce isotope, occurs at a stea 
known rate at earth surface. The 3 He: 4 
ratio, which compares the amount of c 
mogenic helium ( 3 He formed by cosi 


Park Science 

bombardment) with normal helium 
:, common in the atmosphere and 
«), is then used to determine the 
unt of time a rock surface has been 
>sed to the atmosphere. A correction 
ide for altitude and latitude to account 
he effects of the atmosphere on cos- 

areful sampling is required to date an 
tion age. Researchers must first find a 
sample that has been at the surface in 
resent orientation since cooling. At 
jlin Volcano, we sampled a lava flow 
ire near the volcano's boca, or mouth 
2), that formed when lava was 
ezed upward through a crack, creat- 

therefore suggest that Capulin Volcano is 
late Pleistocene rather than Holocene in 

Geomorphic analysis 

The geomorphology, or shape, of 
Capulin volcano also indicates that it is not 
particularly young. Cinder beds at the outer 
edge of the rim of the volcano dip inwards 
toward the crater. If a volcano is young and 
little affected by erosion, we would expect 
outward dipping layers. As a volcano ages, 
outward dipping cinder beds on its rim are 
likely to be removed by erosion, leaving 
only the inward dipping portions. 

Figure 2. Long 
ago, during 
eruption, cinders 
on Capulin 
Volcano gave way 
to lava that 
opened a vent 
near its base. 
collected a lava 
sample (below the 
rock hammer) at 
this vent or boca 
for cosmogenic 
helium dating. 

thin spine. This feature has remained 
is form, with scrape marks on its side, 
: the lava flow cooled. It also has a large 
of lava rubble around it, with no trees 
getation to shield it from cosmic rays, 
it is not in a position for deep snow 
1 up. These circumstances lead us to 
pret the cosmogenic helium date as 
tge of the lava flow sample, 
ur results indicate that Capulin Vol- 
i is 59,100 years old ± 6,000 years, 
lm dates can be younger than the true 
af a volcano. As already mentioned, 
logenic helium in the rocks results 

the amount of time the rocks are ex- 
d to cosmic rays. Any rock shading 
egetation, overlying soils, snow, etc., 
Id reduce the cosmogenic helium level 
e rocks and would result in a younger 
However, we carefully chose a sample 
Jiat we believe has been exposed to 
itmosphere since Capulin erupted. We 

A prominent 30-foot-thick spatter flow 
is located on the southeastern edge of the 
rim. A spatter flow resembles a normal ba- 
salt flow; however, it is formed by the ag- 
glomeration of small amounts of lava 
(spatter) thrown out of a vent and extends 
for only a short distance. The rim spatter 
flow is partially unsupported by cinder and 
juts out approximately 30 ft from the side 
of the volcano. If the volcano were young, 
we would expect the flow to be completely 
surrounded by cinder. In an older volcano, 
we would expect erosion to carry away 
some of the cinder, leaving the spatter flow 
exposed. Similarly, loose cinders form an 
apron around the volcano, indicating that 
they have had time to erode from the main 
cone, even though erosion is slow in this 
dry climate. 

Further studies 

The geomorphic observations and new 
age determination are compelling; how- 
ever, we need to conduct further analyses 
to confirm that the volcano is older than 
previously understood. We plan to make 
an additional cosmogenic age determina- 
tion (using aluminum instead of helium) 
and another researcher will make an ar- 
gon-argon age determination. We have al- 
ready carried out paleomagnetic sampling 
of the basalts, and will study these data. 
We plan to submit a final report of this 
project, including the additional age de- 
terminations and a discussion of the other 
elements of the project, for future publica- 
tion in Park Science. 



Anderson, A.D., and C.V. Haynes, Jr. 1978. How old is 
Capulin Mountain?: Correlation between Capulin 
Mountain volcanic flows and the Folsom type site, 
northeastern New Mexico. Pages 893-899 in N. 
Shelton, editor. Proceedings of the First Conference on 
Scientific Research in the National Parks. 

Bryan, K. 1937. Geology of the Folsom deposits in New 
Mexico and Colorado. Pages 139-152 /V?G.G. 
MacCurdy, editor. Early Man. J. P. Lippincott. 

Cerling, IE. 1990. Dating geomorphologic surfaces using 
cosmogenic 3He. Quaternary Research 33:148-156. 

Gust, D. 1990. Raton-Clayton, New Mexico. In C.A. Wood, 
and J. Kienle, Jr., editors. Volcanoes of North America. 
Cambridge University Press. 

Haynes, C.V., Jr., R.P. Beukens, A.J.T. Jull, and O.K. Davis. 
1992. New radiocarbon dates for some old Folsom 
sites: Accelerator technology. Pages 83-100 in D.J. 
Stanford and J.S. Day, editors. Ice age hunters of the 
Rockies. Denver Museum of Natural History and 
University Press of Colorado. 

Muehlberger, W.R. 1955. Relative age of Folsom Man and 
the Capulin Mountain eruption, Colfax and Union 
Counties, New Mexico. Geological Society of America 
Bulletin 66:1600-1601, part 2. 

National Park Service. 1994. Capulin Volcano National 
Monument Boundary Study. National Park Service, 
Department of the Interior. 

Stormer, J.C., Jr. 1972. Ages and nature of volcanic activity 
on the southern High Plains, New Mexico and 
Colorado. Geological Society of America Bulletin 

Bill Say re is an Associate Professor of 
Geology and Chair of the Department of 
Science and Mathematics at the College of 
Santa Fe, Santa Fe, New Mexico 87501- 
5634. His phone number is (505) 473-6305. 
Michael Ort 2s an Assistant Professor with 
Northern Arizona University, Departments 
of Environmental Science and Geology, 
Flagstaff, Arizona 86011-4099 where he 
teaches volcanology and environmental 
sciences. David Graham is at Oregon State 
University in the College of Oceanic and 
Atmospheric Sciences, Corvallis, Oregon 
97331-5503. His lab provided the 
cosmogenic helium age determination. 

Spring "1995 

1 1 

Pecos National 

Historical Park 

Mammal Survey Data 

Help Solve Hantavirus 


By Robert R. Parmenter 

National Historical Park in north- 
eastern New Mexico began a col- 
laborative wildlife survey with Uni- 
versity of New Mexico biologists 
Dr. Robert R. Parmenter and David C. 
Lightfoot. The purpose of the baseline 
survey was to evaluate the vertebrate and 
invertebrate fauna of the newly acquired 
Forked Lightning Ranch, which sur- 
rounds the existing park. However, with 
the survey only into its first year, a sud- 
den and unexpected need for the wildlife 
data emerged. 

In the spring of 1993, scientists at the 
Federal Centers for Disease Control and 
Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta enlisted the 
aid of the park project scientists to assist 
in identifying the ecological relationships 
of the recent epidemic of Hantavirus Pul- 
monary Syndrome (HPS) in the south- 
west. A previously unknown species of 
hantavirus (family Bunyaviridae) caused 
the newly identified disease that resulted 
in 45 deaths. 

Hantaviruses comprise the virus group 
responsible for hemorrhagic fever in Asia 
and Europe. However, instead of the 
more typical kidney malfunctions asso- 
ciated with hemorrhagic fever, the new 
HPS virus (named "Sin Nombre"-Span- 
ish for "without name"-by the CDC) 
caused rapid and severe respiratory col- 
lapse. During 1993, the mortality rate for 
HPS victims was near 60%. Originally 
thought to be restricted to the Four-Cor- 
ners region of New Mexico, Colorado, 
Arizona, and Utah, the disease has now 
been documented in 18 states, spanning 
the continent from the west coast to 
Florida and New England. 

Virologists at CDC identified the vi- 
rus in June, 1993. The investigating sci- 
entists immediately suspected that, as 

with other 

Hantaviruses, the 
likely vector for 
the disease would 
be a rodent. Pre- 
liminary serologi- 
cal (blood) tests 
on field-caught 
rodents from the 
epidemic region 

revealed the presence of the virus in sev- 
eral species of deer mice [Peromyscus [fig- 
ures 1 and 2]), wood rats (Neotoma), and 
chipmunks (Rutamias) (Childs et al. 

In view of the rodent connection with 
this disease, medical investigators and 
public health officials needed ecological 
information on the deer mouse and other 
native rodent species. Anecdotal informa- 
tion from residents in the afflicted areas 
suggested that rodents were exception- 
ally abundant over the winter of 1992- 
93, and officials speculated that, if true, 
the increased potential for rodent-human 
contact and disease transmission might 
account for the sudden epidemic. 

Biologists with the University of New 
Mexico and the National Park Service 
were the only scientists having long-term 
data on rodent communities in the re- 
gion. At the request of the CDC and New 
Mexico Health Department, these re- 
searchers provided detailed demographic 
analyses from 1989-93 for the 22 rodent 
species inhabiting central and northern 
New Mexico. The data showed 10-fold 
population increases in various Peromyscus 
species, wood rats, and chipmunks dur- 
ing 1992 and early 1993. Population in- 
creases occurred simultaneously in 
grasslands, desert-shrublands, and wood- 
lands. Comparisons of the rodent data to 
regional climatological data indicated 
that the rodent population dynamics 

Figure 1. This adult deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus), 
collected during the biodiversity baseline survey at Pecos, is 
several rodent species that carries hantavirus, an organism \ 
causes severe respiratory collapse in humans. Rodent popu 
increased 10 times during 1992-93 spreading hantavirus anc 
45 people. 

were positively associated with the 1* 
El Nino and the above-average prec. 
tation during the winter of 1992-93. 

These results provided a possible 
swer to the question of why the epidei 
had occurred when and where it c 
With exceptionally high densities of 
dents in New Mexico in the spring 
1993, the probability of human-rod 
contact was substantially increased, p 
mitting a concomitant increase in dise 
transmission. Parmenter presented 
study findings in mid-July, 1993, a 
Hantavirus conference at the CDC He 
quarters in Atlanta, and continued folk 
up monitoring into 1994. 

In addition to addressing the prese 
day questions on rodent population 
namics, rodent specimens collec 
during the Pecos project have also I 
tributed to answering another questi 
Is the HPS Sin Nombre virus a "nej 
evolved" virus, or has it actually beei 
the region for years? The University 
New Mexico Museum of Southwest! 
Biology routinely collects rodents i 
museum specimens from all of its sra 
sites. Under the direction of Dr. Terre 
Yates, Curator of Mammals, field crt 
collected tissue samples (heart, liver, 1. 
ney, spleen, lung, blood) and chror; 
somes from rodent specimens each y 
which were then archived in ultra-c 
museum freezers. University of ^ 
Mexico biologists are now collaborai 


Park Science 

The author holds an adult pinyon mouse 
scus truei) during mark-recapture studies at the 
historical park. The respirator, goggles, and gloves 
1ard equipment for rodent surveys now! 

standing of the biology of 
hantaviruses in nature. 

Researchers are also us- 
ing the results of these 
analyses to develop rodent- 
virus sampling strategies 
and disease prevention 
plans for human popula- 
tions. New techniques for 
dealing with rodents in 
field studies and human 
dwellings have been devel- 
oped in collaboration with 
CDC scientists (e.g., Mills 
et al. 1995). They are em- 
ploying predictive relation- 
ships to ascertain the 
likelihood of a sustained 
population outbreak for the 
rodents in New Mexico, 
and to estimate the effec- 
tiveness of possible control 
measures to reduce human- 
rodent contact. These pre- 
dictions, along with 
continued up-to-date mea- 
surements of rodent popu- 
lations at various New 
Mexico study sites, will 
contribute insights and di- 
rection to the strategies and 
contingency plans devel- 
oped by regional public 
health officials to battle fu- 
ture HPS epidemics. ■■ 

1 UNM Medical School researchers 
CDC scientists in examining the 
lived rodent tissues to determine if the 
s has indeed been present historically, 
lgh undetected, in the regional rodent 
ulations, or if additional new viruses 

b date, we think that different "spe-